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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #276
Sunday, May 27, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
 
101. Using a Rule-Based Antecedent Manipulation to Reduce Random and Careless Survey Responses
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MAUREEN FLYNN (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Annie Garofalo (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Katherine Bauschke (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Renee Baker (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Researchers often have participants complete surveys online due to the ease and lower cost of administration. Unfortunately, the rates of careless or random responding to items can be fairly high (11- 42%) when conducting online surveys (e.g., Meade & Craig, 2012; Flynn, Berkout, & Bordieri, 2016). Random responding behaviors result in decreases in the integrity of the data and the removal of subjects from analyses. The aim of the current study was to examine whether incorporating a rule-based antecedent manipulation decreased random/careless responding among participants in a long online survey. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to either receive the rule-based antecedent manipulation or not. Those in the manipulation condition were warned that they would be removed from the study and not get class credit for participating if they failed more than one attention check item in the survey. Those in the control condition did not receive the warning and were given credit even if they failed more than one attention check item. Results showed that participants in the antecedent manipulation condition (n = 131) did not correctly respond to more attention check items than participants in the control condition (n = 104). Implications and future directions will be discussed.
 
102. Psychological Flexibility Moderates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Depression
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANNIE GAROFALO (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Renee Baker (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Katherine Bauschke (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Approximately 53% of students experience depression at some point during their college career (Furr, Westefeld, McConnell, & Jenkins, 2001). Social anxiety has been shown to be related to depression (e.g., La Greca & Hannah Moore Harrison, 2005) and as many as 19% of undergraduates experience high levels of social anxiety (Beidel, Turner, Stanley, & Dancu, 1989). There must be moderating variables involved in the relationship between social anxiety and relationship, however, because not everyone who is reports experiencing depressive symptoms experiences social anxiety. One such moderator may be psychological flexibility, which is the ability to engage in values-based action despite what one is thinking or feeling. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychological flexibility moderates the relationship between social anxiety and depression. Participants consisted on 961 undergraduate students. Participants completed a battery of assessments online. Results showed that psychological flexibility was significantly and moderately related to social anxiety and depression. Additionally, psychological flexibility moderated the relationship between social anxiety and depression. This means that at low levels of psychological flexibility, depression is high. Implications and future directions will be discussed.
 
103. How We Treat Others: Psychological Flexibility Moderates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Relational Aggression
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE BAUSCHKE (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Annie Garofalo (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Renee Baker (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Approximately 19% of undergraduate college students report experiencing social anxiety (Beidel, Turner, Stanley, & Dancu, 1989; Izgic, 2004). Social anxiety is related to relational aggression (e.g., Gros & Simms, 2009), which involves behaviors that intentionally harm others through damage or threats to interpersonal relationships (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Loudin, L.L., Loukas, A. & Robinson, S., 2003). Although there is a relationship between social anxiety and relational aggression, there must be moderators involved because not everyone who experiences social anxiety engages in relational aggression. One such moderator may be psychological flexibility, which is defined as the ability to engage in values-based actions despite experiencing unpleasant thoughts and feelings (Hayes et al., 2016). The purpose of the current study was to examine whether psychological flexibility moderates the relationship between social anxiety and relational aggression. Approximately 961 undergraduate participants completed a battery of measures in an online format. Results showed that relational aggression was significantly but weakly positively associated with social anxiety and psychological flexibility. Additionally, psychological flexibility moderated the relationship between social anxiety and relational aggression. These moderation results mean that at low levels of psychological flexibility, relational aggression is high. Implications and future directions will be discussed.
 
104. Psychological Flexibility Moderates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Loneliness
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
RENEE BAKER (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Katherine Bauschke (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Annie Garofalo (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Among college students, approximately 19% experience social anxiety (Beidel, Turner, Stanley, & Dancu, 1989). Studies have also shown that there is a relationship between social anxiety and loneliness (e.g., Panayiotou, Panteli, & Theodorou, 2016; Huan, Ang, & Chye, 2014). Loneliness is associated with poorer health and psychological distress (Stickley et al., 2013). There must be moderators involved in the relationship between social anxiety and loneliness because not everyone who reports experiencing social anxiety is lonely. One such moderator may be psychological flexibility, which is ability to engage in values-based behaviors even when one is experiencing unpleasant thoughts and feelings. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether sychological flexibility moderates the relationship between social anxiety and loneliness. Undergraduate participants completed surveys in an online format and responses from 961 subjects were analyzed. Results showed that psychological flexibility was moderately correlated with social anxiety and loneliness. Regarding moderation, analyses showed that psychological flexibility moderated the relationship between social anxiety and loneliness, which means that at low levels of psychological flexibility, loneliness is high. Implications and future directions will be discussed.
 
105. Behavioral Skills Training for Clinical Practitioners: Evaluation of a Standardized Protocol for Training Brief Psychotherapy
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
ETHAN A. EISDORFER (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), G. Terence Wilson (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Despite the remarkable progress in the development of evidence-based psychotherapies, access to these treatments remains severely limited for the general population. The development of effective and efficient training practices may help to improve the availability of evidence-based treatments. The current study examined the use of a standardized protocol for training novice mental health clinicians in a brief behavioral treatment for depression utilizing a multiple-baseline across participants design. Clinicians first received didactic instruction and written materials describing the background and model of the treatment, and outlining how to apply it. Then, they received a video model of the treatment skills. Finally, the clinicians received corrective feedback based on their performance. Results indicate that the clinicians acquired the skills, and were able to demonstrate them with a high degree of accuracy in simulated treatment sessions. The results of this study have implications for the use of behavioral skills training in mental health service delivery and the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based mental health treatments.
 
106. The Use of a Stimulus Equivalence Match-to-Sample Procedure and Token Economy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder Treatment
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA TILLERY (University of North Carolina at Wilmington), Ruth M. Hurst (Central Regional Hospital), Andrew Fullwood (Central Regional Hospital)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Stimulus equivalence, which provides a methodology for generating new behavior, allows many relations to emerge after teaching only a few (Sidman & Tailby, 1982). Conditional discriminations are taught such that comparisons are discriminative for reinforcement in one condition, but not in another, through the match-to-sample procedure. Tests for emergent equivalence relations using the same stimuli are then presented. The match-to-sample stimulus equivalence procedure was implemented as the basis for an intervention targeting the problematic behaviors (e.g., spilling medications, inappropriate touching of others, and disrobing in public, etc.) of a 30-year-old male with diagnoses of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder, Depressive Type at Central Regional Hospital. A match-to-sample procedure was implemented to teach rules to target problematic behavior (e.g., taking medication, interacting safely, wearing clothing, etc.), in conjunction with a token economy, through which the patient earned backup reinforcers every seven days all match-to-sample rules were followed. The match-to-sample data indicates that five five-member equivalence classes have emerged. Further, the data suggest that as equivalence classes emerged, instances of related problematic behavior decreased. This application of stimulus equivalence match-to-sample procedures may have potential as an intervention for problematic behavior associated with OCD and schizoaffective diagnoses.
 
107. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Drug Use: A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Psychological Flexibility as a Moderator
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANNIE GAROFALO (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Approximately 56% of young adults aged 18-25 have used illicit drugs across their lifetimes (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be related to illicit drug use (e.g., Sareen, Chartier, Paulus, & Stein, 2006; Zatzick et al., 2012) and as many as 9% of college students experience PSTD (Read, Ouimette, White, Colder & Farrow, 2011). There must be moderating variables involved in the relationship between illicit drug use and PSTD, because not everyone who repForts using illicit drugs has PTSD. One such moderating variable may be psychological flexibility, which is the ability to engage in values-based action despite what one is thinking or feeling (Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda, & Lillis, 2006). The aim of this study was to examine whether psychological flexibility moderates the relationship between PSTD and illicit drug use. Participants consisted of 391 undergraduate students. Participants completed a battery of assessments online. Results showed that psychological flexibility did not moderate the relationship between PSTD and illicit drug use. Limitations and future directions will be discussed.
 
108. Open-Source Electronic Bracelet for Self-Monitoring Nail Biting Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BRISSA GUTIÉRREZ (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Rogelio Escobar (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Self-monitoring problem behavior is an important component of habit-reversal procedures. Traditionally it is done using paper sheets or with the aid of mechanical counters. Recently smartphone apps have also been used. These methods, however, can be problematic. Traditional methods can be inaccurate and apps can interact unpredictably with other apps running simultaneously in the smartphone. The present poster describes the design and test of an electronic open-source device, in the form of a bracelet, for easy self-monitoring of nail-biting behavior that provides visual and tactile stimulation. Using open-source programs the bracelet allows recording target behavior and signals when an exercise contingent on problem behavior must occur. Two female nail biters participated in a study involving a multiple-baseline design. During baseline, participants pressed a button to record nail biting. In the treatment condition, the bracelet vibrated after the response was recorded to signal that participants had to press the bracelet until it stopped vibrating. Frequency of nail biting was reduced to zero for both participants in the treatment condition. The design of the device and the programs to use it can be downloaded for free, and it can be built with almost no experience in electronics with components easily available worldwide.
 
109. Relationship Between the Implementation Level of Addiction-Brief Interventions and User's Abstinence
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
VIOLETA FÉLIX (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: The emergence and maintenance of substance use/abuse, and the acquisition of alterFnative behaviors to it, are explained from basic principles that dictate organisms' behavior. Brief interventions for addictive behavior assume that substance abuse is learned, and they are administered within a dynamic interaction process between therapist and client. This study's purpose was to assess the relationship between client's abstinence and the therapist's implementation of basic learning principles in natural settings. A microgenetic design was used to analyze the interaction of 30 psychologists with previous training and 20 clients with substance abuse. A direct observation system of therapist-client interaction was used (a cheklist of levels of implementation, and sequential record of interaction). Therapists videotaped each session with their clients (all with informed consent), and a supervisor registered and provided feedback for the recordings. Results showed an increase in the number of significant patterns along the progress of the sessions. There are behavioral patterns related to behavioral trials and feedback, which are basic components of behavioral training; and there was an increase in the mastery of the skill in relation to the progress of sessions and the feedback in areas of functional analysis of consumption and planning of alternative behavior.
 
110. Do Attitudes Predict Behavior: Exploring the Unexpected Relationship Between Attitudes and Seeking Psychological Services
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Teresa Hulsey (University of North Texas), AMY PAGE (University of North Texas), Stephanie Caldas (University of North Texas), Amy Murrell (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Psychological treatment prevents and reduces distressful psychological symptoms (Rickwood, Deane, & Wilson, 2007), which many emerging adult college students experience (Beiter et al., 2015). Yet, research indicates university psychological services are under-utilized (ACHA, 2014). The Healthy Minds Network study (2017) revealed an unexpected significant, negative relationship between positive attitudes toward seeking treatment and engagement in treatment seeking behavior. This study sought to investigate distress level as a potential moderating variable. Undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 (N = 964, 42.5% White/European American, 67.7% females) completed online self-report measures. A logistic regression utilizing distress severity, attitudes toward treatment seeking and their interaction as predictors of treatment seeking behavior was conducted. In this sample, severity of distress did not significantly predict treatment utilization. Attitudes toward treatment seeking did however significantly, and negatively, predict treatment utilization, (B = - .055, p = .000, OR = .946). The interaction also did not significantly predict treatment seeking. Given that even the significant finding was a small one, the implications of this study should be interpreted with caution. Discussion of these results, limitations of the study, and future directions for studies that promote treatment seeking behavior in emerging adults will be discussed.
 
111. Alternative Behavior as Mediator of Change in Substance Use
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JUDITH ELISA FERRER ALARCÓN (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: The consumption of substances has increased in the last years. The Translational research allows the implementation of the basic principles in applied practice and feedback to basic models. The objectives of interventions in addictions are abstinence and moderation of consumption. The basic principles of behavior allow us to understand that consumer behavior remains as an inhibited learning which resurgence depends on the level of maintenance of alternative behaviors that compete with consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relative value of alternative reinforcement in the choice of substance use behavior. A unique case design was used where two drug user's participate (cocaine and alcohol; 19 and 25 years old), who presented abuse in their consumption and received brief interventions about their addiction. The results suggest that having two or more alternative behaviors that were reinforcing for each drug user decreased their consumption. Thus, the precise follow of alternative behavior is necessary, when effective one is not implemented or it loses its value, the user is likely to return to the previous pattern of consumption.
 
112. Behavioral Avoidance: The Contribution of Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Above and Beyond Disgust and Emotion Regulation
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRA GILBERT (University of Mississippi), Molly Wickenhauser (University of Mississippi ), Danielle Maack (University of Mississippi )
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder are impairing and distressing for the 2-3% afflicted. Research demonstrates associations between OC symptoms and other cognitive vulnerabilities (i.e. disgust sensitivity and emotion regulation). This study examined the specific impact of Obsessive Compulsive (OC) symptoms on behavioral avoidance controlling for other cognitive vulnerabilities. Undergraduate students (148) completed a questionnaire packet including the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Disgust Scale Revised, and participated in eight behavioral avoidance tasks (BATs; avoidance measured in distance between participant and stimuli). Participants were predominantly female (72.2%) and White (71.3%) with ages ranging from 18-36. A hierarchical regression was conducted with Disgust Sensitivity (DS) and Emotion Regulation (ER) in Model 1 and OC symptoms included in Model 2 to predict behavioral avoidance. Model 1 was significant, F (2, 74) = 6.20, p = < .01, and accounted for 14.4% of variance in behavioral avoidance. Model 2 was also significant, F (1, 73) = 4.18, p < .05, with OC symptoms accounting for an additional 4.6% of variance. Overall, OC symptoms significantly predicted behavioral avoidance controlling for DS and ER ( = -.66, p < .05). These findings highlight the unique impact OC symptoms have on behavioral avoidance.
 
113. A Meta-Analysis of Expressive Writing on Posttraumatic Stress
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
JEFFREY PAVLACIC (University of Mississippi ), Erin Buchanan (Missouri State University), Stefan Schulenberg (University of Mississippi )
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Emotional expression is beneficial for promoting both positive psychological and physical outcomes, while inhibiting emotions can lead to impairments in physical and psychological health. Individuals having experienced traumatic events are more likely to repress thoughts and feelings regarding said trauma. Expressive writing, a form of emotional expression and a behavioral intervention, has been used to treat a wide variety of psychological and health-related outcomes. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of expressive writing on posttraumatic stress using random effects models across a wide range of diagnoses. Specifically, we examined the effectiveness of expressive writing on experimental conditions to determine change in symptoms over time. Studies were collected through online databases with specified search terms. We calculated 144 effects across 45 articles. Results indicated a small to medium effect size for our random effects model after outlier exclusion, d = 0.36, 95% CI[0.29, 0.42]. Additionally, we conducted analyses such as p-curve, p-uniform, PET-PEESE, and selection models, which control for publication bias and p-hacking. Expressive writing appeared to play a small, but non-zero, role in reducing self-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms by creating a shift in context where individuals report less stress.
 
114. Effect of Media Modalities in the Dissemination of Parenting Practices
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Lissette Ramos (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), David Amaya (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Silvia Morales Chaine (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), MARCELA ROSAS PENA (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to which media modalities is best to disseminate the Parent Training by providing: a e-learning, text messages, video and workshop and measuring the acquisition of skills using the self-report of the parents. Participated 548 caregivers (M = 37.08 years) of children between 2 and 12 years old (M = 7 years) from Mexico City and the metropolitan area. A quasi-experimental pre, post and follow-up design was used . Participants answered the Parenting Practices Inventory (CPI) , the Child Management Skills Questionnaire (CMSQ) and the Child Conduct Inventory (CCI) . The intervention modalities lasted 4 weeks where they were trained in functional behavior analysis, reinforcement of desired behavior, simple correction of behavior and control of stimuli. The modality of workshop plus messages and videos increased the means of using Ignore, praise, clear instructions and problem solving. The use of punishment in the modalities of video, e-learning and workshop plus messages and videos was reduced. Likewise, the report of aggressive child behavior in all modalities was reduced. The use of technologies allowed the dissemination of Parent Training functioning as a reminder of the skills. Key words:, parent training, media modalities, skills, dissemination.
 
115. Professional Knowledge and Skills on Addictions Brief Intervention by Distance Training
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JUAN ISMAEL MATÍAS MESTAS (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Dissemination is one step of translational research. The goal of the study was to assess if giving information, modeling, essaying behaviors and giving feedback, in a distance training, increase knowledge's on addictions terms, motivational interview, behavioral principles and behavioral assessing; and increase interactional brief intervention skills in addictions clinical settings. We worked with 100 psychologist (50 on training and 50 control) from 10 entities of Mexican republic, that use to work on public health institutions to give primary attention on addictions. We used a General Knowledge Test and a Checklist of professional skills. We used a cuasi-experimental design of pre-post assessment and control group. For the training we design 16 modules of information and skills modeling, essaying, and getting feedback on Moodle platform. Results showed a significant effect of distance training on the professional psychological knowledge and skills on brief interventions. Distance training for acquisition of competences and have been created CIT for training are, both, important achievements for brief intervention procedures area and to reduce drugs use on clinician settings.
 
116. An Evaluation of the Effects of Antecedent Variables on Problem Behavior Occasioned by Restricted Attention
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA DETRICK (University of Missouri), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Missouri), Emily Malugen (University of Missouri), Kristin Hathaway (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two common antecedent strategies on problem behavior occasioned by restricted access to attention. Ian was a typically developing four-year-old male who engaged in aggression and property destruction when his parents' attention was diverted from him. All procedures were conducted in a 90-min outpatient clinic. IOA was assessed across 30% of sessions and averaged 90%. During Phase 1, an antecedent analysis was conducted within a multielement design and restricted attention was identified as occasioning problem behavior (Figure 1, left panel). During Phase 2, two common antecedent strategies were evaluated within a multielement embedded within a reversal design. To receive his parents' attention, Treatment 1 consisted of instructing Ian to play alone in a designated area for 1-min, as indicated by the sound of a timer, whereas Treatment 2 consisted of instructing Ian to complete a discrete task (i.e., a puzzle) alone, followed by raising his hand to inform his parents the task was completed. If problem behavior occurred, the timer was paused or Ian was reminded of the task requirement. Results (Figure 1, right panel) showed that Treatment 2 was most effective at decreasing the occurrence of Ian's problem behavior.
 

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