Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #95
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
121. Mouthing, Pacifier Use, and Pacifier Weaning: Correlations in Pennsylvania Early Intervention
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
CIDNEY HELLER (Behavior By Design, LLC), Matthew Tyson (Behavior By Design, LLC)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Recommendations for pacifier use include those that encourage the use of a pacifier for infants up to 12 months of age ("Pacifiers (soothers): A users guide for parents", 2003). Mauch, Scott, Magarey, & Daniels (2012) reported that 79% of first-time mothers followed these recommendations and introduced a pacifier to their first-born infants. Cited advantages of pacifier use include the documented decrease in risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the decreased risks of future tooth development issues when compared with thumb sucking, as well as the ability to satisfy an infant’s instinct to suckle ("Pacifiers (soothers): A users guide for parents", 2003). Some of the disadvantages of pacifier use include the decreased duration of breastfeeding, future impact on teeth development, and delayed vocal exploration and language development (Sexton & Natale, 2009). Average mouthing behavior frequency, type, and duration has been reported as an under researched area of importance for children under 5 years of age (Tulve, Suggs, McCurdy, Cohen-Hubal, & Moya, 2002). Research studies cite both advantages and disadvantages to mouthing behavior. Many of the advantages include exploration of the environment (Lowsky, 2015), while many disadvantages relate to the increase exposure risk to toxins (Tulve et al., 2002). Due to the high rate of pacifier use in infants, the implications on mouthing behavior should be explored. This study seeks to begin understanding the relationship between mouthing behavior and pacifier use. A 14-question survey was developed to assess correlations. The surveys were distributed to parents who attended an Early Intervention Christmas party in York/Adams Pennsylvania. Initial findings suggest a relationship between pacifier use and mouthing occurrence.
 
122.

Pyramidal Skills Training for Registered Behavior Technicians in a Clinic Setting

Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
MELISSA A. DIAZ (Fayette County Public Schools; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; Simmons University), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Chrystal Jansz Rieken (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

The current study employed two experiments to examine the effects of pyramidal training on implementation of paired choice preference assessments with training as normal and Behavioral Skills Training (BST) by RBT-level staff in a clinic setting. The first experiment utilized an AB design to examine the use of BST as an intervention for training a Registered Behavior Technician, as the Tier 1 participant, to implement BST to train Tier 2 participants. In the first experiment, the Tier 1 participant was provided written instructions on a paired choice preference assessment and BST. In the baseline phase the Tier 1 participant trained the experimenter to the “best of their ability” on implementation of a paired choice preference assessment with the written information alone. After the baseline phase, the Tier 1 participant received training on BST and the paired choice preference assessment from the experimenter. In the second phase, the Tier 1 participant was again provided the instructions for the paired choice preference assessment and BST, and then was prompted to again train the experimenter to the “best of their ability”. The second experiment used a multiple baseline probe design to examine the effect of training, provided by the Tier 1 participant, on the accuracy of implementation of the paired choice preference assessments by Tier 2 participants when compared to written instructions alone (baseline), training as normal (phase 2) and BST (phase 3). The design consisted of three phases. In the baseline phase, the Tier 2 participants were provided with written instructions for a paired choice preference assessment, 1 minute to review the instructions, and then instructed to implement the preference assessment to the “best of their ability”. Data was collected on accuracy of implementation. After the baseline phase, the Tier 1 participant was instructed to train the Tier 2 participants as usual with the written instructions provided to all participants and data sheet. After training, Phase 1 started. Data was collected on Tier 2 participants accuracy of implementation after receiving “training as normal” from the Tier 1 participant. For the final phase, phase 3, the Tier 1 participant had received training on BST from the experimenter. The Tier 1 participant trained the Tier 2 participants on a paired stimulus preference assessment using BST. Data was collected on accuracy of implementation of the preference assessment. Results indicated that pyramidal training was effective in increasing accuracy scores when compared to the baseline phase. The results also indicated that training using BST resulted in a more accurate implementation of the paired choice preference assessments by Tier 2 participants, when compared to training as usual.

 
123.

Teaching With Acoustical Guidance: A Review

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE BAJCAR (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Teaching with acoustical guidance is a teaching procedure that uses an acoustical stimulus to provide immediate feedback to a learner (Quinn, et al., 2017) and has been used to increase a variety of skills, such as football skills (Harrison & Pyles, 2013; Stokes et al., 2010), precision shooting (Konttinen et al., 2004), dance movements (Carrion et al., 2019) and appropriate walking (Hodges et al., 2019). TAGteach also uses an acoustical stimulus to provide immediate feedback to learner, but also includes several other components (TAGteach International, 2004) and has been used to increase a variety of similar skills such as appropriate walking (Persicke, et al 2014), dance movements (Arnall, et al., 2019; Quinn, et al., 2015), rugby skills (Elmore, et al., 2018) and a golf swing (Fogel, et al., 2010). Given the similarities between these procedures, there seems to be some ambiguity regarding these terms in the literature. Therefore, this poster will examine the current literature on teaching with acoustical guidance and TAGTeach, discuss the procedural differences between these procedures, and provide directions for future research.

 
124.

Evaluation of Residential Services for Older Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Residing in the Community

Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
TANYA HOUGH (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

People with intellectual disabilities/developmental disabilities in the United States are living longer in recent decades. People 65 and older are in better health than previous decades due to more awareness of the beneficial effects of a healthy diet, preventative medical care, and physical exercise. Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are living longer as well. However, this presents challenges in meeting the needs of this population. This paper details the results of a survey developed to assess several areas of services, including social engagement, health-related services, group home environment, and staff training and development, were evaluated to identify areas in need of improvement. Participants consisted of 95 direct care staff working for a not-for-profit agency providing residential services to adults with intellectual disabilities/developmental disabilities. The results of the survey indicate that need for improving social engagement opportunities for older adults residing in the community and more training on working with older adults with intellectual disabilities/developmental disabilities for direct care staff in a residential setting.

 
125. Testing the Predictive Validity of Preference Assessments in Identifying Alternative Activities to Facilitate Delay Tolerance
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER L ALLEN (Marquette University), R. Kyle Caldwell (Marquette Univeristy), Margaret Rachel Gifford (Marquette University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Marquette University), Kimberly Nicolle Murillo (Marquette University), Carissa Basile (Marquette University)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) ideally involves arranging extinction of problem behavior while teaching a functionally equivalent communicative response (FCR). After achieving reduced problem behavior, FCT may then involve exposing the FCR to delayed reinforcement contingencies in preparation for challenges experienced in more normative environments. However, disrupting the contiguity between the FCR and reinforcement can result in the resurgence and maintenance of problem behavior. Providing activities or tasks during these delays has been shown to support treatment maintenance, but research has not identified how to identify these competing activities. The current study evaluated the utility of a systematic preference assessment in nominating these alternative activities. Presumably, high preference activities are more likely to support engagement during delays to functional reinforcers than low-preference activities. Therapists first conducted a systematic preference assessment for task activities using a paired-stimulus preference assessment model and then tested the predictions of this assessment by proving continuous access to nominated high, low, or no-items during 10-min delays with a child with autism spectrum disorder receiving treatment for tangibly maintained aggressive behavior. The preference assessment accurately identified both an effective (high preference) and ineffective (low preference) activity.
 
126. Screening and Intervening on the Early Emergence of Problem Behavior
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA B ROJAS (California State University Northridge), Taylor Ernst Duncan (California State University, Northridge ), Christina Warner (California State University Northridge), Monica Montalvo (California State University Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Assessing and treating the earliest signs of problem behavior are critical to preventing the future emergence of severe behavior disorders. We conducted sensitivity tests with 12 preschool children to detect repertoires of emerging problem behavior and appropriate requests. The sensitivity tests included exposure to situations that are commonly encountered in a preschool classroom and are also known antecedents to severe problem behavior. Each participant was exposed to 30-s test conditions including attention removal, tangible removal, and demand delivery embedded in a free play (control condition) context. The problem behavior of 7 children displayed sensitivity to one or more of our test conditions; 5 of these children displayed appropriate requests in the same condition. Outcomes of sensitivity tests were used to design preventative interventions consisting of functional communication training (FCT) and delay and denial tolerance training. We used a single-subject design (Fahmie, Iwata, & Mead, 2016) to assess and prevent escalating severities of problem behavior over time. Repeated measures of sensitivity tests served as a test for generalization of intervention effects.
 
127. Feasibility of Using Behavioral Marker via Mobile Sensors in Measuring Physical Activity: A Pilot Study
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
SEUNGMIN JUNG (Yonsei University), Changseok Lee (Yonsei University), Heewon Kim (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Direct observation of behaviors is the main assessment method of behavior analysis, yet data collection has been limited due to practical difficulties of collecting vast amount of information with accuracy. Recently, mobile sensors collecting passive data have emerged as an effective and efficient way to measure behaviors simultaneously as they occur. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using behavioral markers collected via mobile sensors in measuring physical activity. A pilot study was conducted on 15 college students for 15 days. ‘YouNoOne’, a software program that collects heart rate, step counts, and significant motion counts was installed on each participant’s personal smartphone and a distributed smartwatch. As a ground-truth, a short questionnaire asking about the participant’s real time physical activity, including the status, intensity, location and ability to move, was administered 6 times a day. The results showed that after controlling for the location and ability to move, passive data significantly and uniquely accounted for the status of physical activity. However, passive data failed to significantly account for the intensity of physical activity. Findings suggest that passive data collected via mobile sensor can be useful in measuring the behavior regarding physical activity but needs further elaboration.
 
 

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