Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #206A
AUT Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
1. Functional Communication Training (FCT) for Tangible Maintained Aggression Evaluated in a Latency-Based Reversal Design
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB P. OLIVEIRA (Salve Regina University), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Adam Mulvey (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Shirley Sanchez (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) is an effective function-based treatment that has been shown to reduce problem behavior and increase appropriate behavior in previous research. Most research with FCT has been evaluated within rate-based designs. Previous research has identified response latency as an index of response strength in comparison to rate-based measurements. This purpose of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of FCT within a latency-based reversal design. This project also includes data on how the terminal response was acquired through prompt fading. The study was conducted with a 13-year-old vocal verbal Caucasian male with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder that could speak with 1-4 word phrases within a special education school in New England. Treatment involved replacing aggressive behavior with an appropriate request for more time on the computer. The results of the study gave evidence that FCT being evaluated within a latency-based reversal design is an effective way to evaluate FCT. IOA data was collected by two independent observers for 100% of FCT prompt fading trials with a mean agreement of 100% and 75% of FCT treatment evaluation trials with a mean agreement of 100%. Treatment integrity data was collected for 95% of FCT prompt fading trials with global score of 85% and 100% of FCT treatment evaluation trials with a global score of 100%.
 
2. Evaluating the Impact of Pre-Requisite Skills on the Outcomes of Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRIA CAVINESS (Evergreen Center/Cambridge College), Rebecca Hotchkiss (Evergreen Center, Cambridge College, CABAS)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Auditory visual conditional discrimination (AVCD) is an early and important listener skill, typically involving the individual learning to select the correct comparison stimulus following a vocal direction or antecedent. Often individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) require direct teaching for acquisition and generalization of this repertoire. Despite this, there is limited research on the prerequisite skills required for learning AVCD, which may impact the efficacy of teaching methods requiring this skill. The primary purpose of this study was to extend the literature on prerequisite skills for AVCD tasks and to extend the assessment completed by Kodak et al. (2015) to a novel population. Additionally, the study evaluated if the outcomes on the skills assessment will be indicative of outcomes on varying AVCD tasks. Two adolescent male students with ASD who reside at a residential facility served as participants. Three conditions within this study were a preference assessment, skills assessment, and AVCD training. The AVCD training assessed teaching novel stimuli in a comparison-first or sample-first arrangement. The results suggest that deficits of the prerequisite skills assessed impacted outcomes on AVCD. There will be discussion of individual differences based upon participant characteristics and outcomes, as well as suggestions for future research.
 
Diversity submission 3. The Development and Use of a Generalized Assessment Questionnaire to Create Socially Valid Interventions for Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY JUAREZ (Butterfly Effects, LLC)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The CDC has reported an estimated 5,437,988 (2.21%) adults in the United States have ASD. This steadily growing number of adults being diagnosed with ASD has created a higher demand for services relevant to the adult and adolescent population. Gerhardt and Lainer (2011) state that there is a significant and growing necessity for greater attention to individual needs of adults with ASD to provide opportunities for an improved quality of life. Due to the majority of research and programmatic efforts have focused on young children, with relatively little focus placed on adolescents and adults with ASD (Gerhardt & Holmes, 2005); there is a need for change in the current systems of planning and intervention within the field of applied behavior analysis to transition into more functional and socially significant means for young adolescents and adults. With the transition from school-based interventions into integrated societal work life, there is a significant lack of identification and research to provide socially valid interventions to adults with ASD. Since most individuals with ASD do not have an intellectual disability, they are ineligible to participate in state and/or federally funded programs designed to assist individuals with other types of developmental disabilities (Gerhardt & Holmes, 2005). This has caused a significant gap in success for integration into society once transitioned into adulthood. This case study expands upon Gerhardt & Lainer (2011) by developing an assessment questionnaire tool to address socially valid intervention plans that improve the quality of life for an adult individual with ASD. An assessment questionnaire tool was developed based on the current common socially relevant barriers amongst adults with ASD. A single-case design was used. Individualized intervention goals were developed based on the assessment questionnaire tool to evaluate and examine the effectiveness of the tool by addressing socially significant scenarios that were particular to the studied adult.
 
Diversity submission 4. Evaluating the Use of Activity Schedules to Improve Play Activities for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CHAIDAMOYO GOODSON DZENGA (University of Montana Western)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit restrictive/repetitive or stereotypical behaviors that hinder engagement with other typically developing peers. They often exhibit inflexibility due to challenges in communication. Play activities for children with ASD often characterized by repeating actions over and over, and failing to play with others (Rudy, 2021, Wolfberg and Schuler, 2006). Deficits in communication are linked to poor academic, and social outcomes (Barton et al., 2018; Barton 2014). If carefully selected and appropriately applied, play activities have the potential to improve social communication, thus, enhancing their integration into the community. Using activity schedules provides a cue prompting children with autism to complete play activities. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of activity schedules to improve play activities for children with autism. This study reviewed 10 primary studies that utilized activity schedules to increase play activities for children with autism. Participants in the study were aged between 3 to 12 years. Visual analysis for all the studies indicated that activity schedules are effective in improving play skills for children with autism.
 
5. A Mega-Review of Functional Communication Training for Children With Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities in Educational Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRANCIS CORR (University of Virginia), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Virginia)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Functional communication training is a widely used treatment for challenging behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As more students with ASD are being served in educational settings, it is essential to understand and evaluate the evidence base of FCT in educational contexts. Fortunately, the number of systematic reviews of FCT has increased in recent years. Research is now needed to synthesize these findings to inform future research and evaluate the evidence base for this practice as a whole. This evaluation should focus on how FCT has been applied in educational contexts, under what conditions, for whom and by whom, and with what outcomes. This mega-review synthesized five reviews of FCT for children with ASD in educational settings. Data on participant characteristics, educational setting variables, FCT components and implementation, and outcomes and conclusions from each review are synthesized and discussed. Methodological rigor of each review was evaluated using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews Revised (AMSTAR 2). This is the first mega-review to evaluate FCT in educational settings for children with ASD. The state of evidence for FCT in educational settings will be presented with implications for research and practice will be presented.

 
7. Effectiveness of Teaching Abduction Prevention Skills Using Video Modeling and Role Play to Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CASSANDRA KRUPSKI (EPIC School), Angela Rodriguez (EPIC School), Natalie M. Driscoll (Seven Hills Foundation & Endicott College)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Abduction prevention is an incredibly important skill for young adults, especially those with reduced social skills such as young adults on the autism spectrum. As an addition to the available literature, abduction prevention using behavioral skills training, priming, and community members was explored using video modeling and in situ demonstration of skills in the community. In this multiple baseline design across three participants, the participants first completed a baseline worksheet of the abduction prevention skills available in the existing literature such as saying no, walking away, and telling a trusted adult. The participants then completed an in-situ probe to assess for generalization of skills. As assumed based on previous studies, the skills did not generalize from the worksheet to the community and were then taught specifically by using video modeling and tested in the community with a trained community helper.
 
8. Trauma-Informed Care: A Comparison Between Behavior Analysts and Social Workers
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
E ZHANG (University of Kansas Medical Center ), Dariyn Olas (Children With Opportunity), Ezra Kaiser (University of Kansas Medical Center), Hanna Traphagan (University of Kansas Medical Center), Linda S. Heitzman-Powell (The University of Kansas Medical Center)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities, including autism, are more likely to experience traumatic events than neurotypical peers. There is a lack of investigation on how Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) interventions incorporate trauma-informed care. Trauma-informed care involves professionals interacting with clients through a trauma-informed lens by realizing the impact of trauma, recognizing the signs and symptoms of trauma, integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, and practices, and seeking to avoid re-traumatization. The study examined the differences in training, education, and implementation of trauma-informed care between social workers and behavior analysts. We surveyed 41 behavior analysts and 49 social workers. Most behavior analyst respondents (82.9%) reported a lack of training concerning trauma-informed care as a barrier, and this number was only 28.6% for social worker respondents. Behavior analyst respondents were significantly less familiar with TIC and significantly less satisfied with their trauma-informed care practice quality than social worker respondents. The findings of this study indicate a lack of current training and protocol concerning trauma-informed care incorporation into ABA interventions compared to social workers’ training and protocols. There is a need for restructuring ABA education programs, continuing education requirements, and interventions to incorporate trauma-informed care.
 
10. An Examination of a Pica Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNA TAYLOR (Marcus Autism Center), Jennifer M. Hodnett (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often involves the presence of challenging behaviors. One common topography of challenging behavior is pica. Pica is characterized by the continuous consumption of materials which provide no nutritional value. This particular form of maladaptive behavior is considered to be very dangerous as it can lead to gastrointestinal and other medical complications. Pica is often automatically maintained and requires intensive behavioral interventions to reduce the behavior. The present study outlines the clinical assessment and treatment of pica in a 14-year old male, diagnosed with ASD. His initial treatment plan included differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedures however, these components were not effective in maintaining a sustained suppression in pica. Considering the lack of long-term effectiveness, a novel treatment package was developed involving the addition of noncontingent access to edible foods that mimicked the consistency and coloration of preferred nonfood pica items (i.e. drywall). Referred to as “safe pica” items. The combined use of the first treatment plan’s procedures and additional procedures including safe pica items was effective in reducing the challenging behavior by 99.8% in the clinic and 100% once generalized to the home.
 
11. Assessing the Feasibility of a Remotely Delivered Yoga Program for Adolescents With Autism: Time On Task and Off Task Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL NICOLE SOBOL FOSTER (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine), Brian Helsel (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Neurology ), Lauren Ptomey (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) spend less time engaged in physical activity compared to neurotypical peers. Yoga is empirically validated to improve aspects of physical fitness such as strength, balance, and flexibility. Research on the benefits of yoga is well-established for neurotypical people, however, there is little to no research on the impact of yoga on individuals with ASD. Studies suggest remote-based exercise interventions circumvent barriers related to time, transportation, and cost for families of youth with ASD. The current study is the first published intervention to evaluate the feasibility of a remotely delivered yoga program for adolescents with ASD (N = 18). Researchers quantified participants’ levels of engagement in class through a comprehensive analysis of objectively measured on-task behaviors and specific off-task behaviors during all (N = 143) 30-minute yoga classes. Whole interval recording was used to measure percentage of time on task, and partial interval recording was used to measure percentage of time off task. Results indicate teaching remotely delivered yoga for youth with ASD is feasible, with participants attending 83% of classes and remaining on-task 86% of the time. Future research may examine levels of engagement in of other remotely delivered exercise interventions for this population.
 
12. Generalizing Session Pairing Procedures Across Participants With Comorbid Diagnoses Outside of Early Childhood
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE JOHNSON (Butterfly Effects), Tara Jane Rochefort (Butterfly Effects), Jarrett Ring (Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Rapport building is a key component of effective and compassionate Applied Behavior Analytic (ABA) services for children and teenagers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, Rajaraman et al., 2022). Recent literature demonstrated that building rapport can decrease maladaptive behaviors while increasing the quality-of-service delivery (McLaughlin & Carr, 2005; Shillingsburg et al.,2018). This is the first step towards more compassionate and responsive ABA (Leaf et al., 2016). Presession pairing develops a positive environment that allows a relationship between the staff and the client to develop prior to the implementation of skill acquisition programs. The present study replicates and extends the work of Lugo et al. (2017) by generalizing their pre-session pairing procedures to an applied setting, across clients with comorbid diagnoses to ASD, and beyond ages other than early childhood. The frequency of praise delivered to clients was measured across therapist sessions pre and post behavior skills training (BST). The study’s results show that pairing throughout session is effective for participants other than those with a single diagnosis of ASD and that are outside of the early childhood age.
 
13. Exploration of Family Perspective and Experience Related to Applied Behavior Analysis in Kentucky
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY SCHAUDER (University of Louisville / Norton Children’s Hospital), Katelyn Rosso (University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics; Norton Children's Hospital Development Clinic), Stephanie Battistini (University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics; Norton Children's Hospital Development Clinic), Maria Mendoza (University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics; Norton Children's Hospital Development Clinic)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Although Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is recognized as an effective therapy for individuals with autism, ABA remains controversial among stakeholders. Data is scarce regarding the landscape of ABA in various communities. This study explores how families in Kentucky decide whether to pursue ABA services. Practical reasons (e.g., cost, location) and information sources (e.g., doctor, independent research) were considered as possible influential factors. Two hundred and thirteen caregivers of children with autism in Kentucky responded to a survey. More than half (60%) of respondents endorsed pursuing ABA therapy. Analysis of factors that impacted whether to pursue ABA indicated that independent research by the caregiver was the most influential factor. Interestingly, those who ultimately pursued ABA endorsed being more impacted by the factors, as a set, compared to those who did not pursue ABA (p<.001). Of those that ultimately received ABA, 71% of these caregivers rated ABA to be “very” or “extremely” helpful. these results begin to highlight our community’s perspectives about ABA, and the differences that may characterize those that do and do not pursue ABA, which will guide providers in counseling family on intervention options. Qualitative analysis of free response comments is ongoing and promise to provide more insight into the variety of perspectives about ABA that exist in our community.
 
14. Analysis of Fixed-Lean Schedule Thinning Following Interventions Aimed at Decreasing Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIATU FORNAH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brianna Laureano (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Behavioral interventions to decrease problem behavior typically utilize dense schedules of reinforcement for appropriate behavior. Following reductions in problem behavior, schedule thinning is implemented to ensure the intervention is more feasible to implement in the natural environment. Hagopian et al. (2004) compared two schedule thinning approaches: a dense-to-lean (DTL) and fixed-lean (FL) approach. DTL schedule thinning involves initially implementing a dense reinforcement schedule and then gradually thinning the schedule of reinforcement to the terminal schedule. FL schedule thinning involves implementing and maintaining a lean schedule of reinforcement from the outset—one that is equivalent to the terminal schedule of the DTL condition. This study aimed to replicate Hagopian et al. (2004) to examine a FL schedule thinning approach following functional communication training with two individuals admitted to an inpatient unit for severe problem behavior. Our results suggest that the FL schedule thinning approach is an effective and efficient method for decreasing the schedule of reinforcement in behavior reduction treatments. The clinical application and considerations for implementing FL schedule thinning are discussed.
 
15. The Effects of Problem Behavior Frequency on Data Collection Accuracy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chloe A Calkins (Salve Regina University), MEGAN ELLSWORTH (Salve Regina University ), Nicole Marie Nenninger (Salve Regina University), Sarah Sudhoff (Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The accuracy of reported behavioral data is crucial when using it in applied settings to inform clinical decisions. However, there are many challenges to obtaining accurate behavior data in clinical settings. Recent research by Morris et al. (2022) has outlined some risk factors that might negatively impact data collection integrity/accuracy in clinical settings. Still, more research is needed to better understand recognized risk factors and identify new risk factors related to data collection accuracy and integrity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the frequency of problem behavior on data collection accuracy. This study involved 31 participants who watched a 30-minute video of a client engaging in varying levels of problem behavior throughout the recording. A statistical analysis found a significant negative correlation between the frequency of problem behavior and the accuracy of data collection. The intercoder reliability of entering participant responses into the database was 99% across the entire data set.
 
16. The Effects of Observation Length on Data Collection Accuracy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Sarah Sudhoff (Salve Regina University), NICOLE MARIE NENNINGER (Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University ), Chloe A Calkins (Salve Regina University), Megan Ellsworth (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Behavior analysts often rely on others to collect behavioral data that is used to inform their clinical decisions (Morris et al., 2022). While outsourcing data collection is a practical necessity, it can lead to issues with the trustworthiness of the data. Thus, behavior analysts must be careful to recommend best-practice data collection procedures to those who collect and report behavioral data. Tiger et al. (2013) and Morris & Peterson (2020) both suggested that multiple short-duration observations might produce better data collection accuracy than continuous longer-duration observations. However, research has not yet evaluated the effect of observation length on data collection accuracy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate observation length on data collection accuracy using 35 undergraduate student data collectors. The participants of the study watched a 30-minute video of a client engaging in varying levels of problem behavior in 30-minute or multiple 5-minute sessions. The intercoder reliability of entering participant responses into the database was 99% across the entire data set. The results of the study show very little difference in the data collection accuracy of the two different groups. Small differences in the data and possible reasons for the differences or lack thereof will be discussed.
 
17. Increasing Social Engagement Through Systematic Pairing and Approach Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELLE PIGNATELLI (Rutgers University, GSAPP), Daniel Park (Rutgers University; Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Debra Paone (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The objective of pairing is to establish rapport between the therapist and participant through the delivery of preferred reinforcers in the absence of demands (Lugo et al., 2019; Sundberg & Partington, 1998). Pre-session pairing refers to an antecedent-based procedure where the therapist and the participant engage with preferred items prior to an instructional session (Kelly et al., 2015). When pre-session pairing occurs, increased academic responding and reductions in challenging behavior are often observed (Kelly et al., 2015). Pairing the therapist with reinforcement may reduce avoidant behaviors and increase social engagement in the instructional setting (Shillingsburg et al., 2014; Lugo et al., 2019). The present study used assessment procedures described by Morris and Vollmer (2021) to measure both social engagement with a novel therapist and duration within close proximity to the therapist. Following this assessment, the novel therapist engaged in a pairing procedure with the participant, using procedures described by McLaughlin & Carr (2005). When criteria were met for the pairing and approach procedures, a post-assessment was conducted to evaluate the extent to which the procedures resulted in an increase in engagement and the duration within close proximity to the therapist. Increases in both variables were observed across both participants.
 
18. An Assessment of Stimulus Prompts to Teach Conditional Discriminations to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HAVEN SIERRA NILAND (University of North Texas), Katherine Flores (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Julia Wang (Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science), Isaiah Salazar (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Karen Rader (University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Elizabeth M. Sansing (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Setareh Moslemi (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Assessment-based instruction can be used to identify effective and efficient skill-acquisition procedures that support individualized behavioral programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prompts are a common teaching strategy to promote skill acquisition. The purpose of this applied study was to use assessment-based instruction to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of within- and extra-stimulus prompts to teach conditional discriminations to two children with ASD. Stimulus prompts involved motion (within-stimulus) and pointing (extra-stimulus) to evoke correct responding in the presence of a discriminative stimulus. We used an adapted alternating treatments design with a no-treatment control condition to evaluate the effects of both prompt types across multiple sets of stimuli. Neither prompt type led to acquisition without additional procedural modifications. The study is ongoing and data for one participant suggest that the extra-stimulus prompt is more likely to transfer control. Assessment results will be used to inform clinical programming to teach conditional discriminations and contribute to research on designing and implementing assessment-based instruction.
 
Diversity submission 19. Where Does Expertise Lie? Building Effective Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Treatment Through Exploring Diverse Families Strengths and Values
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEFAN ANDREW HORBANCZUK (University of Washington)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: As applied behavior analysis (ABA) becomes the dominant method of treating Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), how Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) conduct interventions amongst a growing diverse population is a point of emphasis for future practical application. This study utilized theoretical frameworks from within the field of education: Family-Centered Practice (FCP), which is a recommended practice of Early Intervention (EI) services and Cultural Community Wealth (CCW), which aims to critically center knowledge and experiences of historically marginalized communities in educational settings. Two dyads consisting of a BCBA and a respective diverse family with whom the BCBA currently provided services were interviewed, using a current Treatment Plan as a means of elicitation. Questions during the interview centered on family strengths, knowledge and values and how the BCBA identified and incorporated those items into the current Treatment Plan. The results demonstrated that BCBAs were able to utilize diverse families values, knowledge and strengths when implementing behavior-change goals to meet their needs. However, there remained instances in which intervention was built around normative, societal values that were not congruent with the families’ values. This poster serves as a building block to understanding how BCBAs can build intervention upon family strengths, rather than deficits.
 
20. A Sibling Mediated Intervention Using Token Economies During Telehealth Social Skills Groups
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRIANNA WATERBURY (Claremont Graduate University ), Katharine Chase Emery (Claremont Graduate University ), Catherine Lugar (Claremont Graduate University)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) fail to demonstrate functional communication and social skills (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While most interventions with children with autism are performed by trained behavior interventionists, there is some incentive for treatments to be delivered by more familiar individuals, such as parents, peers, and siblings (Schreibman & Anderson, 2001). The fidelity and implementation of a token-economy procedure with their autistic sibling during social skills group via telehealth was examined using a multiple-baseline procedure across three sibling dyads. After behavior-skills trainings, each sibling was able to implement a token-economy procedure with fidelity with their autistic siblings during social skills groups via telehealth. In addition, all autistic siblings demonstrated increases in appropriate social skills during telehealth groups, specifically in appropriate responding to their peers.
 
21. Online Safety Skills and Digital Education for Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ARLENE KELY ALVES DE AMORIM (Grupo Conduzir), Raissa Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Renata Michel (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Carlos Henrique Santos da Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The internet has transformed all contexts of society. We create technologies that quickly shape our behavior. In addition to the impact of our vast access to information, new forms of relationships, different ways of working, and new risks – such as illegal sharing of personal data, hacking, fake news, cyber bullying, sexual abuse, among others – have begun to threaten our daily lives and require new forms of protection. Data protection laws around the world aim to guarantee the security of citizens' data. However, laws alone are not enough to guarantee effective online security. In a hyperconnected world, children, adolescents, and especially autistic individuals need strategies that promote safety and digital education. Such an approach must be addressed through interventions that teach repertoires such as knowing how to identify behaviors that present potential harm, to avoid oversharing personal data, and to recognize suspicious messages, fake news, among others. Preliminary data from a literature review in Applied Behavior Analysis indicate little or no research on teaching those skills, highlighting the relevance and urgency of promoting studies that assess the impact of this problem and develop strategies for teaching online safety repertoires and digital education to autistic individuals.
 
22. The Transition to Adulthood for Individuals With Autism in Brazil
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ARLENE KELY ALVES DE AMORIM (Grupo Conduzir), Raissa Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Renata Michel (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Carlos Henrique Santos da Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Individuals with autism face greater challenges when transitioning to adulthood when compared to the general population. Such challenges are found in areas such as vocational and academic education, the job market, interpersonal relationships, self-knowledge, and autonomy. That is why it is important to develop individualized resources aimed at long-term independence and reducing the level of support. According to the literature, developing individualized resources and involving the person’s interests and preferences during the process are among the various factors that contribute to the efficiency of an intervention. However, there is scarcely any literature about the services offered to this population in the context of Brazil. Therefore, future research should assess the parameters and characteristics of ABA services in Brazil aimed at young people and adults with autism, such as assessment protocols and evidence-based practices used in developing a transition plan that contemplates the following skills: social, community, independent life, communication, security, sexuality, among others.
 
23. Client Preference for Communication Response Across Functions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA BRYAN (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Cynthia P. Livingston (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Melody Lynn Culbertson (UNMC), Jessica Pham Tran (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Lauren Layman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Jordan DeBrine (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mary Rose Gomez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute )
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Functional communication training is a commonly prescribed function-based intervention to replace problem behavior (Tiger et al., 2008). Research has suggested that specific mand modalities (e.g., picture exchange system, sign language, vocal responses) implemented during functional communication training can affect treatment outcomes (Kunnavatana et al., 2018). Thus, practitioners have begun to teach multiple functional communication responses (Bloom & Lambert, 2015). Interventionalists commonly select functional communication responses according to factors such as choice allocation (Winborn-Kemmerer et al., 2009). However, few studies have investigated preference for responses across functions to replace problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement. The purpose of our study was to determine if preference for communication modalities differed across functions for problem behavior. For example, did preference for the modality of the attention functional communication response differ from the preference for the tangible functional communication response? Two children diagnosed with autism participated in the study. The results of the mand topography assessments showed preference was the same for each communication response; however, patterns of responding differed between positively and negatively reinforced functional communication responses.
 
24. Individualized Standards-Based Curricula to Teach Math and Science Concepts to Two Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Priya P Patil (Caldwell University), Catherine Collins (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Brianna DiPasquale (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Cassandra McGuirl (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Amber Trinidad (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), EMILY E. GALLANT (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Standards-based curricula were individualized to rapidly teach science and age-appropriate math concepts to two learners with autism spectrum disorder and strong prerequisite skills. At the beginning of science concepts intervention, Jamie was 9 years old and Susie, 10; for math concepts, Jamie was 10 and Susie, 11. Concepts in both subject areas were selected from New Jersey Student Learning Standards for the learners’ respective grade levels, based on clinical consensus regarding priority. Curricula were created by students’ instructors and individualized as needed based on students’ unique patterns of and challenges in skill acquisition. Instructors taught Jamie and Susie to respond to multiple-choice, short-answer, and other grade-level-appropriate questions by teaching note-taking skills during dyadic instruction, and via worksheets containing common stimuli and designed to mediate generalization. Jamie has acquired 30 science concepts and Susie, 21 science concepts to date over 18 months of instruction. Both learners have been similarly successful in acquiring mathematical concepts: over 12 months of instruction, Jamie has mastered 15 geometry and fraction concepts and Susie, 11 geometry concepts. We expect additional data from ongoing instruction in both skill domains (for inclusion in final presentation) to remain consistent with outcomes described to date.
 
25. Teaching an Adolescent With Autism to Request Help Using an Interrupted Chain Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Romina Tarquinio (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Annalisa Galeone (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Mathilde Bourdil (Private Practice), Mirko Massa (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Vittorio Visco (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy))
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Asking for help is a missing skill for many people with autism. Receiving assistance in situations in which one is unable to proceed independently could reduce the likelihood of emitting problem behaviors, improve social interaction and communicate their needs in a functional way. This paper, a replication of the study "Teaching children with autism to request help with difficult tasks" (Rodriguez et al. 2017), was conducted in order to teach the request for help to a 15-year-old boy with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder through the use of interrupted behavioral chains, in a semi-residential center for adolescents and young adults with autism. The intervention was conducted out on 9 chains grouped into 3 sets, each of which consisted of 6 trials: 3 in which the participant was able to complete the chain (EO absent) and 3 in which the materials were manipulated to make necessary the request for help (EO present). The teaching procedure, consisting of prompting and fading via prompt delay, was evaluated through a concurrent multiple baseline design between sets. The realization of this intervention allowed the participant to learn to ask for help in all 3 sets. Furthermore, the maintenance (set 1) and the generalization of the request in 2 naturalistic probes was evaluated, demonstrating the applied importance of the intervention results.
 
26. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Mand for Answers to Questions via Telehealth: A Caregiver Implementation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REMINGTON MICHAEL SWENSSON (Baylor University), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Renming Liu (Baylor University), Monserrat Austin (Baylor University)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have a delay in the development of spoken language and even after acquiring language, may still have impairments in conversation skills (APA, 2013). These impairments could potentially impact an individual’s ability to engage in social interactions to effectively navigate their environment. One strategy to increase an individual’s vocal language while also increasing opportunities for social interactions is to teach individuals with ASD to mand for information. In the current study, we systematically replicated and extended the findings of Ingvarsson and Hollobough (2010) by having caregivers implement the intervention, while receiving coaching provided via telehealth, to teach three children diagnosed with ASD to mand for information. The effects of this intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. The intervention resulted in the acquisition of the mand for information, “I don’t know, please tell me” (IDKPTM) and intraverbal responses (i.e., correct responses to previously unknown questions) for all participants. Generalization was evaluated across a second set of unknown questions, and all participants independently engaged in the “IDKPTM” response during these probes. Social validity was also provided by the caregiver after the completion of the study.
 
27. Sleep Interventions for Children With Sleep Problems and Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ISABEL ROMBULT (Endicott College), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Roxanne Gayle (Trumpet Behavioral Health, Endicott College, Pepperdine University), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: In children with autism spectrum disorder, there is a higher prevalence of sleep problems compared to typically developing children. These sleep problems include but are not limited to sleep onset delay, night waking’s, and co-sleeping. Oftentimes these sleep problems can negatively impact the child as well as their family. To treat these sleep problems caregivers/clients have many treatment options to choose from including behavioral, pharmacological, and alternative interventions. When sleep problems are addressed, children with autism may benefit in several ways including increased sleep duration and decreased problem behaviors.
 
28. Emotional Regulation and Autism Without Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review and Call to Action
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE ASHKENAZI (Endicott College), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Though a variety of definitions exist in the research literature, emotional regulation (ER) is generally defined as evaluating and altering emotional reactions to facilitate adaptive behavior (Cai et al., 2018, Goldsmith & Kelley, 2018; Jahromi et al., 2012; Mazefsky et al., 2013). Accordingly, when individuals attempt to regulate their emotions, they seek to manage their interaction with and subsequent response to an emotional stimulus (Samson et al., 2015b). ER skills allow individuals to cope with novel or unexpected stimuli and, consequently, help ensure appropriate responding during social interactions (Jahromi et al., 2012; Samson et al., 2015b). Given their potential impact on interpersonal relationships, academic performance, and vocational opportunities, an individual with inadequate ER skills could be limited in myriad ways. As such, adaptive ER skills, including seeking social support, problem-solving, and acceptance (Cai et al., 2020), are essential for favorable long-term outcomes and enhanced quality of life (Conner et al., 2022). Moreover, they have been shown to improve interpersonal functioning, wellbeing, and financial health (Santomauro et al., 2017). On the contrary, maladaptive ER skills, such as suppression, denial, avoidance, and negative rumination (Cai et al., 2018), have been linked to depression and anxiety (Cai et al., 2018; Mazefsky & White, 2014; Santomauro et al., 2017), and might also contribute to emergent or exacerbated psychiatric conditions (Conner et al., 2019). Thus, the primary goal of this paper is to evaluate ER interventions designed to support autistic individuals without intellectual disability to ensure treatment leads to meaningful improvement in ER skills and, thereby, facilitates the best possible outcomes.
 
29. Examining the Effects of a Differential Observing Response Procedure on the Receptive Identification Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA TITCOMB (Endicott College; ABA Services of Colorado), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), Stephanie Bendush (Endicott College), Sophie Bonilla (ABA Services of Colorado), Chelsea Holley (ABA Services of Colorado), Alexis Olivas (ABA Services of Colorado)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The current study extended the research on match to sample differential observing responses by examining the efficacy of a touch to match response to teach receptive identification to two children with atypical speech development and ASD. The procedure used a progressive time delay and measured the maintenance and generalization of the listener responding skill. The results indicated there was no difference in the rate of acquisition of a receptive identification task for Participant 2 and the DOR was less effective for Participant 1. Maintenance probes indicated the receptive identification skills maintained across both conditions 1-month post mastery. Generalization probes indicated five of the six target stimuli generalized to larger stimulus arrays and across exemplars for both participants.
 
30. The Effects of Multiple-Exemplar Training on Generalization of Social Skills With Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MOLLY KATE OSHINSKI (University of Texas at Austin), Patricio Erhard (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Austin Ross Sekula (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have persistent difficulty developing and generalizing social communication and interaction skills. Emerging research has demonstrated that people with ASD have benefited from strategies that embed multiple-exemplar training (MET) to increase generalization of social skills. However, to date, no systematic review has examined the effects of MET on stimulus or response generalization of social skills. As such, the purpose of the current study was to analyze the effects of MET on generalization of social skills with people aged 13-30 diagnosed with ASD. We reviewed 11 studies; results suggested that MET was effective for producing stimulus generalization of social skills.
 
31. Reinforcer Testing for Minimally Verbal Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Rachel Yosick (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Jennifer M. Hodnett (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), KRISTINA GERENCSER (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: A core challenge for minimally verbal children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder is restricted interests, which can include reduced interest in tangible items that can be utilized as reinforcers in skill acquisition programs. This common clinical challenge leads to a need for practical, clinically valid procedures for assessing a stimulus’s reinforcing value to evaluate effects of conditioning procedures designed to increase reinforcers. Three minimally verbal autistic participants underwent standard reinforcer testing procedures to evaluate reinforcing properties of leisure items. Standard reinforcer testing procedures were not found to produce valid results for any of the three participants. Thus, modifications were made to standard procedures including the addition of teaching the contingency via prompt and prompt fading, as well as evaluation of arbitrary responses utilized. Following modifications, valid reinforcer testing results were produced with all three participants. Results indicate that careful modifications to reinforcer testing procedures may be needed to produce valid results in the minimally verbal autistic population.
 
32. Using Relational Training Procedure During Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Among Autistic Children and Teenagers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHIHUI YI (Univeristy of Illinois Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois Chicago)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The current study investigated the impact of relational training procedures during Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) among autistic children and teenagers. Four participants aged between 6 to 17 participated in the study. Participants were first taught to match sight words (A) for each of the processes in the psychological flexibility model to their textural definitions (B; A-B Train) and to match those sight words (A) to their corresponding metaphorical animated characters (C; A-C Train). Participants were then probed on whether they could derive the relationship between animated characters (C) and their textural definitions (B; B-C Test). Results showed that all three participants exposed to the relational training successfully derived the relationship between each process’s definition and their animated characters. No changes were observed in the fourth participant who remained on the baseline condition. Two of the three participants exposed to the relation training also demonstrated transformation of stimulus function when provided with novel vignettes (Y) and asked which animated characters and their corresponding ACT-based strategy (Z; Y-Z Test) could help in that situation. Implications for incorporating relational training procedures during ACT for autistic individuals were discussed.
 
33. The Effects of an Equivalence-Based Intervention on the Intraverbal Skills of a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SREEJA ATHERKODE (University of North Texas), Lee Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The expansiveness of the intraverbal repertoire is typically so vast that it precludes the explicit reinforcement of every potential response. The concept of stimulus equivalence may help in identifying the relations formed among verbal stimuli. Specifically, an equivalence framework accounts for the emergence of novel responses to un-trained stimulus-stimulus relations that have not been previously reinforced. However, stimulus overselectivity may prevent individuals with autism from forming intraverbal equivalence relations. Reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity are the three stimulus relations that represent the continuum from explicit to derived stimulus control. Once these three relations have been mastered, an equivalence formation is said to exist. Using a six-year-old boy with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of an intraverbal assessment of explicit and derived stimulus relations as a pre-treatment assessment tool, describe how the results can be used to develop an individualized treatment plan, and show the results of a follow-up after 12 weeks of intervention. This type of intraverbal equivalence intervention may lead to faster language acquisition and fewer training trials.
 
34. Increasing On-Task Behavior With a Self-Management System in a Mainstream Classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KELSI WALKER (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University), Devin Guinn (ABC)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Self-management involves the personal application of behavior change procedures which produces a corresponding change in desired behaviors. Self-management procedures may offer expectational utility for those with autism given the degree of independence afforded by these interventions, especially in educational settings such as schools. Research has shown the effectiveness of self-management in increasing on task behavior as well as the effectiveness of peer praise in increasing on task behavior in the mainstream classroom. Although research has evaluated the effect of self-management on on-task behavior, further replications are needed to ensure the effectiveness of these procedures. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management in increasing on-task behavior in the mainstream classroom. A self-management system with visual prompts and peer mediation was created for the client while staff took data on his on-task behavior for 2-minute intervals. Additionally, a reversal design was utilized to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Overall, the findings suggest the intervention was effective in improving on task behavior and subsequent modifications to the intervention resulted in improved performance compared to that of baseline. The implications and limitations of the intervention will be discussed.
 
35. Using PEAK Relational Training to Teach Perspective Taking: A Clinical Evaluation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA N. CHASTAIN (University of Illinois, Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Differences in social interactions and communication are two of the defining characteristics of autism. Scholars have suggested that deictic framing is at the core of complex social skills such as empathy, inferencing, understanding what others’ may be thinking or feeling. Previous studies have found relational training to be an effective means of teaching deictic framing repertoires. Further demonstrations of these outcomes in the clinical setting would strengthen these findings. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of relational training on the establishment of three deictic framing repertoires (I-You, Now-Then, and Here-There) in a multiple baseline across programs design. The participant was an eight year-old autistic male with noted differences in deictic framing on the Peak Comprehensive Assessment (PCA). Relational Training was used to establish I-You (single reversal), Here-There (single reversal), and Now-Then (past) relations, with tests for mutual entailment and transformation of stimulus function. Relational training was effective in establishing all three repertoires. Results of the current study strengthen previous findings, indicating that relational training is an effective methodology for teaching perspective taking repertoires.
 
36. Using Lag Schedules to Increase Intraverbal Responding in Play
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN MATHER (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Devin Guinn (ABC)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Intraverbal responding is a necessary skill in play scenarios. Oftentimes, open-ended questions are asked during play scenarios that require the learner to answer with a novel response from an array of options. A common concern regarding intraverbals, however, is that responses can become rote when individuals emit limited variability of appropriate responses. Research has shown that lag schedules have been effective in increasing response variability to intraverbal questions. Although research has evaluated the efficacy of lag schedules in teaching intraverbal skills, further replications are needed in order to ensure the effectiveness of this procedure in other settings, specifically in play scenarios. This study utilized an AB design with an individual with autism to evaluate the effectiveness of lag schedules in increasing intraverbal skills during play as well as increasing response variability to novel intraverbal questions. The current study employed natural environment teaching (NET) in conjunction with a lag schedule and pictures as visual prompts for intraverbal responses. Picture prompts were then faded once mastery criteria were met, and the lag schedule was continued. Overall, the data show an increase in intraverbal responding in play scenarios, as well as in novel responses emitted independently.
 
37. Reinforcement Based Intervention for Increasing the Duration of Toothbrushing
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
YAMILETH BELTRAN MEDRANO (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Children with autism often have deficits in a variety of skills, with a common deficit area being functional living skills. Individuals with autism often lack relevant functional living skills such as grooming, dressing, personal hygiene, and eating. Previous research has shown the use of interventions embedded with changing criterions to be an effective strategy for increasing the duration in which individuals engage in appropriate responding. As such, this may have particular utility in increasing the duration of functional living skills in individuals with autism. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based intervention in increasing the duration of toothbrushing in a child with autism. The current study utilized changing criterion design, whereby reinforcement was delivered contingent on the client engaging in the functional living skill for a specified amount of time. The time requirement for reinforcement was systematically increased throughout the duration of the study. The results showed that the intervention was effective in increasing the duration of time spent engaging in toothbrushing. Limitation and other implications will be discussed.
 
38. Peer-Mediated Social Skills Interventions for Adolescents With Autism: A Literature Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERENA ROSE GARZA (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Monserrat Austin (Baylor University), Lindsey Swafford (Baylor University), Aisling Costello (Baylor University)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Peer-mediated intervention is a resourceful approach to teaching a variety of skills. Peer-mediated interventions to promote social skills involve typically developing peers modeling and prompting their peers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the methods and the social skills targeted among studies in which peer-mediated interventions were implemented with adolescents with ASD for the purpose of promoting social skills. Additionally, we evaluated the quality of literature by applying the What Works Clearinghouse single-case design standards. The inclusion criteria included: (a) participants between the ages of 10 and 19 years, (b) participants with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder, (c) a peer interventionist implements at least one component of an intervention, and (d) social skill targeted with an intervention and measured as a dependent variable. An initial search identified. A systematic search yielded 2,344 of studies for review. After screening the titles and abstracts of those identified studies, we identified 268 studies for a full-text review. We will summarize the results of this review and discuss recommendations for practice based on this body of literature.
 
39. Comparing Specific Mands and General Mands for Accessing Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY LAUREN SMITH (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University ), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Mands are requests for an individual's wants and needs. Mands are controlled by a motivating operation, which is reinforced by a specific stimulus or event related to that MO. Failing to satisfy mands may lead to problem behavior with some clients. Little research has compared the use of a specific mand and a general mand for accessing reinforcement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of problem behavior following a specific mand request which only accessed specific videos on YouTube, and a general mand which accessed YouTube. A 17-year-old male diagnosed with ASD participated in this study. The effects were evaluated in a combined alternating treatment design with an embedded reversal. The results of the assessment indicate that the specific mands had a higher frequency of problem behavior, while the general mand had a lower frequency of problem behavior. Interobserver Agreement was collected for 90% of the trials with a mean interval-by-interval agreement of 100%. Treatment Integrity was collected for 50% of the trials with a mean trial-by-trial agreement of 96%.
 
40. Preparing Adolescents in a Residential Facility for Adult Services Through a Dedicated Transition Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA NIEDFELD (Glenwood Inc. ), Carolyn Syzonenko (Glenwood Inc. ), Emily Brook Longino (Glenwood Inc. )
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) face many challenges developing independence, participating in the community, and regulating their behaviors as they transition to adulthood. Individuals that require placement in residential settings due to severe behavioral challenges and significant skill deficits often experience changes in the levels of supports provided through their agency. Early intervention programs and school settings often provide intensive services (i.e., ABA therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy) and dense staff to student ratios. Adult day programs and residential placements have lower staffing ratios and often replace structured teaching programs with leisure activities. With an increasing number of individuals transitioning from school-aged programs to Adult Services (Page et al., 2007), there is a need to disseminate service delivery in this area. The current project describes the structure of a transition program and reports participant outcomes. The program includes opportunities to increase leisure skills, build independence with functional living skills, make choices, and participate in community outings. Archival data demonstrates participants in the transition program experienced significant reductions in challenging behaviors and required less frequent administrations of PRN medications to manage intense behavioral episodes. In addition, 90% of enrolled individuals successfully transitioned to Adult Services within the agency.
 
41. Studying Fundamental Learning Processes in a Mouse Model of Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ALONDRA DIAZ (University of Nevada, Reno), Nicholas L Vitale (University of Nevada, Reno), Caitlyn Peal (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Mouse models offer great potential to understand the environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors that contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in humans. Nevertheless, the value of mouse models of ASD depends on their validity or the extent to which they model the learning processes relevant to the condition in humans. Because of this, special care must be taken in a) the analysis of the learning processes assumed to be involved and b) the selection of procedures that effectively assess these. Our laboratory is investigating an intergenerational mouse model of ASD in which a first generation of young male mice (F0) are exposed to anesthetic agents commonly used in pediatric surgery, and unexposed male and female offspring in the subsequent generation (F1) are tested for ASD-like characteristics. From the behavioral literature on learning processes affected in ASD, a battery of procedures was developed to assess nonassociative and associative learning processes relevant to ASD: habituation, respondent and operant learning, and social reinforcement. This poster describes the rationale for the development of the model, the selection of learning assessments, and the results obtained from the first two experimental groups. KEYWORDS: autism spectrum disorder, animal models, epigenetics, mice
 
42. The Practicality of Skill-Based Approaches Implemented by Caregivers of a 6-Year-Old to Promote Behavioral Readiness
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON MARIE PEART (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Javid Rahaman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Christine Ann Felty (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Communication and self-control skills could be considered behavioral indices for readiness when children encounter challenging situations. Skill-based approaches teach children these skills using a combination of procedures that involve synthesized reinforcement, probabilistic reinforcement, and contingency-based delays. Many experimental investigations have confirmed the efficacy and generality of skill-based approaches in teaching children in various settings with different behavior-change agents (e.g., clinicians, caregivers, teachers). Despite the generality of these findings, there is limited evidence demonstrating practical arrangements for teaching children when multiple caregivers are involved. For instance, caregivers may alternate their attendance during training due to time and scheduling constraints. Therefore, we evaluated a skill-based approach implemented by two caregivers (Mom and Dad) that taught communication and self-control skills to a 6-year-old autistic boy who presented with emerging problem behavior. We used a multiple-probe design to teach skills across primary challenging situations involving interruption of play, presentation of demands, and removal of current tangible and attention. Mom and Dad successfully taught skills across all primary challenging situations with an average of 98% integrity. Moreover, teaching effects transferred to secondary challenging situations (extension probes) for both caregivers. The outcomes suggest that children can successfully learn skills when taught simultaneously by multiple caregivers.
 
43. A Comprehensive Quality Index Measures of Excellence for Autism, a First-of-Its-Kind System to Improve Timely Access and Client Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY DRAG (Comprehensive Educational Services (ACES)), Stephanie Scheer (ACES)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Client and Family Centered Outcomes for ABA Treatment: Measurement of outcomes that matter most The field of ABA must formalize uniform practice standards related to quality and outcomes in the treatment of ASD. This lecture will identify a person and family centered clinical care model, with a framework for outcome management at critical mass: The ACES Center of Excellence Index. By creating a standardized bundle of outcomes based on the clients’ priorities and needs with validated instruments and time points for measurement, we can ensure the client and their family remain at the center of their care. For a valid comparison of our heterogenous population, we must also have a risk stratification to control for the many variables. Through the implementation of the standardized bundle, we can begin to measure, analyze, and improve outcomes achieved in the care delivery model. a. Participants will be able to describe two efforts of a behavior analytic professional in establishing clinical outcome measurements b. Participants will describe two socially valid measures of behavior analytic treatment of ASD c. Participants will be able to identify two key stakeholders involved in establishing best practices for quality
 
44. Performance-based IISCA: Assessment and treatment of problem behaviors in children with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HENRIQUE COSTA VAL (PUC-SP/GRUPO METODO), Paula Suzano Gioia (PUC-SP)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Interview-Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) was developed in response to barriers associated with implementing the traditional functional analysis of problem behaviors (Hanley et al. 2014). Recently, Metras and Jessel (2021) describe an adaptation of IISCA, the Performance-based IISCA. This format has still been evaluated empirically in few studies (Iovino et al., 2021). In the current study, this was used to determine the function of problem behaviors in four children diagnosed with ASD, in addition to discussing the effectiveness of the treatment implemented with one of them. Overall, IISCAs had an average duration of 8 minutes and few occurrences of severe behavior occurred. The results validated the information gathered in the interviews and observations concerning the synthesized evocative and reinforcing events that influenced the problem behaviors. As the treatment was implemented, there was a significant improvement in communication skills and tolerance as well as a reduction in problem behaviors. It is concluded that the performance-based IISCA may be an efficient and safe format for clinicians to consider in their practices.
 
45. Assessment of Blocking as a Response to Dangerous Problem Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Mengyang Zhang (The University of Florida), CATHERINE KISHEL (The University of Florida), Savannah Tate (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Some children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit problem behavior. These behaviors can be dangerous and thus result in adults blocking those responses for safety purposes in community and clinical settings. Clinicians often assume that blocking will function to reduce behavior, but the functional effects of this consequence are not always known (Smith, Russo, & Le, 1999). It is important to investigate how blocking affects behavior for three reasons. First, if blocking reduces the behavior, it may be used by therapists as a potential treatment. Second, if blocking has no effect, it may remain in place as a safety measure. Third, if blocking acts as a reinforcer, it should be modified and another consequence or safety measure must be considered. The present study evaluated the effects of blocking using an arbitrary response task (e.g., Fiske et al., 2020) and then validated those findings via a pairwise functional analysis of problem behavior. Data from two participants with ASD and dangerous behaviors are presented; blocking resulted in no functional effect on problem behavior for these children.
 
46. Effectiveness of Behavioral Intervention Package for an Adult With Autism and Severe Behavioral Problems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Yi-Chen Hsu (Behavioral therapy and consultation research center), CHIA-HUA CHANG (National Changhua University of Education), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of behavioral intervention package of an adult with autism and severe behavioral problems. The subject of this study was an autistic adult with low verbal ability, and displayed a high rate of self-injury (i.e., slapping his face, scratching neck, bumping head), hitting others and destroying objects during his high school period. After being referred to the behavioral training center of university in central Taiwan, the functional behavioral assessment was conducted and the behavioral intervention strategies were developed based on the underlying function, including the adjustment of antecedent stimulus, teaching functional equivalence behaviors to replace problem behaviors, combining with mand training for establish his communication ability. A variety of activities were trained to help the adult to regulate his high arousal emotion. The activities included folding paper, throwing ball, throwing sandbags, poking fun, pinching a ball, drumming, etc. The results showed improvement in reduction of problem behaviors and positive increases of adaptive behaviors. The findings of the study support the need of functional behavioral assessment (including functional analysis) prior to intervention, and the behavioral intervention package did show positive improvement and highly beneficial to the subjects. The social validity data also displayed favor outcome for this research.

 
47. Assent Withdrawal as Reinforcer Choice Using Functional Communication Training (FCT) in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN LEIGH TINDELL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Jennifer Quigley (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Danielle Rae Walters (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: In research it is required to gain participant informed consent and to identify behaviors participants might engage in that indicate assent withdrawal. It is considered ethical research practice to halt procedures when a participant withdraws assent. This is rarely considered once treatment begins. Existing research supports that lower rates of problem behavior occur when choices are given. It would stand to reason that providing assent withdrawal as a choice would reduce problem behavior while allowing clinical practices to proceed in a more ethical manner, thereby increasing treatment acceptability. This study sought to evaluate the effects on skill acquisition and problem behavior by providing choices of reinforcers within sessions, including assent withdrawal. A second phase assessed preferences for conditions with and without choice and opportunity to withdraw assent. Results showed little differentiation in skill acquisition across conditions but differentiation in conditions when it came to problem behavior. The study did not definitively demonstrate the connection between assent withdrawal despite occurrence of only low severity level behaviors according to response class. Social validity measures showed a preference for choice conditions across participants as well as therapists and parents.
 
48. A Preliminary Exploratory Analysis of Discussion Topics About Autism Across Subreddit Communities
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
KENDALL JO MILLS (Eastern Michigan University), Adam M. Briggs (Eastern Michigan University), Skylar DeWitt (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract:

Reddit, the sixth most used internet site in the world, is a public anonymous user-generated social media discussion platform. The present data exploration sought to use machine learning methodology to define and identify converging and diverging patterns and insights into autism-related discussions on Reddit across three different categories of subreddits: individuals who self-identify as being on the autism spectrum, parents of individuals on the autism spectrum, and behavior therapists. Using the R package RedditExtractoR (Rivera, 2022), we extracted comments from these communities. We trimmed our data set to only consider the past five years (i.e., 2017-2022). Next, basic preprocessing (i.e., removing stopwords, numbers, html tags, and bot account comments) and advanced preprocessing (i.e., lemmatization), were initialized. Our extraction resulted in 57 subreddits and 46,914 comments from autism spectrum subreddit members, 46 subreddits and 27,838 comments from parent subreddit members, and six subreddits with 3,163 comments from behavior therapist subreddit members. Analyses revealed some overlap, but mostly differences, between these three subreddit community categories. Further analysis of these discussions has the ability to highlight areas of overlap and dissonance, with regard to both content and sentiment, across these communities on the topic of autism, which may identify avenues for future exploration of targeted research questions.

 
Sustainability submission 49. Evaluating the Effects of Sleep Disturbances on Classroom Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELISSA SPINKS (Behaviors Analysis Association of Mississippi)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Sleep, especially with young children, is essential for the development of memory retention, behavior regulation, and mood stability. Disruptive sleep behaviors include waking up during inappropriate times over night, having night terrors, or a combination of both. Previous research for sleep disturbances includes the use of medications, scheduled awakenings, and restricted sleep. Results for these interventions have shown success for increasing regulated sleep for neurotypical and neurodivergent individuals. Parent and teacher reports for a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggested that her dysregulated sleep was hindering her abilities to engage appropriately in her home and classroom settings. Data were collected using a sleep diary completed by her caregivers. Data from baseline to the final treatment resulted in regulated sleep and decreased disruptive classroom behaviors. Additional anecdotal reports from caregivers and teachers indicated additional success for mood stability and participation in scheduled classroom activities. Due to the importance of sleep regulation for meeting developmental milestones and family functioning, future research should include social validity measures and long-term effects following dysregulated and regulated sleep for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
 
50. Generalization Training and Extensions of Skill-Based Treatment in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CASEY BARRON (Autism and Behavioral Intervention ), Kelsi Walker (Autism and Behavioral Intervention; Utah Valley University ), Adalee Buchanan (Autism and Behavioral Intervention )
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Strategies to decrease maladaptive behavior are prevalent in applied behavior analysis literature. The skill-based treatment program is accruing more research. Research has shown that skill-based treatment has successfully decreased both dangerous and precursor behavior in individuals displaying a wide variety of challenging behavior. The purpose of this study was to teach a seven-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder toleration, communication, and delay skills outside of the initial teaching context. The skills were initially taught in a controlled environment with one facilitator. The goal was to generalize learned skills to new individuals, situations and introduce post-treatment extensions. Extensions include, requesting specific items and being denied access to preferred items and activities in the synthesized reinforcement context, and selecting other items to engage with once access has been denied. The participant was able to successfully generalize initial steps of skill based treatment to three different implenters. This participant completed three extensions with the original implenter and two extensions with a secondary implementor. The results demonstrate that he progressed through each phase of treatment from the first generalization phase to the current phase without increasing rates of dangerous or precursor behavior. Results also show decreases in dangerous behavior outside of skill-based treatment sessions.
 
51. An Evaluation of the Influence of Effort and Function of the Efficacy of High-Probability Request Sequencing at Increasing Compliance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RANDI MATSAS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that affects social and communication skills in 1:68 children in the USA. Children with ASD often tend to engage in problem behaviors when presented with less preferred tasks to complete. One method used to increase the probability of compliance is high-probability sequencing, which involves presenting a child with ASD a series of “high-probability” compliance tasks, followed by “low-probability” compliance tasks. The theory is based on behavioral momentum, suggesting that completing high-probability tasks will increase the likelihood that the client will complete the low-probability task. Research conducted demonstrates that compliance to low-probability tasks does increase following the high- probability tasks. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not problem behavior is due to effort sensitivity. An instruction assessment, preference assessment, effort assessment, compliance assessment, and social validity assessment was conducted for each participant. Results varied between participants, but the high-probability task was effective for increasing compliance in all participants.
 
52. The Effectiveness of Behavior Intervention on Self-injury Behaviors of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HSIN-CHUAN TSAI (National Changhua University of Education), Yi-Chen Hsu (Behavioral Therapy Consultation Research Center), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of behavior intervention on self-injury behaviors of a child with ASD. The subject is a six-year-old male child with ASD. The problem behaviors are crying along with SIB that is hitting his head by hands and fists. In this study, functional behavioral assessments were conducted for the subject, and the intervention based on the function which focused on reducing the duration of crying and SIB. During baseline, the number of head bumps within 30 minutes was 168 times. Due to the extremely high frequency, and the safety of the child, the research started the intervention immediately right after the assessment. Intervention including of token system, shaping, response blocking, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and augmentative and alternative communication(AAC). The results showed rapid improvement of the SIB from high frequency to zero. And the positive behavior including pointing and nodding also be stable.
 
53. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Treatment of Challenging Behavior Maintained by Positive Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ESTHER PARK (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta- Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine), Alexis Constantin Pavlov (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a procedure in which reinforcers are withheld following challenging behavior and given following an alternative appropriate behavior. Though this procedure is effective in reducing challenging behavior and promoting appropriate behavior, the extinction component is not always possible to implement for all individuals. To mediate this, the DRA procedure can be arranged as a concurrent schedule where the magnitude and quality of reinforcement can be varied. Current research on DRA without extinction focuses mainly on challenging behavior maintained by social negative reinforcement, or escape. This study outlines the use of DRA without extinction for challenging behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement, or access to tangible items. The current study will present a single-subject analysis of a DRA without extinction treatment with a schedule thinning component for challenging behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement. Data show an increase in latency to challenging behavior, overall decrease in rate of challenging behavior, and consistent rate of functional communication responses. Results of this study will discuss the application and implications of non-extinction-based treatments for positive reinforcement and the use of schedule thinning for generalization.
 
55. Extended Exposure – An Alternative Approach to Schedule Thinning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIAH HUGGINS (Marcus Autism Center), Jennifer M. Hodnett (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nadrat Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often display high levels of challenging behavior which may require intervention as it can impair daily functioning and skill acquisition (Kanne & Mazurek, 2013; Steward, McGillivray, Forbes, & Austin, 2017). Function-based interventions are the gold standard for addressing challenging behavior exhibited by this population (Carr & Durand 1985). However, these interventions often require dense schedules of reinforcement to produce treatment effects and require schedules of reinforcement to be thinned prior to generalizing treatment to naturalistic environments (Greer et al., 2016; Pizarro et al., 2021). The current study evaluated a novel schedule thinning procedure for individuals for whom a typical multiple schedule thinning arrangement was ineffective. Three participants were exposed to an extended exposure procedure, incorporating extended periods of restriction of the functional reinforce (i.e., s-delta) across a modified multiple schedule treatment. The extend exposure procedure was effective at maintaining low levels of challenging behavior and decreasing rates of manding for all three participants. The clinical implications of this study will be discussed.
 
56. Escape Interventions With Open/Closed Economies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA LEE HINES (Marcus Autism Center), Darko Cabo (Georgia State University ), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Courtney Mauzy (University of Georgia), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Common treatments for escape maintained challenging behavior include non-contingent escape (Vollmer et al., 1995), differential negative reinforcement (DR) (Lalli et al., 1995), and escape extinction (Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Even though escape extinction is a common and effective component of treatment (Fisher et al., 1993), it may not be a feasible option (Slocum & Vollmer, 2015). More recently, research has focused on DR without extinction (Slocum & Vollmer, 2015). This involves delivering positive reinforcers contingent on compliance to decrease challenging behavior and increase compliance, however, DR with breaks or edibles may be impacted by their availability outside of treatment (i.e., open economy) (Slocum & Vollmer, 2015). In open economies, the value of the reinforcer may decrease sometimes resulting in a decrease in responses that contingently produce reinforcement also may decrease. Additionally, decreasing or increasing work requirements for that reinforcer can further alter its value (Tustin, 1994). Thus, access to reinforcers outside of treatment sessions can decrease effectiveness. This study aimed to compare levels of compliance and rates of challenging behavior during DR interventions under open and closed economy paradigms. Preliminary results support the use of non-functional reinforcers to reduce escape-maintained challenging behavior and increase compliance. The results also indicate that escape extinction is not required to achieve substantial treatment effects for escape-maintained behavior.
 
162. Barriers Impacting Caregiver Adherence to Behavioral Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA EMILY STANFORD (Marcus Autism Center), Nadrat Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk of demonstrating behavioral challenges (Wong et al., 2013). There is considerable evidence that behavior analytic interventions are effective at addressing challenging behavior for this population; however, most research has focused on the implementation of these interventions in highly controlled settings (Allen & Warzak, 2000) and has not addressed the treatment maintenance in naturalistic settings. For example, there is research to suggest treatment effects do not maintain when implemented by caregivers in less controlled settings (e.g., home, school, community; St. Peter et al., 2016). The purpose of this study was to evaluate barriers influencing caregiver adherence to behavioral interventions following discharge from a day treatment clinic. Data suggest the emergence of four variables impacting caregiver adherence to behavioral interventions: 1) financial burden, 2) lack of services available to children exhibiting challenging behavior, 3) poor treatment adherence with non-primary caregiver, and 4) caregiver reports of isolation and exhaustion. Outcomes provide information that will inform future studies assessing variables that affect the long-term treatment outcomes of behavior interventions with the aim to decrease the likelihood of re-admission to clinics providing behavioral services.
 
164. Social Media Publications: Ethical Violations of Stand-Alone Applied Behavior Analysis Autism Clinics Put Children's Safety at Risk
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRA MARIE INGEBRITSON (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Updates to the 2022 Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) Ethics Code specified which social media content is permitted for publication by behavior analysts. Section 5.10 of the ethics code requires that for each publication that includes images of their clients' faces, informed consent is obtained before publishing, and these publications include a disclaimer stating informed consent was obtained (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2020). The present study aimed to review professional social media channels for stand-alone applied behavior analysis (ABA) clinics that treat children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who share images of their clients. We evaluated whether these clinics are compliant with the ethics code. Using a convenience sampling for social media content analysis method (Kim et al., 2018), a preliminary search of publically-available professional social media channels of seventy-five ABA autism clinics was done. This analysis showed 16.2% of behavior analysts who post images of their clients on social media comply with code 5.10. We recommend behavior analysts review their social media pages and notify their employers of ethical violations.
 
 

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