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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #82
Saturday, May 26, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Pacific Ballroom
DEV
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
39. The Effects of Writer Immersion and the Responses of an Adult Reader on Teaching the Function of Reading and Writing to Preschool Students With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
WAN-YI CHIU (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jennifer Weber (Teachers College, Columbia University), Georgette Morgan (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We conducted 2 experiments to test the effects of the establishment of reading governs responding and the writer immersion protocol on the emergence of functional reading and writing repertoires for 2 preschool students diagnosed with autism. In Experiment 1, we implemented read-do correspondence learn units to induce reading governs responding using a multiple probe design. The dependent variable was the number of correct responses to the reading tasks during pre- and post-intervention probes. Experiment 1 demonstrated that Participant A acquired the verbal behavior of reading governs responding through read-do correspondence learn units and Participant B demonstrated the reading governs responding cusp through repeated pre-intervention probes. In Experiment 2, we used a delayed multiple probe design across participants to test the effects of the writer immersion protocol. The dependent variable was the number of accurate functional components of writing, measured through the affect that the participants writing had on the behavior of an adult reader (i.e., adult readers correct responses to the directions written by the target participant). Results of the writer immersion procedure demonstrated significant increases in the percentage of accurate functional components of writing for both participants. Moreover, Participant B demonstrated criterion level of functional component of writing.
 
40. The Effects of an Accelerated Auditory Match-To-Sample Procedure on the Improvement of Echoic Responses by Six Preschoolers With Disability
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
YIFEI SUN (Teachers College Columbia University), Jennifer Longano (Fred S. Keller School), Robin Nuzzolo (Teachers College, Columbia Univeristy), Lenah Alshowaiman (Dar Al-Hekma College), Sang Eun Yoon (Teachers College, Columbia University), Joseph M. Peysin (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We used a multiple probe design across dyads to test the effects of an accelerated auditory match-to-sample (AM) procedure on the echoic responses emitted by 6 preschoolers with language delays who emitted faulty echoics. The dependent variables were the numbers of full, partial, and incorrect echoics emitted to 100 English word. The independent variable was the accelerated procedure of AM instruction implemented using Sounds the Same software application that teaches fine discriminations between words and sentences. Following pre-intervention probes, participants were assigned into 3 dyads based on the number of full echoics they emitted during the pre-intervention probe. We randomly selected 1 participant from each dyad to receive the accelerated AM instruction, and the other participant to receive the standard AM instruction as a control group. The participants in a dyad were yoked as we conducted post-intervention probe when either participant in a dyad mastered 4 or 8 phases of AM instruction. Five participants emitted increased number of full echoics regardless of the procedure. Thus, both procedures were effective in improving echoic responses. However, the accelerated procedure was more efficient in educational setting since it allows students to finish the intervention in a shorter period of time.
 
41. Sign Language Discrimination Training for Teaching Social Referencing Skills
Domain: Applied Research
DIANA MYLES (Florida International University), Andy Pham (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
Abstract: This study examines discrimination training of sign-language cues via operant-conditioning in two preschool-aged children. The study expands on existing literature on social referencing (Pelaez, Viru�s-Ortega, & Gewirtz, 2012) by using American Sign Language as the discriminative stimuli to evoke appropriate differential responding in young children in an ambiguous/unfamiliar context. Two 3- and 4- year old preschoolers and a familiar adult participated in a discrimination training procedure using a single-subject, repeated withdrawal design. Different consequences followed the preschoolers reaching toward an unfamiliar object. During the training phases, a familiar adult experimenter used the sign expression for �grab� and �play� to signal positive reinforcement for the participant reaching for an ambiguous object. The sign expression for �no� and �play� signaled aversive stimulation for reaching. The pattern of change in performance between the baseline and the two treatment phases suggests that the participants learned to discriminate the cues and that they learned to reference the meaning of those signals. Interobserver agreement was 100% and was calculated for 35% of all trials. This presentation informs on methods to improve social communication deficits using discrimination training procedures in applied settings.
 
42. Utilizing Behavioral Strategies to Increase Meal Consumption
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CIDNEY HELLER (Behavior By Design, LLC), Matthew Tyson (Behavior By Design, LLC)
Abstract: Food refusal has been largely addressed in clinic settings under controlled conditions. Scarce research can be identified that investigates the use of behavioral strategies within the family's home. Investigating the use of behavioral strategies for food refusal in home setting warrants great attention, as this is likely where the individual is presented most meals. This study was conducted to reduce a young boys (Carter) food refusal during mealtimes. Carter had no current or past diagnosis and his doctor did not express a concern for Carter's height or weight during the time in which the strategies were being implemented. The effects of reducing grazing behaviors and utilizing prompting strategies to increase number of bites consumed during meal times were examined. The corresponding data suggests that these strategies were successful intervention methods for increasing food consumption at mealtime. Parent report also indicated that these methods were easy to implement and were non-disruptive to the family’s current routines. The results of the current study suggest that behavioral strategies can be successful at treating food refusal in the home setting.
 
43. Repetitive Head Banging in Early Childhood
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
SARA RAZIA JEGLUM (University of Wisconsin-Madison), William MacLean (Waisman Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alexandra Puk (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Kelly Bard (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Emily Hickey (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Many young children engage in repetitive head-banging (RHB) when they strike their head against a solid object such as a wall or the back of a chair (Kravitz et al, 1960), yet little is known about its development. This study seeks to extend previous research on RHB in young children (ages 6-60 months) by focusing on contextual factors. An anonymous survey, similar to one employed by deLissovoy (1961), was widely distributed via flyers and social media. Preliminary results include 49 parents who completed the survey about their young children. Nearly one-third (N=16) endorsed that their children engaged in RHB; typically, less than once a day for < 15 minutes. Most parents reported RHB occurred during the day (e.g. while playing, in highchair). Average age of onset was 10 months; RHB stopped for two children at ages 12 and 24 months. Injury from RHB occurred in 25% of children. RHB rarely co-occurred with other repetitive behaviors. Parental attention was a common response to RHB (> 50%). Data collection is ongoing. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether the occurrence of RHB is different among children whose parents attend to the behavior in comparison with those who report primarily ignoring the behavior.
 
44. Zones of Regulations Social Group for Elementary-Aged Boys
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLEY SANGER (University of Cincinnati )
Abstract: Four second-grade boys were referred by their teacher for behaviors regarding lack of emotional regulation leading to an increase of problem behaviors within the classroom. The goal of this group was to increase the students' awareness of emotions and teach skills to self-regulate. Self-regulation encompasses a broad construct incorporating the skills involved in controlling, directing, and planning emotions, cognitions, and behavior (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004). Inability to self-regulate has been linked with effective classroom behavior and high achievement and in contrast, poor self-regulation forecasts future problems in school (Blair, 2002). The social skills group used a modified curriculum based from Zones of Regulation (Kuypers, 2011) in addition, to a classroom check-in component to increase generalization and practice opportunities. The classroom component was also built into current reinforcement protocol of classroom. The research was an A/B design comparing two environments. One student had a second phase of more intensified intervention (A/B/C design). Data indicated moderate to high effect sizes, per Cohen's d, in target variables of concern for each participant.
 
45. Behavioral Dentistry: A Literature Review
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ADAM CARTER (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Worldwide prevalence rates of cavities range between 60% to 90% of children and approximately 100% of adults (WHO, 2012). Given this widespread prevalence of cavities across the lifespan, the Canadian Dental Association recommends that, on average, people visit their dentist every 6 months (2017). However, for those fearful of the dentist, regular visits can be quite problematic. The current presentation will provide an overview of the existing literature on treatment of dental fear and dental noncompliance. Over 85 articles were identified and results showed that 39 unique interventions have been evaluated across children, adolescents, and adults with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities. These 39 unique interventions were classified according to the theoretical underpinnings of their interventions as: (a) strictly behavioral, (b) combined behavioral and non-behavioral, and (c) non-behavioral. Results will be discussed within the context of future areas of research that can be carried out to produce lasting effects that are socially meaningful to patients, caregivers, and dental staff.
 
46. The Effects of Teaching the Function of Writing to Two Children Diagnosed with Disabilities
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Shahad Alsharif (Teachers College, Columbia University), WAIKHINE PHU (Teachers College, Columbia University), Kristina Wong (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Writer Immersion is a protocol that is utilized to teach the function of writing in children by arranging for students to communicate only via writing and observe the effects of their writing on naïve readers. The study sought to determine the effects of a protocol on the number of accurate 1) structural and 2) functional written components emitted by 2 elementary school-aged participants from a self-contained classroom in a public school. The participants were selected because pre-intervention results showed that they emitted technical structural errors and did not have the function of writing in their repertoires. We used a delayed multiple probe design across participants and the dependent variables were the numbers of correct structural components produced by the participants (i.e. capitalization, spaces, spelling, and punctuation) and the number of correct functional components drawn by a reader as a function of the participants' writing. The independent variable was a protocol in which the participants (writers) received feedback for their writing primarily through a naïve reader's response. The results indicated that the participants' accuracy in structural and functional components significantly increased after the intervention.
 
47. Building Communication Interventions for Students With Behavioral Problems Within Multi-Tiered System of Supports
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CELAL PERIHAN (Texas A&M University), Mack D. Burke (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Children with emotional and behavioral disorder (E/BD) are more likely to show a variety of problem behaviors that affect learning process of students in general education classroom, and teaching capacity of teachers to students (Hansen et al., 2014). Previous studies showed that communication interventions are effective method for different types of problems in school settings (Billy et al., 2010). Moreover, some studies demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness of the building communication interventions based on the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) (Stahr, Cushing, Lane, & Fox, 2006). Because children with E/BD are more likely to show a variety of problem behaviors in school settings, a building communication interventions based on the FBA may be effective treatment for these children at universal, targeted and individual levels. This paper presents an overview of the application and evidence base for the building and using communication interventions in the treatment and prevention of problem behaviors in children with or at risk of EB/D. We then will provide short summary of the multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) and an overview of the FBA. At the end of the study, we will illustrate communication interventions at three tiers of school-based intervention levels with the FBA. Implications will be discussed.
 
48. Using SAFMEDS to Teach Deaf Children to Match Visemes and Printed Letter Patterns to Phonemes
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
DOUGLAS P. BEATTY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Abstract Deaf high school graduates average five reading grade-levels behind their hearing counterparts. Literacy is a predictor of access to higher education and employment. Current research suggests that Phonemic Awareness is pivotal skill for all readers, necessary for decoding reading. Specific instruction in Phonemic Awareness is not currently an integral part of reading instruction in most manual-based educational programs (those using ASL) for instruction for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Precision Teaching, a behavior analytic instructional approach, has proven effective in remediation education for DHH students. The purpose of this study was to examine, the effects of using SAFMEDS, a Precision Teaching technique, to teach six 4-to-6-year-old DHH children to match visemes and printed letter patterns to English phonemes fluently. The experimenter employed a multiple-baseline-across-dyads experimental design. The data demonstrated all participants achieved or exceeded rates comparable to those of an expert responder on some or all learning sets, and that response rates increased significantly under the intervention in comparison to the baseline condition. Four participants also demonstrated clinically significant increases in phonemic awareness in pre-test post-test comparisons, averaging 26 percentage-point gains. Reading scores on pre/post standardized tests improved slightly for all participants who were tested.
 

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