Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

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Poster Session #302
Sunday, May 24, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
100. Comparing the Effects of the Standard Multiple Exemplar Instruction Protocol to Academic Literacy Multiple Exemplar Instruction to Induce Bidirectional Naming
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Francis Hwang-Nesbit (Teacher College, Columbia University), MICHAELA ANN DUNHAM (Teachers College Columbia University), Tanya Bajwa (Teachers College Columbia University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: In two experiments the researchers studied the effects of using the standard picture multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) compared to academic literacy MEI on inducing bidirectional naming (BiN) for 10 participants who did not reliably demonstrate either the listener or speaker portions of BiN. In the second experiment, the researchers also added a control condition that included repeated novel naming experiences. BiN is when a child can learn language from incidental experiences. The researchers selected 10 participants for this study, 5 of which were developmentally delayed. The researchers utilized a multiple probe design across groups. The study is still ongoing. To date, only two participants have demonstrated full BiN while 2 participants are reliably demonstrating the listener portion of BiN or Unidirectional Naming (Uni). The researchers then discuss the limitations of this study such as the low number of sessions with interobserver agreement (IOA) and the future directions that should be investigated such as studying learning rates for academic programs post induction of BiN for each condition.
 
101. The Effects of Fluency Training of Word Problems on the Fluent Responding to Math Facts
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
YIFEI SUN (Teachers College, Columbia University), Mary-Genevieve White (Teachers College, Columbia)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We conducted an experiment using a multiple probe design across participants to test the effect of the mastery and fluent responding of word problems on fluent and accurate responding to math facts and the use of counting strategies (i.e. counting fingers, drawing pictures, using tally marks) for 8 middle school students. We found a functional relation between the mastery of operants and fluent responding of word problems and the fluent and accurate responding to math facts. All participants demonstrated an increase in the level of responding in their rate of accurate responding to math facts and a decrease in their rate of incorrect responding to math facts post-mastery and post-fluency training of word problems. Participants that demonstrated Transformation of Stimulus Function (TSF) across saying and writing demonstrated greater gains that their peers without TSF. This experiment extends findings from previous research that demonstrated a functional relation between the mastery of operants and fluent responding of math facts and the fluent and accurate responding to word problems for participants who demonstrated TSF. Results suggest changes in curriculum design and teaching practices for teaching math fluency and word problems for all students.
 
102.

A Parametric Analysis of Auditory Match-to-Sample Protocol on Inducing Accurate Echoics

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
TANYA BAJWA (Teachers College, Columbia University ), Rebecca Hotchkiss (Evergreen Center), Kristina Wong (Columbia University), Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Previous research has indicated that the auditory matching (AM) protocol has been effective in increasing accurate echoics. The AM protocol teaches children a generalized repertoire of discriminating auditory stimuli across 21 phases that increase in complexity. While effective, the AM protocol is labor and time intensive. The researchers conducted a parametric analysis to evaluate and compare the effects of 2 conditions of the AM protocol. In the full condition, participants completed 20-trial sessions and moved between phases when accuracy was 90% in 1 session. In the accelerated condition, participants completed up to 20-trials per session and moved between phases when responding correctly to 5 consecutive trials. Researchers used a multiple probe design across participants to evaluate the effective of each condition and a between-subjects comparison to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the respective conditions. The results indicated that both conditions produced the intended effects on echoics and the accelerated AM protocol was more efficient in producing this outcome.

 
103. The Effects of Social-Listener Reinforcement Protocol on Increasing Vocal Verbal Operants
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
RUBY SARA GIBSON (Teachers College, Columbia University ), Jessica Horton (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Social behavior exchanges of children begins to develop naturally at a young age. However, often times children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a delayed response in acquiring the necessary skills to function in a social exchange. The listener component, as well as the speaker component, within a social exchange is necessary in order to acquire more complex social skills (Skinner, 1957). Social Listener Reinforcement (SLR), is a protocol used to increase vocal verbal operants of children with ASD. The study evaluated the effects of an SLR procedure, using activities that required the participants to rotate between the roles of the listener and speaker, in increasing vocal verbal operants (i.e., tacts, intraverbals, and conversational units). The SLR procedure included four different phases with a building phase, scavenger hunt, and two peer-tutoring phases. The researchers used a pre-post design, with a time lag, across all six participants to test the effects of the SLR protocol on both social behaviors. The results of the study suggest that the SLR protocol varied in effectiveness across all participants, but the results did display an overall increase in vocal verbal operants for four of the participants. The researchers discuss on expansion of this study, as well as limitations within the experiment. social listener reinforcement, vocal verbal operants, observational learning
 
104. The Effects of Peer Tutor Using Multiple Exemplar Instruction to Induce Bidirectional Naming
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Brittany Chiasson (Teachers College Columbia University), MANINDER VIRK (Teachers College Columbia University ), Patricia Elizabeth Cahill (Teachers College Columbia University ), Jennifer Weber (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Naming is a capability in which speaker and listener responses join together so the student can learn incidentally from naturally occurring environment experiences without direct instruction. This is an important capability because an individual is not truly verbal until listener and speaker responses join and it allows students to learn at an accelerated rate in the classroom, but some students do not have Naming. In this study, the researchers used a delayed multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the effects of peer tutors implementing multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) with listener and speaker responses to induce Naming across 4 participants. The researchers selected 2 confederate participants and trained them to peer tutor by delivering learn units and 4 target participants who received the MEI intervention from the confederate participants. The peer tutors implemented the intervention by rotating match, point- to, tact, and intraverbal response for a set of unknown stimuli for a total of 40 learn units per session. The dependent variable is the number of correct responses to point-to, tact and intraverbal responses. The preliminary findings showed that Naming for unfamiliar stimuli was induced for Participant 1 and Participant 4 with one intervention phase. The study is ongoing, and the researcher will evaluate the effects of the curriculum upon the completion of the study.
 
105. The Effects of an Accelerated Auditory Matching Procedure on the Echoic Responding of Preschool Students
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
MARY KATHLEEN SHORT (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jessica SangEun Yoon (Gotham Children ), Enhea Oh (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We studied the effects of an accelerated auditory matching (AM) procedure on the echoic responding of 2 preschool students. We utilized a delayed multiple probe across participants design to measure the number of full, partial, and incorrect echoics emitted by the participants, as well as the number of correct syllables the participants emitted. We implemented the AM procedure using the “Sounds the same: an app to target listening and speaking clearly” iPad app to target the participants’ advanced phonemic discrimination. Our AM procedure was an accelerated version, compared to the original AM procedure, that required fewer responses in order for the participants to advance to the following phase of the intervention. The participants completed the advanced version of the app that increased in the length, complexity, and similarity of words, phrases, and sentences throughout the phases. We found that after implementing the AM procedure, the number of correct echoics (partial and full echoics) and the number of correct syllables emitted increased for both participants. These findings demonstrated a functional relationship between the implementation of the AM procedure and the number of correct echoics (partial and full) and correct syllables the participants emitted.
 
106. An Assessment of Token Value and Effectiveness: Does Token Form Matter?
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Marcella Hangen (University of Kansas), Halle Norris (University of Kansas), Ashley Romero (University of Kansas), BREANNA R ROBERTS (University of Kansas), Kathryn A Gorycki (The University of Kansas), Pamela L. Neidert (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Token systems are a commonly used treatment procedure to increase a desired behavior (e.g., compliance) or decrease an unwanted behavior (e.g., aggression) for a variety of different responses (Hackenberg, 2009). Token systems have been used with a variety of populations including, but not limited to, children diagnosed with various disabilities, prisoners, and school children. Because token systems are commonly used in clinical settings, it is important to identify the reinforcing value of these systems to increase their effectiveness (Fiske, Isenhower, Bamond, Delmolino, Sloman, & LaRue, 2015). The current study is a systematic replication of Fiske et al., (2015), wherein we evaluated the reinforcing value of tokens by comparing the efficacy of primary reinforcement, paired tokens, and unpaired tokens on the frequency of task completion in both typically developing preschool children and children diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. For most participants, the results show the primary and paired token conditions produced the highest levels of responding.
 
107.

Further Investigation of Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding and Self-Drinking for Children With Feeding Disorders

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN HATHAWAY (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sarah D Haney (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Laura E Phipps (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Rutgers University), Kathryn M. Peterson (Rutgers University and Children's Specialized Hospital)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Self-feeding is an important milestone in a child's progression toward age-typical feeding that emerges in the absence of intervention for most children. Children with feeding disorders may lack motivation to self-feed, which impedes progress toward age-typical feeding (Rivas et al., 2014). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the properties of negative reinforcement in the form of meal breaks to increase self-feeding and self-drinking. We manipulated break length and quality (Athens & Vollmer, 2010), the response effort required to earn breaks, and the choice between self-feeding and a less preferred alternative (e.g., therapist feeding the child more bites; Volkert et al., 2016). During self-feeding and self-drinking break sessions, the feeder told the child that he or she could earn a break if he or she self-fed the next bite, drink, or both. The reinforcing properties of meal breaks were dependent on response effort (i.e., number of bites and volume of drinks the feeder presented). We observed increases in self-feeding and self-drinking during bites and drinks followed by a break for all participants. We discuss these results relative to their potential to inform interventions for children with feeding disorders to progress the child toward age-typical feeding.

 
 

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