Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #47J
EDC Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
123. Evaluating Presession Attention as an Evidence-Based Practice for Attention-Seeking Behaviors in General Education Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
KERRY KISINGER (Eastern Washington University )
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract:

Presession attention is an antecedent-based intervention that may be used in classrooms to provide reinforcement for attention-seeking, often disruptive, behaviors as determined on a functional behavior assessment. Presession attentions works as an abolishing operations reducing the motivation for one to engage in certain behaviors by lowering the value of a reinforcer and providing satiation to the individual. The following presentation focuses on previous studies in order to determine whether this can be considered an evidence-based practice for students in a general education setting .

 
124. Impact of Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) Curriculum on Special Educator Self-Efficacy for Teaching Students With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), JULIA M HRABAL (Baylor University), MacKenzie Raye Wicker (Baylor University), Kailah Hall (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Aisling Costello (Baylor University), Tracey Sulak (Baylor University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in their ability to complete a specific task or accomplish specific goals. Special educator self-efficacy includes a teacher’s beliefs about their ability to perform tasks specific to educating students, such as implement effective instruction and manage disruptive behavior. Higher teacher self-efficacy is related to improved student outcomes and job satisfaction as well as reduced job-related stress (Klassen et al. (20210). Prior to and after completing a three-phase professional development series containing the 40-hour Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) curriculum, we administered the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET; Ruble et al., 2013) via a Qualtrics survey to 64 educators who teach students with autism. The ASSET contains 30 common tasks for teaching a student with autism (e.g., teach this student play skills). Teachers are to assign each task a score of 0 – 100 with 0 indicating they cannot do it at all and 100 indicating they are highly certain they can do the task. Prior to participating in the RBT professional development, teachers reported a mean score of 71.3 across the 30 prompts. After participating in the RBT professional development, the mean score increased to 85.1. Results indicate that professional development on behavior analytic interventions can improve educator’s confidence in teaching students with autism.

 
125. Culturally Responsive Preventive Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviors
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
GUOFENG SHEN (University of Northern Colorado; Seven Dimensions Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Reactive policies (e.g., school suspension and restraint procedures) are often implemented in response to escalated behaviors displayed by students receiving special education services within school settings (Heilbrun et al., 2015; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2019). However, since these reactive policies typically address the physical form of student behaviors (i.e., what behaviors look like) as opposed to root causes of student behaviors, these policies often fail to both address problem behaviors and facilitate meaningful behavior change among students (Robinson et al., 2022). Function-based interventions allow students to access reinforcement within classroom settings and, in the process, enhance the quantity and quality of educational experiences among students with behavioral support needs. Thus, the preventive and proactive functional based interventions are the best interventions. Attendees will learn reactive policies and proactive approaches, implementing preventive strategies (e.g., Non-Contingent Reinforcement, Functional Communication Training, Differential Reinforcement) for supporting students who exhibit challenging behaviors within inclusive school settings. In addition, participants will also learn strategies for embedding the cultural responsiveness into these preventive interventions.
 
126. Using Self-Monitoring, Public Posting, and Verbal Feedback to Improve Training Performance of Competitive Athletes
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (Kinneret Academic College; David Yellin Academic College), Mey-Elle Naveh (Kinneret Academic College )
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: Behavior analytic procedures have been implemented in various individual (e.g., swimming) and team sports (e.g., football), and among beginning to advanced athletes. Previous studies commonly investigated self-management procedures such as self-monitoring, goal setting and public posting documenting promising results (Schenk & Miltenberger, 2019). Applications of behavioral procedures in cycling are rare (e.g., Broker et al., 1993) and mostly focus on the effects of non-verbal types of feedback (e.g., auditory) on cycling performance. Using an ABAB design, this study aimed to (a) investigate the potential effects of a self-management package including self-monitoring, public posting and verbal feedback on the cycling performance of three competitive male cyclists aged 14-16 and (b) to assess the cyclists' accuracy of self-monitoring. The dependent variables measured were training intervals assigned completed, assigned precision (i.e., by measures of heart rate and sprint duration), and irregularity of total practice time assigned. Various sporting technological instruments were used to measure the dependent variables. All data were presented as a percentage of response. Findings demonstrated consistent improved performance for two participants and variable improved performance for one participant. Athletes' accuracy of self-monitoring was improved during the intervention, with higher accuracy during the reintroduction of the intervention. Training performance was enhanced under the self-management conditions.
 
127. Increased Frequency of Implementation Errors Negatively Affects Fidelity Data Accuracy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ABBIE COOPER (West Virginia University), Marisela Alicia Aguilar (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: One common task for supervisors is to monitor the fidelity with which their trainees implement behavioral procedures. However, supervisors report receiving little training in collecting fidelity data. As a result, supervisors may need to learn to collect accurate fidelity data with little feedback from others. To determine the extent to which individuals accurately identified errors in implementation, we used a multielement design in which novice implementers scored fidelity checklists from video models with three levels of programmed fidelity (40%, 80%, and 100%) of differential reinforcement of other behavior. Participants made significantly more errors scoring the 40% videos compared to the 80% and 100% videos. These findings demonstrate that accuracy of measurement varies systematically with the frequency of errors, suggesting that individuals collecting fidelity data may need additional supports to detect and record all errors when procedural fidelity is low.
 
128. Training Future Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses Using Virtual Video Modeling and Video Feedback
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JASMINE SORRELL (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton-Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kayla BATES-BRANTLEY (Mississippi State University), Mark E. Wildmon (Mississippi State University), John Borgen (Borgen Future Development)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: Students commonly engage in problem behaviors, yet teachers report handling difficult behavior as their biggest challenge. Some research over the last few decades has used functional analyses to determine the function of student’s problem behavior and then developed functional-based interventions based on the functional analysis findings. Despite the success of the studies, research has indicated traditional functional analysis methodologies are not always feasible for teachers and/or schools, so a need exists to develop better and more efficient ways to train teachers to conduct functional analyses. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using virtual video models to train future teachers how to conduct trial based functional analyses and to assess if the skill could generalize into an in person setting. A multiple baseline design across participants was used, and results indicated the videos were effective at teaching the participants to conduct a trial based functional analysis. The virtual training then generalized well into an in person setting, with only one participant needing additional feedback. Additionally, results indicate the virtual intervention was socially valid for all participants. Limitations and directions for future research will also be discussed.
 
129. Special Educator Frequency of Implementing Evidence-Based Practices
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAILAH HALL (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Julia M Hrabal (Baylor University), MacKenzie Raye Wicker (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Crystal Evans (Baylor University), Tracey Sulak (Baylor University)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Special educator use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with positive outcomes for students with autism. The purpose of this study was to determine if completing the 40-hour Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) training would impact the frequency with which special educators implement evidence-based practices with their students with autism. We delivered a three-phase professional development series, based on the RBT Task List, 2nd edition, to 59 special educators. Before and after completing the training, educators’ frequencies of using the 28 evidence-based practices identified by Steinbrenner et al. (2020) were surveyed. Educators rated their use on a scale from never (1) to daily (5). We analyzed results using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the mean use of evidence-based practices after completing the training, µ = 4.08, was slightly larger than the mean use of evidence-based practices prior to completing the training, µ = 3.97. Comparison of specific evidence-based practices: discrete trial training, naturalistic intervention, prompting, and task analysis yielded similar results. For each practice, mean use after completing the series was only slightly greater than prior to training. Results indicate that special educators need additional support beyond traditional professional development approaches to increase implementation of evidence-based practices.
 
130. Examining the Use of Video Modeling with Verbal Feedback to Enhance Performance in Springboard Divers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN MICHELLE JOY ISOLA (Western Michigan University), Leanne Latocha (Western Michigan University), Jessica Detrick (Western Michigan University ), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: There is a growing body of literature examining the use of behavior analytic coaching techniques to enhance athlete performance across many different sports. To date, no studies have utilized behavior analytic coaching techniques in the sport of springboard diving. Springboard diving skills are complex behavior chains and require the accurate performance of multiple smaller, component skills. Several studies have used task analyses combined with video and verbal feedback to teach such complex motor skills (BenitezSantiago & Miltenberger, 2016; Quinn et al., 2019; Walker et al., 2020). Additionally, Walker et al. (2020) combined video and verbal feedback with simultaneous expert modeling to improve the performance of complex rock climbing skills by novice athletes. This study replicated and extended the use of this expert modeling with video and verbal feedback training package to enhance the performance of three springboard diving skills in a multiple baseline design. Following the application of the training package, all participants showed an increase in accurate performance of the targeted skills.
 
131. The Effect of Video Modeling and Self-Monitoring on the Conversational Skills of Adolescents With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (Kinneret Academic College; David Yellin Academic College), Yafit Shmuel (David Yellin Academic College, Israel), Inbar Bin-Nun (Kinneret Academic College)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract:

Conversational skills are important social behaviors for the establishment of communication and interpersonal relationships (Laugeson & Ellingsen, 2014). Individuals with autism experience difficulties in conversational skills which affects their quality of life and engagement in social settings. Video modeling is a common strategy utilized for teaching conversational skills to individuals with autism (Gardner & Wolfe, 2013). Self-monitoring is another procedure that can enhance learning and maintenance of a newly learned skill. This study aimed to improve the conversational skills of three adolescents with autism aged 16-18 who attended a special education high school. An intervention package including video modeling and self-monitoring was implemented via a reversal ABAB design. Its effects on conversational skills' response class (i.e., maintaining conversational turns, maintaining the conversational topic, responding to questions, asking topic-related questions) were measured during a 10-minute dialogue with the researcher using an event recording system. Data were presented as percentage of response. Conversational skills improved for all participants under the intervention conditions. Follow-up probing measurements of conversational skills in the natural setting once intervention commenced showed an average of 81%. The intervention was found effective in improving conversational skills. The monitoring forms may have constituted a discriminating stimulus for conversational skills.

 
132. Application of Behavioral Coaching Strategies in Dance Education: A Scoping Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Sarah Davis (Brock University), KENDRA THOMSON (Brock University ), Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University), Dana Kalil (Brock University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

Behavioral coaching strategies have been successfully applied in the dance context to enhance the performance of dance skills and promote the satisfaction of dancers. A scoping review of the behavioral literature that provides a description of the coaching strategies applied in the dance context and identifies gaps that need to be addressed has not yet been conducted. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses – Scoping Reviews process to guide the systematic search of these databases: Web of Science, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Sport Discus. A combination of key search terms (‘dance or dancing’ and ‘behav* coaching or behav* analysis or behav* modification or behav* intervention’) yielded 209 findings. Identified articles are in the process of being assessed for inclusion based on the following criteria: (a) implemented a behaviorally based coaching method (i.e., alters observable and measurable behaviour) with dancers and/or dance instructors, (b) utilized an experimental or quasi-experimental design, (c) published in a peer-reviewed journal, and (c) written in English. All articles that meet these inclusion criteria will be summarized. Areas of strength in adopting behavioural coaching strategies in dance education and possible limitations to be addressed by future research will be discussed.

 
133. Developing Awareness of Behavior Analysts to Serve Rural High Poverty Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
KIMBERLY GRIFFITH (University of West Florida, University of West Alabama)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Many behavior analysts receive cultural awareness training to work with individuals of different races, ethnicities, religious beliefs, views, values and practices that are different from their own. Little to no awareness of rural culture and its effect on education as it applies to behavioral supports is incorporated into degree programs and training sessions for individuals preparing for or currently serving as applied behavior analysts. There are numerous challenges providing for individuals, especially those with autism, in rural agricultural and aquafarming environments. Rural areas are like deserts, with limited or no individuals inclined to service educational institutions and others within the community. Many who agree to provide supports may experience rural culture-shock due to inadequate preparation in the facets of a rural high poverty community. This lack of cultural awareness of the needs of rural environments and absence of acculturation can contribute to inadequate numbers of behavior specialists that will service these areas. Including cultural awareness training on rural high poverty communities and their needs could increase the number of behavior analysts for this region and address cultural insensitivity toward these communities.
 
134. Using a Smart Virtual Reality for Behavioral Skills Training: Demonstration of Feasibility for A Verbal Mathematical Questioning Strategy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SETH KING (University of Iowa), Anne Estapa (University of Iowa), Tyler Bell (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: Researchers increasingly identify virtual reality (VR) simulations as a potentially effective professional development tool. However, simulations used in education and behavior analysis typically require active oversight from technicians and instructors. “Smart” VR integrated with artificial intelligence could independently administer simulation components, alleviate logistical challenges associated with high-quality professional development such as behavioral skills training (BST), and provide trainees with opportunities to extensively practice skills across a range of disciplines. The current study used a randomized, combined multiple probe across behaviors and participants design to examine a smart VR application’s ability to deliver components of BST and assess participants (n=2) acquisition of a mathematical questioning strategy designed to examine covert student problem solving in general education settings. Results suggest that automated assessment of participants corresponded with results of direct observation. Although insufficient to demonstrate a functional relation between training and participant performance, the iterative experiment pro- vides qualified support for the use of automated BST as a tool for skill acquisition. Findings indicate smart VR represents a promising means of improving professional development and a fruitful area of interdisciplinary collaboration.
 
135. Effects of a One-Time Aversive Intervention for Addressing a High Frequency Problem Behavior in a High School and Implications for Behavior Analytic Practice in Secondary Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JAMI BAHNEY (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Tardiness in secondary schools is a socially significant behavior for behavior analysts to consider. Tardy sweeps are a common intervention to reduce tardiness, but the immediate and long-term effects on behavior remain unclear. This retrospective data analysis used existing schoolwide data to investigate effects of this one-time aversive intervention on student punctuality using a series of AB graphs replicated across grades. The following questions were addressed: 1. Can meaningful behavioral data be collected from a school-wide data collection system on a socially significant, high-rate behavior (tardiness)? 2. Can pre-existing data be utilized by behavior analysts to address behavioral interventions? 3. What are the immediate and prolonged effects of tardy sweeps on reducing tardy behavior and are there differential effects by grade level? For baseline, data were pulled approximately one month before the intervention. Unexcused tardy reports were taken from school-wide data collection system for the class following lunch from the date of the tardy sweep until the end of the school year. Graphs across grade levels indicate that the intervention may have reduced reports of tardy behavior temporarily, before steadily rebounding to pre-intervention levels, with 12th grade students showing less rebounding. Implications for practicing behavior analysts and researchers are discussed.
 
136. The Effects of Behavior Skills Training on Treatment Fidelity of Staff Using Token Economy Systems in Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXA NAKVOSAS (Trinity Christian College)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

This research focused on the use of behavior skills training (BST) to train special education paraprofessionals to use token systems with high levels of fidelity in a classroom setting while observing effects on student problem behavior. A focus was placed on the accessibility of BST for busy educators with limited collaborative time. The primary author was the lead special educator involved in this study. The participants were two paraprofessionals with over 15 years of experience in education, but a range of 3-15 years working with individuals with disabilities. A multiple baseline design was utilized to teach three distinct components of token systems: setting up the environment, reinforcement delivery, and redirection from problem behavior. Results showed a distinct increase in staff fidelity following training, as well as a corresponding decrease in student problem behavior. This research came with positive implications for educators and the accessibility of evidence based training programs for relevant staff.

 
137. The Effects of Student-Generated Self-Questioning on Comprehension of Secondary School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TOLULOPE OLAYEMI SULAIMON (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: The active processing perspective of self-questioning instruction suggests that comprehension occurs when students generate questions during reading because it allows students to engage in deeper processing of the text as their attention is drawn to the content. For this reason, four secondary students with reading fluency were taught self-generate questions. They were taught to generate appropriate questions using question starters and question-answer relationships to find information and understand text structures and how they convey information. Because of the reading fluency deficit, text-to-speech accommodation was provided to bridge the fluency gap.
 
Diversity submission 138. Computer Assisted Delivery of Discrete Trials to Teach Early Literacy Skills to Students With Significant Intellectual Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (The University of South Dakota), Tammi D. Haverly Waltjer Waltjer (Children's Care Hospital)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction to deliver discrete trial training of academic skills to students with significant intellectual disabilities. Based upon the principles of Applied Behavioral Analysis, discrete trial training was identified as an evidence-based practice in teaching skills to students with disabilities. The criteria for single-subject case research within a multiple baseline design across behaviors and participants was implemented for this study. The individual subject and the repeated measures across skills served as the experimental control to verify results. The multiple baseline design evaluated the effect of the intervention computer assisted to deliver discrete trial training to teach early literacy skills to students with significant disabilities. Results of the study indicated the use of computer assisted instruction in the delivery of discrete trial training is effective in teaching individuals with significant intellectual disabilities early literacy skills.

 
139. Caregiver Training on Antecedent Strategies to Promote Children's Instruction Following in the Home
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HUNTER KING (University of Utah), Aaron J. Fischer (University of Utah), John Davis (University of Utah), Daniel D. Houlihan (Mankato State University), Keith Radley III (University of Utah ), William R. Jenson (University of Utah), Lauren Elizabeth Martone (University of Utah), Anniette F Maldonado (University of Utah)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract:

In the absence of early intervention, excessive difficulties with instruction following can impede children’s academic engagement, social-emotional development, and participation in organized activities. To capitalize on the effects of early intervention, in two evaluations, caregivers were trained via telehealth to deliver two antecedent strategies to increase instruction following in the home. Three caregivers of neurotypical children ages 3–5 participated. Dependent measures included initiation latency and compliance with high- and low-probability commands. In a preliminary analysis of a modified pretrial delivery procedure, caregivers jointly engaged with their child in a moderately preferred activity prior to the issuance of a predetermined command. Results showed that initiation latencies for low-probability commands trended downward for two of three children, while latencies for high-probability commands remained low for two of three children. In a second, more rigorous evaluation, the three low-probability commands with the highest latencies during pretrial delivery were further targeted with the high-probability command sequence. Using a multiple baseline across behaviors design, results showed increased levels of instruction following and decreased initiation latencies with low-probability commands for all three children. The current study extends previous research on telehealth-mediated behavioral supports by representing the first demonstration for pretrial delivery and the high probability command sequence.

 
140. The Effects of an Intervention Package on the Science Skills of Students With Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAILEE LIESEMER (Western University), Nicole M. Neil (University of Western Ontario), Gabrielle T. Lee (Western University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

Traditional methods of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education present barriers to the general curriculum for students with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Students with NDD often require differentiated instruction to access STEM learning alongside their peers; however, research guiding equitable access to STEM education for this population is lacking. Most of the current literature focuses on teaching science vocabulary or content knowledge instead of science practice skills (e.g., asking questions, making predictions, and observing results) in the context of STEM education. As a result, traditional STEM instruction is often beyond reach for students with NDD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a multi-component intervention package used to teach science practices to students with NDD. The intervention package consisted of a video-enhanced activity schedule with embedded video modelling, multiple exemplar training, a graphic organizer, least-to-most prompting, and naturalistic reinforcement. A multiple probe design across participants was used to determine the efficacy of the intervention package delivered virtually to two students with NDD in the fourth grade. Further, a single case study comprised of a treatment and baseline phase showed positive preliminary evidence for using the intervention package for a student with an intellectual disability, although more high-quality research is required. The practical and policy implications of supporting students with NDD using a multi-component intervention package and future research directions will be discussed.

 
 

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