Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

Previous Page

 

Symposium #162
Beyond Autism: Exploring Dissociative Identity Disorder and Lottomania
Saturday, May 23, 2020
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Marriott Marquis, Level M1, Georgetown
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Brady J. Phelps (South Dakota State University)
Discussant: Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract:

Papers will be presented that pertain to a behavior analytic view of the behaviors of dissociative identity disorder as well as the phenomenon known as “lotto fever” or “lottomania.” The former topic is amenable to behavior analysis. Arguments will be made that personality is behavior, and this behavioral repertoire could exhibit sufficient variability to be described as being multiple. But, such behavior would result from complex contingencies of reinforcement and punishment. The behaviors of reporting to be different individuals, with different histories, and having differential abilities are likely operants resulting from atypical reinforcement and punishment contingencies, as well as inappropriate self-generated rules controlling a persistent avoidance or escape repertoire. The latter topic is also understandable from a behavior analytic perspective. On rare occasions when very large jackpots have accumulated, public demand for lottery tickets accelerates sharply, resulting in long lines at lottery purchase sites. This accelerated demand, called “lotto fever” or “lottomania,” is a temporary phenomenon, followed by a devaluation of subjective value for similar-size prizes in the future.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Explaining the behaviors labelled as Dissociative Identity Disorder
BRADY J. PHELPS (South Dakota State University)
Abstract: Skinner (1974) stated "Complex contingencies of reinforcement create complex repertoires, and as we have seen, different contingencies create different persons in the same skin, of which so-called multiple personalities are only an extreme manifestation" (p. 171-172). Except for this reference, Skinner did not elaborate on the topic of “multiple personalities.” Arguments will be made that personality is behavior, and this behavioral repertoire could exhibit sufficient variability to be described as being multiple. But, as Skinner alluded, such behavior would result from complex contingencies of reinforcement and punishment. The behaviors of reporting to be different individuals, with different histories, and having differential abilities are likely operants resulting from atypical reinforcement and punishment contingencies, as well as inappropriate self-generated rules controlling a persistent avoidance or escape repertoire. The childhood behavior of pretending to be someone else may persist as overt behavior, in a context of motivating operations and contingencies for such behavior. Differential abilities are either only self-reported or if overt, these are operant behavior. The evidence of dissociated identities from brain-imaging technologies can also be accounted for without having to reify multiple or dissociated “personalities.”
 
Lottomania, Lotto Fever, and the Expected Utility of a Wager
CHARLES A. LYONS (Eastern Oregon University)
Abstract: Large public lotteries in the U.S. produce several billion dollars in sales for participating states, and provide hundreds of millions of dollars in winnings to players. On rare occasions when very large jackpots have accumulated, public demand for lottery tickets accelerates sharply, resulting in long lines at lottery purchase sites. This accelerated demand, called “lotto fever” or “lottomania,” is a temporary phenomenon, followed by a devaluation of subjective value for similar-size prizes in the future. To examine factors that might trigger lottomania, I reviewed all drawings of the Powerball lottery held between 1992 and 2019 for evidence of a doubling of per capita demand for lottery ticket sales across two consecutive drawings (operationally defined as lotto fever). I identified 13 instances of lotto fever, and for each I calculated the jackpot value at which the expected utility (EU) of a wager equaled the cost of play. Instances of lotto fever occurred on average 1.2 drawings after the EU breakpoint was reached (Pearson r = .91, p < .001). The relative influences of matching, habituation, and extinction on lottomania are discussed.
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
SABA DONATE