Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #536
Monday, May 25, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
65. Delay Discounting and Sex: An Investigation into Gender and Online Dating Applications
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
RYAN BABLE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Current research in behavioral economics has demonstrated that people discount sex in a similar fashion to money (Lawyer & Schoepflin, 2013), and that higher scores of sexual risk (Turkich & Garske, 2009) are correlated to steeper rates of sexual discounting (Jarmolowicz et al., 2015). The present study sought to replicate these results along with investigate the relationship between delay discounting of sex, sexual risk, and online dating. Discounting was analyzed according to an area under the curve (AUC) model, and results demonstrated significant correlations between AUC and scores of sexual risk, and sexual risk and online dating history, among others. Gender differences revealed significant differences between total sexual partners and sexual risk. Analyses also reveal a significant interaction between marital history and online dating status regarding sex discounting. Results support current research in both sex discounting and online dating (Tanner & Huggins, 2018; Sawyer, Smith, & Benotsch, 2018).
 
66.

Possible Displacement of Sexual Interaction by Sex Toys: A Study of Preference

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
KASEY TANNER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract:

Research has demonstrated how effective preference assessments can be when used for identifying reinforcers (Fisher et al., 1992; DeLeon & Iwata, 1994). Typically, this process is used for everyday items and activities (e.g., edibles, money, items in the environment); however, more recently, these methods have also been extended to evaluating potential sexual partners (Jarmolowicz et al., 2016). Additionally, there is preference-assessment research showing that conditioned reinforcers (e.g., leisure items) may be displaced by unconditioned reinforcers (e.g., edibles or drinks). The purpose of the current study was to extend the preference-displacement research to evaluate whether sex toys (e.g., conditioned reinforcer) would be displaced by a potential human sex partner (e.g., unconditioned reinforcer). Participants in this study completed three phases of an online preference assessment (i.e., potential sexual partners, sex toys, and a combination of partners and toys). The results include preference hierarchies across assessments and displacement evaluations for each type of stimulus (partner vs. toy) within the initial preference assessment and in the combined preference assessment. Patterns of displacement across participants will be discussed in addition to areas of future research.

 
67.

Taking a Deeper Look at the Cultural Cusp

Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
GABRIELA ARIAS (University of North Texas), Aecio De Borba Vasconcelos Neto (Universidade Federal do Para), Kyosuke Kazaoka (University of North Texas), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract:

Cultural issues such as climate change, deforestation, pollution, overpopulation, drug use, and violence are the result of human behavior over time. Nevertheless, humans also have the potential to mitigate these problems. Significant progress has been made in culturo-behavioral science; however, it has been less explored than other areas in behavior analysis. Some culturo-behavioral concepts, for example, have only recently been introduced. The cultural cusp may provide a better understanding of how behavior analysts might intervene on social issues. Glenn et al. (2016) defines the cultural cusp as, “the coalescence of unique and nonrecurring interlocking and/or individual behavioral contingencies that results in a product that leads to significant socio-cultural change” (p. 21). To gain a clearer understanding of the cultural cusp we conducted in depth-historical analyses of several phenomena thought to meet the critical features of the cultural cusp. The results of our analyses are presented in a discussion of 1) potential critical and variable attributes of the cultural cusp, 2) suggestions for possible laboratory research to identify basic processes in cultural cusp formation, and 3) potential strategies to capture the long-lasting change attributed to cultural cusps.

 
68. Behavioral Training of Local Enumerators for Observing Exposure of Young Children to Campylobacter in Ethiopia
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH SCHIEBER (University of Florida), Crystal M. Slanzi (University of Florida), Abdulmuen Mohammad (Haramaya University), Arie Havelaar (University of Florida), Song Liang (University of Florida), Sarah McKune (University of Florida)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: The “Exposure Assessment of Campylobacter Infections in Rural Ethiopia (EXCAM)” project is an ongoing study being conducted to determine how children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to Campylobacter, a genus of bacteria linked to negative health outcomes (e.g., significant diarrhea-associated mortality and morbidity, environmental enteric dysfunction, malnutrition, stunting). EXCAM involves microbiological sampling to determine where Campylobacter live in livestock and behavioral observations to detect how infants contact those reservoirs through food and environmental pathways. These data will be used to create models of exposure pathways. Accurate behavioral observations are necessary to identify how children are being exposed to these bacteria. Enumerators will take continuous data on infants’ behaviors using a tablet-based application, Countee™, for two, five-hour observations per participant. We developed and implemented training procedures to ensure the enumerators take accurate data. Enumerators will be trained to collect behavioral data using behavior skills training with videos of local infants until they reach 95% inter-observer agreement with novel videos. Enumerators will also complete regular maintenance observations to monitor potential observer drift. Increased accuracy of behavioral observations may increase the validity of the exposure pathways, which will better inform future interventions to decrease Campylobacter exposure in children in LMICs.
 
69. Meaningful Applications of Culturo-Behavior Systems Science to Social and Global Issues
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
JOSE ARDILA (University of Nevada), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Kendra Combs (Sparks Behavioral Services), Mark A. Mattaini (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of Illinois at Chicago), Richard F. Rakos (Cleveland State University), Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University), Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Molli Luke (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Meaningful applications of behavioral systems science to social and global issues have been limited, largely due to lack of preparation and access to critical systems and limited conceptual guidance. In the Matrix Project, Behaviorists for Social Responsibility has worked for five years to address these limitations, emphasizing the potential for behavioral systems analysis to advance the underlying science. The Project currently includes active work groups in four areas: (a) development of a draft training and mentorship directory; syllabi and course units in the areas of sustainability, resilience, and other areas of social importance; (b) development of state (and national, in the case of Brazil) BFSR chapters, with strong emphasis on student involvement, and supporting individual student engagement in socially significant efforts; (c) examining options for increasing integration of behavior analytic data into state and federal policy; and (d) encouraging and disseminating information related to behaviorists’ involvement in activism and advocacy. The role of volunteers is increasingly emphasized for the advancement of the Project and training procedures for measuring volunteerism are being developed. These projects offer exemplars of the conceptual framework underlying and structuring all of these projects—a systemic integration of Goldiamond’s constructional approach and Lutzker’s ecobehavioral work, relying primarily on shifting interlocking and recursive patterns of antecedents (particularly SDs and motivative operations), reducing response effort, and accessing already established reinforcers.
 
70.

Evaluation of College Students' Implicit Biases Toward Believability of Claims of Sexual Harassment Using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure

Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
CHYNNA FRIZELL (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract:

Reports indicate that one in three women and one in six men in the United States experience some form of sexual violence in their lifetime (Smith et. al., 2017). Previous research has indicated that individuals involved in cases regarding claims of harassment (e.g. jurors, police officers) will be more likely to question the validity of a claim if characteristics of the claimant are different than expectations of the event (Schuller, McKimmie, Masser, & Klippenstine, 2010). Previous research regarding these characteristics has demonstrated several variables that may affect the believability of such claims (e.g. Schuller, McKimmie, Masser, & Klippenstine, 2010, McLean & Goodman-Delahunty, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to examine implicit biases of college participants using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) to evaluate differences in responding to images of females dressed in modest and revealing clothing as honest or dishonest in both private and public contexts. Mean scores for four trial types (Modest-Honest, Modest-Honest, Revealing-Honest, Modest-Dishonest, Revealing-Dishonest) and overall score in private and public contexts were examined; results suggested no significant difference between the public and private contexts, however a difference was found in responding among the various trial types, suggesting a significant bias toward modest clothing.

 
71.

Evaluating the Impacts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Rock Climbing Performance

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXA WESSELHOFF (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale ), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract:

Rock climbing has become increasingly popular around the world. However, rock climbing related injuries are not uncommon for those participating in the sport. Causes of injuries are often attributed to common mistakes on the part of the rock climber such as failing to conduct a safety check of knots, clipping the rope into the wall incorrectly, or neglecting to communicate with their belayer. Although they are simple tasks, the rock climber may make these mistakes due to lack of attention or being distracted by their thoughts. Research suggests that components of Acceptance and Commit Therapy (ACT), such as present moment awareness, values clarification, and acceptance can improve athletic performance. Previous research has evaluated ACT’s effect on the performance of basketball players, powerlifters, swimmers, and golfers; however, no research has examined the impact of ACT with rock climbers. The current study examines the effects of ACT on the performance of three recreational rock climbers using a multiple baseline design. Participants received ACT lessons prior to climbing and were assessed on speed, mistakes made, and safety steps followed. Preliminary data suggest that ACT sessions delivered prior to climbing may reduce climb duration and mistakes made while climbing while also improving safety measures.

 
72. Quantitative Modeling of Social Biases Using Relational Density Theory
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
DANIEL JOYNER JOHNS (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that relational learning can be quantitatively modeled in terms of "Relational Density Theory,” which assumes the number of relations can subtract from strength of relations, relational networks are difficult to change if both number and strength of relations is high, and networks with high numbers of strong relations are more likely to influence the development of subsequent relations (Belisle & Dixon, 2018). The present study evaluated these assumptions with a college student sample by evaluating the properties of low-mass (low importance) and high-mass (high importance) networks. College student participants completed a survey, ranking several social issues (e.g. climate change, gun control, etc.) according to their importance. Then, participants completed a computerized task in which they assessed the relatedness of pairs of stimuli. Stimuli belonged to one of two classes constructed according to the selected social issues and a third class comprised of ‘ambiguous’ stimuli (e.g. “newspaper,” “headline,” etc.). Data was used to conduct a multidimensional scaling procedure to observe relational proximity in geometric space. Results evaluated the effect of network mass on responding to ambiguous stimuli. Implications include improved understanding and empirical support to the theory that stimulus networks demonstrate higher-order properties of density, volume, and mass.
 
73. Discounting of Climate Point of No Return: The Influence of Geographic Distance and Delay on Policy Preference
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CELESTE UNNERSTALL (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Meredith Matthews (Missouri State University), Mason Todd (Missouri State University )
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: In climate science, the Point of No Return is the threshold at which climate change reaches the point of non-recoverability, which is likely to occur when the average global temperature increases by 2°C (Aengenheyster et al., 2018). A 5% reduction in CO₂ can delay PNR from occurring in an estimated 15 years to an estimated 25 years. The present study replicated prior work evaluating participants’ preferences for policies that restrict access to valued CO₂ emitting commodities to delay PNR within a delay discounting paradigm (Belisle et al., under review). Participants were required to select among concurrently presented policies where both the delay to PNR and the geographical and cultural distance of the recipient of financial redistribution were simultaneously manipulated. Geographical and cultural distance included four regions proximal and distal relative to the state where the discounting tasks were completed. We compared hyperbolic and hyperboloid multiplicative functions at the single-subject and group levels using a multilevel analysis of indifferent point data. Results extend on prior work on delay and social discounting on human choice as it relates to climate change.
 
74. Comparing Punitive Taxation and Redistributive Policies on Rates of Climate Change Discounting: Delaying the Point of No Return
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
MEREDITH MATTHEWS (Missouri State University), Mason Todd (Missouri State University), Reiley Snavely (Missouri State University)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Climate scientists estimate that if global temperatures increase beyond a 2°C threshold, the impacts of human actions on the earth’s climate will be non-recoverable (Point of no return, Aengenheyster et al., 2018). Given current CO₂ emissions, PNR is estimated to occur by the year 2035 unless changes are made to human consumption of high emission commodities. Carbon taxation is one proposed policy that utilizes punishment to reduce consumption; however, evaluations of carbon taxation are mixed (Baranzini & Carattini, 2014), suggesting high emission commodities may be inelastic (i.e., consumption may be minimally influenced by price per unit increases). Redistributive taxation policies wherein money is redistributed to individuals who remain below a carbon threshold more closely resembles differential reinforcement of other behavior that could affect rates of climate discounting. Across three studies, we compared punitive taxation to redistributive policies on discounting of high emission commodities in order to delay PNR. Both strategies produced a hyperbolic curve function at the single subject and group levels; however, results suggest that participants are more willing to forego access to high emission commodities when consumption is constrained through redistribution, rather than strictly through traditional taxation strategies.
 
75. Participatory Research Methods for Behavioral Assessment of Complex Social Behavior: A Case Example of the Functional Assessment of High Risk Sexual Behavior in South African Youth
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
ANNETTE GRIFFITH (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Kasey Bedard (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Human social behavior is complex and often takes place in environments which are equally complex due to the numerous contingencies that often take place, many of which we are likely to be unaware or, if aware, unable to directly observe (Guerin, 2019). As such, traditional behavior analytic approaches may not always be feasible or effective for analyzing complex social behavior of individuals or of groups. This poster will provide a description of the ways that participatory research methods, such as those used in fields of social science, can be applied to the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). To demonstrate the use of participatory research in the field of ABA, a case example will be presented for a complex, and often covert, social behavior, namely high-risk sexual behavior among South African youth. Information will be presented on how the research was initiated and carried out, with a focus on how a behavioral framework was maintained throughout. Challenges for implementation and data analysis will be identified and discussed.
 
 

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