Association for Behavior Analysis International

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #88
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
25.

Evaluation of the Accuracy, Reliability, and Efficiency of Total Duration to Score Novel Object Interactions With Mice

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ABIGAIL LEIGH MARTINEZ (University of Alaska Anchorage), Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage), Paige Dingess (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

Novel object recognition (NOR) tasks are commonly used with rodents to assess aspects of learning and memory, and these tasks involve measuring the cumulative amount of time a rodent interacts with two presented objects. Many researchers use digital timers to score the total duration of interactions from recorded videos, but such an approach requires an assessment of reliability to determine the accuracy with which these data are collected, and reliability scores have rarely been reported. In the current study, we evaluated the accuracy, reliability, and efficiency of total duration when used by five human observers to score object interactions using a repeated-measures design. During each session, participants watched a recorded NOR task and scored the cumulative amount of time a rodent interacted with two objects using two digital timers. We compared the exact number of seconds scored to criterion records and measured the total duration of scoring time to determine the participants’ accuracy and efficiency, respectively. Interobserver agreement was also calculated across all permutations of participants. Results supported the efficiency of total duration measures, but total duration measures produced low accuracy (M = 60%, range, 6%-100%) and reliability (M = 38%; range, 11%-82%) scores across participants.

 
26.

Active Language Modes use as a Learning Strategy

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
AGUSTIN DANIEL GOMEZ FUENTES (Universidad Veracruzana), Esteban Aguilar (Universidad Veracruzana Mexico), Minerva Perez Juarez (University of Veracruz, Mexico)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

The episodes that in ordinary language practices are identified as "comprehension" constitute functional contacts in which the person uses psychological reactive systems of a linguistic type, such as observing, listening or reading, and afterward acts in functional correspondence with what he has observed, listened or read. When these types of episodes are part of an educational practice, they are called habilitation. The analysis of the didactic discourse in its textual modality is related to what is traditionally known as “learning strategies” for reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to identify the differential effect on learning that could be exerted by the use and variation of active linguistic modes such as student performance against textual study material. Eight randomly selected university students participated in fourth pairs. A design between subjects with three phases was used: pre-test, intervention and post-test. The results suggest that the active speaking mode acquires functional relevance when it constitutes a complex response pattern that includes the production of an educational discourse from contact with the text.

 
27. Self-Recording of Productivity: How Intermittent and Summative Measures Affect Reactivity
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH DILLON (Full Spectrum Behavior Analysis; University of Virginia)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract: Researchers examined the effects of self-recording on student academic performance and behavior. Self-recording is a self-management procedure that capitalizes on reactivity to modify performance. Scores of studies show that self-recording affects behaviors across settings and contexts. This study compared the effects of two separate self-recording procedures, intermittent and summative self-recording, on individuals’ productivity. The current study employed a multiple-baseline, alternating treatment design, developed to isolate the effects of student self-recording within a controlled setting. Through analysis of the data, researchers concluded that the addition of the self-recording procedure had a positive effect on rate of responding. Additionally, the results show that summative self-recording may have a larger effect on productivity than intermittent recording.
 
28.

Data Interpretation Using the RD Effect Size Compared With a Non-Overlap Measure and Visual Analysis

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MACK S. COSTELLO (Rider University), Michael T. Carlin (Rider University), Raymond Bagley II (Rider University), Laura Fernández (Rider University), Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

Effective quantification of behavioral data has been a goal of behavior analysts for decades. Carlin and Costello (2018) proposed a statistical effect size (RD) for single case designs that is similar to effect sizes used in between group research. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which RD’s proposed critical value (1.2) agrees with visual analysis from experts regarding a pairwise comparison. Visual analysis is the primary method of analysis in SCEDs, and quantitative analysis is a useful complement. Similar studies have been undertaken with overlap measures and found useful information regarding the limits of such measures.

 
29. Treatment of Chronic Hand Mouthing
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ELVIN ALVAREZ (ALOS Integrated Therapy, Inc.), Juan Sastoque (ABA Peace of Mind, Inc)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract: Hand Mouthing (HM) behavior is especially present in individuals who lack discrimination skills. Single Stimulus Engagement (SSE) preference assessments have been used to identify preferred items by recording duration of engagement. However, the research has not evaluated two dependent variables simultaneously, the behavior targeted for increase, Item Engagement (IE), and the behavior targeted to decrease, HM. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a progression of treatments that, when presented systematically, demonstrate a functional relation with reduction of HM behavior. A Single Stimulus Engagement (SSE) preference assessment was conducted as a pre-experimental procedure prior to the implementation of the Item Engagement (I.E.) and Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO) interventions. The findings suggest that the SSE preference assessment is efficient at identifying preferred items for individuals that lack discrimination skills. However, the SSE alone did not show a functional relation with the reduction of duration of HM. The duration of HM was similar to the baseline levels when the IE condition was in effect. A DRO contingency was introduced and systematically evaluated obtaining social significantly low levels of HM.
 
30. Function-Based Teacher Support
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN ROBERTSON (University of Arizona), Carl Liaupsin (University of Arizona)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract: This preliminary study investigated adjusting function-based intervention practices using a Function-Based Teacher Support Plan (Liaupsin, 2015) to improve teacher treatment integrity (TI). The participants were a general education teacher and an elementary-age student receiving special education services for an emotional disturbance (ED) who engaged in chronic disruptive off-task behavior. An A-B-C-B-C reversal design was used to determine whether there was a functional relationship between the function-based support plan (independent variable) and teacher TI (dependent variable). The student participant’s on-task behavior was also collected to determine whether there was a functional relationship between TI and his behavior. During the A condition, student on-task behavior was collected prior to implementing any intervention components. During the B conditions, a FBIP was implemented with the addition of teacher preference information from the Pre-Intervention Development Survey (Liaupsin, 2015). During the C conditions, a FBIP was implemented with additional adaptations derived from information collected using the Post-Intervention Development Survey (Liaupsin, 2015). Results demonstrated adding a function-based teacher support plan to the FBIP resulted in higher levels of treatment integrity and improved student behavior outcomes. Implications, limitations, and future directions for research are discussed.
 
31.

Use of a Card-Sorting Task to Teach Prompting Levels for Three Types of Discrete Trial Teaching Sessions

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN M. LIONELLO-DENOLF (Assumption College), David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), Roger D. Ray ((AI)2, Inc. / Rollins College), Taylor O'Rourke (Assumption College)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

In special education settings, prompts are often used in discrete trial (DT) programs. The efficacy of a card-sorting procedure to teach prompt definitions for 3 DT programs (receptive labeling, social questions, and motor imitation) was tested. Stimuli were cards with correct and incorrect definitions and graphics of prompts from the DT programs. Examples included more and less restrictive examples of gestural, vocal, and motor prompts for both initial trials and correction trials. In a pretest, undergraduate participants sorted cards from all programs based on examples of correct versus incorrect definitions for both trial types. Then, they studied a handout containing correct definitions from one program, followed by repeated card sorts for that program to 90% accuracy. A posttest with all the cards, training on second program, and a final posttest followed. Figure 1 depicts results from 8 participants, including 4 who did not complete the entire sequence. The number of training/sort cycles to reach criterion ranged from 1–6. Generalization to untrained programs in the posttest was variable, but suggests positive transfer. Although this procedure may effectively teach prompt definitions, refinements are needed to reduce training time and increase posttest accuracy. Maintenance of learning over time should also be assessed.

 
32.

Instructional Control Derived from Equivalence Between English Spoken Sentences and Videotaped Actions in Brazilian-Portuguese Speaking Children

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAULA CUEVAS LÓPEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara, CEIC), Deisy De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Lidia Maria Marson Postalli (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Gerardo A Ortiz Rueda Rueda (Universidad de Guadalajara-Mexico)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

Understanding and following verbal commands or instructions is an important and adaptive behavioral function. Comprehension is related to the ability to arbitrarily group stimuli in classes, a prominent feature of symbolic behavior. The stimulus equivalence paradigm, as a model of symbolic behavior, may explain the origins of the comprehension of instructions. The present research aimed to evaluate whether vocal English instructions (verb and object) included as members of a class of equivalent stimuli acquire the same meaning as the other stimuli in the class (videos and abstract pictures), and whether participants would follow instructions using the same sentences and recombined sentences. The procedure, conducted with three children, included: 1) teaching conditional discriminations between dictated English phrases and actions filmed on videotape; and teaching conditional discriminations between spoken sentences and abstract pictures, 2) probing for class formation, and 3) testing for instructional control. All children comprehended the English phrases, relating, through equivalence, the actions and abstract pictures. Two children followed the spoken instructions, but none did so for the abstract pictures and neither followed new instructions (spoken or pictorial). Results replicated previous findings indicating that class formation could promote instruction-following behavior, but that recombinative performances may depend on other teaching conditions.

 
33. Overtraining Effects on Responding Speed in Formation and Reorganization of Equivalence Classes
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
GIOVAN WILLIAN RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Deisy De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract: Equivalence classes can be modified by reversing the conditional discriminations that established them. We aimed to test whether the overtraining of baseline (before tests of class formation) or of reversed relations influences the reorganization of classes. We used the speed of choice responding as a measure of the degree of relatedness between stimuli. 19 college students divided in two groups learned the conditional discriminations AB (A1B1, A2B2, A3B3), AC (A1C1, A2C2, A3C3), and AD (A1D2, A2D2, A3D3). Formation Overtraining Group (FOt) overtrained these conditional discriminations. For both groups, equivalence tests involving the relations between B, C and D attested the formation of three classes: A1B1C1D1, A2B2C2D2, and A3B3C3D3. Following the tests, contingencies for the AD conditional discriminations were reversed (A1D2, A2D3, A3D1). Reorganization Overtraining Group (ROt) overtrained the reversed AD along with baseline AB and AC. A reorganization test verified, for both groups, the emergence of three new classes: A1B1C1D2, A2B2C2D3, A3B3C3D1. An ANOVA showed that ROt Group responded significantly faster than FOt Group on the first block of the reorganization tests. Differences were not significant when the speed was compared on the equivalence tests. These results suggest that overtraining reversed conditional discriminations enhances the classes' reorganization.
 
34.

The Formation of Stimulus Equivalence Concepts Through Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HANNA STEINUNN STEINGRIMSDOTTIR (Oslo Metropolitan University), Felix Hognason (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

Experiments have shown that equivalence-based instructions may be used to teach academic skills. Fienup et al. (2010) exposed university students to 16 conditional discriminations with stimuli showing different areas of the brain, its function and the effect a damage to the respective area would have. Then, they tested for emergence of four 5-member stimulus classes. Training of the baseline relations took only about 15 minutes and all participants formed the experimenter-defined classes. Current study replicates the procedure by Fienup et al. Furthermore, two sets of stimuli were used to study the effect of the complexity of the stimuli on class formation. The results from the first 10 participants showed rapid acquisition of the baseline conditional discrimination with seven participants responding in accordance with equivalence. The preliminary results showed minimal effect of the different stimulus sets on stimulus equivalence class formation.

 
35.

The Nodal Number Effect Produced by Different Matching-to-Sample Protocols, Measured by Sorting Tests, and Post-Class Equivalence Tests

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NIKOLA LJUSIC (OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract:

The nodal distance hypothesis suggests that responding in accordance with emergent conditional discrimination decreases as a function of an increasing nodal number. This present study investigated (a) the nodal number effect as a function of a simultaneous matching-to-sample (MTS) protocol or a simple-to-complex protocol, (b) the concordance of the nodal number effect during MTS tests and responses in accordance with nodal structure during a sorting test, and (c) the concordance of the nodal number effect during a post-class equivalence test and responses during sorting tests. Twenty participants were exposed for an MTS procedure to establish 3-class 5-member stimulus equivalence classes. Ten participants were assigned to an MTS simultaneous protocol, a sorting test, a post-class equivalence test, and a second sorting test. Ten other participants were assigned to an MTS simple-to-complex protocol, a sorting test, a post-class equivalence test, and a second sorting test. The results show that more individuals which were exposed for the simple-to-complex protocol produced the nodal number effect. However, the results show a greater nodal number effect for participants which were exposed for the simultaneous condition, when that the sum of participants responding which were exposed for the same sequence of conditions was measured.

 
36. Compound Class-Specific Consequences and Equivalence-Class Formation: Does the Composition of the Compound Matter?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RICHELLE ELIZABETH HURTADO (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract: Instructive feedback (IF) (e.g., Werts, Wolery, Holcombe, & Gast, 1995) and stimulus equivalence (e.g., Sidman, 2000) share the goal of increasing instructional efficiency. From an equivalence perspective, the IF procedure might be viewed as arranging a compound consequence, consisting of a common element (e.g., praise for correct responses to the primary target) and a class-specific element (e.g., the secondary target). This study examined how presenting a compound consequence with one common element and one class-specific element affects equivalence-class formation. Three conditions compared A and B simple-discrimination training with an entirely class-specific compound consequence (i.e., A/B1→R1r1, A/B2→R2r2, and A/B3→R3r3); A and B discrimination training with mixed compound consequences; (i.e., A/B4→R0r4, A/B5→R0r5, and A/B6→R0r6); and A and B discrimination training with a common compound consequence for all discriminations (i.e., A/B7→R0R0, A/B8→R0R0, and A/B9→R0R0). Conditional discrimination probe sessions measured emergent relations between A, B, R, and r stimuli. In recent results, two of three children who began training with the mixed consequences did not demonstrate equivalence relations between A, B, R, and r stimuli, while three children in the first condition and none in the third condition demonstrated these relations.
 
38. Discrimination Training Establishing Neutral Stimuli as Conditioned Reinforcers
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MAKENZIE HOUGH (The New England Center for Children), Joshua Jackson (Western New England University), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract: In applied settings, conditioned reinforcers (e.g., tokens, praise, etc.) are commonly used for skill acquisition and problem behavior reduction (Dozier et al., 2012). Although several applied studies have analyzed the effects of conditioned reinforcers on behavior, there is a paucity of research on the processes by which they are established. The purpose of the present study is to assess the effect of discrimination training on the establishment of conditioned reinforcers. Discrimination training for the present study consisted of procedures adapted from those by Holth et al. (2009) which were found to be effective in establishing social stimuli (e.g. head nods) as conditioned reinforcers for five of seven participants in their study. Preliminary results show these methods were effective in establishing reinforcing functions in neutral stimuli for two individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Results show that during the initial conditioned reinforcement assessment, there was a lack of discrimination between the conditions and following the discrimination training procedure described by Holth et al. (2009) there was differentiation in responding across conditions (e.g. brief, continuous, and tandem). Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 30% of sessions with 96% agreement.
 
39.

An Evaluation of the Consistency and Accuracy of Children Preferences for and Reinforcing Efficacy of Different Types of Attention Across Different Adults

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Julie Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Dorothy Zhang (The Chicago School), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), TIVA PIERCE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract:

Attention has been used as a sort-of “catch-all” term often in behavior-analytic research to describe social interactions between two individuals (Allen, Hart, Buell, Harris & Wolf, 1964; Barton, 1981; DiCarlo & Reid, 2004; Duffy & Nietupski, 1985; Gable & Shores, 1980; McLaughlin, 1982; Poulson, 1983; Rheingold, 1956; Schutte & Hopkins, 1970; Thomas et al, 1968). When authors write about “attention,” they may be referencing vocal-verbal interactions (e.g., praise, conversations, reprimands), physical contact between two individuals (e.g., hugs, pats on the back), or even changes in facial expressions (e.g., smiles, winks, frowns). There has been much previous research demonstrating the reinforcing effects of attention for increasing desirable behavior (e.g., Gable & Shores, 1980; McLaughlin, 1982), as well as undesirable behavior (e.g., Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, Owen-DeSchryver, 1996; Kodak, Northup, & Kelly, 2007; Lovaas & Simmons, 1969; Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) in many populations across settings. Previous researchers have also demonstrated that different topographies of attention (i.e., eye contact, praise, physical, conversation, and reprimands) affect an individual's responding differentially (e.g., Fisher et al., 1996; Kodak et al., 2007), and some types of attention (i.e., praise, physical attention, and conversation) are more preferred and/or reinforcing than other types of attention (e.g., Clay, Samaha, Bloom, Bogoev, & Boyle, 2013; Harper, 2014; Nuernberger, Smith, Czapar, and Klatt, 2012). However, in the current literature, the therapist or researcher has remained constant, and it is possible that the different ways in which attention is delivered may affect preference hierarchies and reinforcing efficacies. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to determine if different types of attention are consistently preferred across different adults and if those preferences are consistent with the reinforcing efficacies both within and across adults.

 
40.

An Evaluation of Within-Session Motivation Effects on the Value of Choice in Children

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Julie Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), TIVA PIERCE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract:

The ability to make choices between various items throughout a session may allow children to access items based on moment-to-moment – or trial-to-trial – changes in motivating operations (MO), particularly when edible reinforcers are being used. Changes in MOs have been shown to affect the amount of responding allocated to reinforcer (Vollmer & Iwata, 1991); therefore, preferences for choice opportunities may be the result of participants accessing reinforcers based on momentary fluctuations in preference (i.e., momentary fluctuations in satiation and deprivation; Ackerlund Brandt et al., 2015). Therefore, it is possible that choice may be less preferred in situations in which immediate access to reinforcers is not available (e.g., token economies) and therefore, changes in MOs based on satiation and deprivation would be less likely to occur. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether children’s preference for choice-making opportunities would be affected by the immediate provision of edible reinforcers vs. token reinforcers during a session.

 
41.

Behavioral Sensitivity to Reinforcer Amount in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Under Operant Choice Paradigm

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract:

In order to examine flexible decision making, operant manipulations of reinforcer amount, delay, and probability have been used for animals such as rodents. Zebrafish are becoming a popular vertebrate animal model for many biomedical and behavioral investigations. However, equivalent procedures have not been developed for zebrafish. We have developed a procedure capable of measuring behavioral sensitivity to reinforcer amount in adult zebrafish, based on an appetitive automated Go / No-Go task. The test session consisted of 16 forced-choice trials and 16 free-choice trials. In the forced-choice trials, a trial was initiated when fish passed through an observing gate and only one of two choice windows was illuminated. If fish entered through the illuminated window, either a large or small amount of reinforcer was presented based on the assignment; otherwise timeout was implemented. In free-choice trials, both windows were illuminated, and entering the first side of the windows was reinforced by either a large or small amount of reinforcer assigned to the window. Choice rate to a window increased when the reinforcer amount increased (p < .04). The present result indicates that zebrafish are sensitive to reinforcer amount.

 
42.

Anxiety, Impulsivity, and Intolerance of Uncertainty

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL FENSKEN (The College at Brockport, State University of New York), Lori-Ann B. Forzano (The College at Brockport, State University of New York), Geoff Becker (The College at Brockport, State University of New York), Cara Bakalik (The College at Brockport, State University of New York)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract:

Anxiety disorders represent the most frequently diagnosed mental health problem among American college students. Impulsivity has been linked with an anxiety as a potential risk factor. Impulsivity is defined as choosing smaller, sooner rewards, over larger, later rewards and is commonly measured with delay discounting tasks. It has been suggested that the delay discounting e?ect, i.e., the tendency to value less delayed rewards, in anxious individuals is driven by their intolerance of uncertainty. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is defined as how acceptable uncertain situations are. In the current study, it is hypothesized that those with higher levels of anxiety will exhibit more delay discounting and higher intolerance of uncertainty than those with lower levels of anxiety. Preliminary analyses of 29 participants currently reveals no significant relationships between anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty and impulsivity measures (i.e.. computerized delay discounting and impulsivity tasks). Data collection is ongoing. This study will increase our understanding of anxiety which could lead to an improvement in the treatment and prevention of anxiety.

 
43. Marijuana, Cigarette, and E-Cigarette Use and Delay Discounting in College Students
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL FENSKEN (The College at Brockport, State University of New York), Sarah Hoefer (The College at Brockport, State University of New York), Lori-Ann B. Forzano (The College at Brockport, State University of New York)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract: Substance use is a dangerous public health issue. Impulsivity is implicated in substance use. Impulsivity has been defined as choosing smaller, less delayed reinforcers over larger, more delayed reinforcers, and is commonly measured with delay discounting tasks. Marijuana is one of the only major drugs that researchers have been unable to find a consistent link between use and increased discounting. This discrepancy from other drugs may be due to the large reinforcer amounts previously used in delay discounting tasks, that do not reflect realistic consumable amounts of the less expensive drug, marijuana. Hence, the current investigation of whether substance use, i.e., marijuana, cigarette, and e-cigarette use, was associated with delay discounting, was conducted with lower amount values. The 51 college students completed computerized delay discounting tasks for small amounts of hypothetical food and money, and comparisons were made between self-reported lifetime users and nonusers of marijuana, cigarettes, and e-cigarettes. The lifetime user groups were also sub-divided based on the amount of times the substance was used within the past 30 days. The study found significant relationships between delay discounting and past 30-day marijuana use and e-cigarette lifetime use. Implications for risk of substance abuse and substance use treatment are considered.
 
44.

Intermittent Reinforcement of Reversion Responses in Delay Discounting and Delay of Gratification Procedures

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAUL AVILA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Violeta Olguin (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University)
Abstract:

The effects of varying the probability of reinforcement of reversion responses on choices in a delay-discounting and in a delay-of-gratification procedures were assessed. Reversion responses were defined as the first response to the smaller immediate reinforcer during the delay period to obtain the larger later one. Both procedures consisted of series of choices between the delivery of a relatively large amount of water after a delay or a smaller amount of water delivered immediately; the delay of delivery of the larger reinforcer varied between 0 and 32 s. In Experi-ment 1, five rats were exposed to each of the procedures in three blocks of 25 ses-sions each. In Experiment 2, ten rats were exposed to six consecutive experimental conditions, in which the probability of reinforcement of a reversion response varied from 0.00 to 1.00. In all delays tested, the proportion of reversion responses decreased as the probability of reinforcement of these responses increased. This finding suggests that delay-discounting and delay-of-gratification procedures are part of a continuum of the probability of reinforcement of reversion responses.

 
45.

Self-Control, Impulsiveness, and Delay Discounting in Elementary School Children

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MICHIKO SORAMA (Kyoto Notre Dame University), Masato Ito (Osaka City University), Daisuke Saeki (Osaka City University)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

The present study investigated the self-control and impulsiveness in elementary school children with the delay discounting and self-control tasks. In the delay discounting task, children were presented with a series of choices between an immediate smaller reward and a delayed larger reward in a booklet. The immediate smaller reward was consistently “200 yen now”. The delay time to the larger reward was different ranging from 30 minutes to one year in each question, but the amount of reward was consistently “500 yen”. In the self-control task, each participant was presented with a comic illustrating a parent and child’ conversation regarding children’s self-control in daily life. Participants were presented with a choice between one toy now and two toys ten months later. Choosing the one toy now is regarded as impulsiveness, whereas choosing the two toys later is regarded as self-control. Preliminary analysis of 647 children, ages 6-12 years, suggests that children’s impulsiveness in the delay discounting task decreased as a function of age. In the self-control task children’s impulsiveness decreased from 6 to 7 years-old, but increased from 7 to 12 years-old. The relationship between children's choice and their teachers’ ratings will be also discussed.

 
46.

Resurgence of a Vigilance Response in Humans

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KATYA QUIÑONES-OROZCO (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Rogelio Escobar (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

A recurring issue in the literature on resurgence of operant responding in humans is lack of sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies and extinction. In the 1950s, Holland demonstrated that vigilance tasks could be useful to show systematic effects of reinforcement schedules on human operant responding. Participants pressed a button to observe the state of a pointer on a dial (vigilance response). The pointer deflected on a variable interval (VI) schedule and served as reinforcement for the vigilance response. When a deflection was detected, pressing another button produced points exchangeable for money. In the present experiment, Holland’s procedure was used in a resurgence three-phase procedure using a console with four buttons. During Phase 1, presses on a target vigilance button were reinforced. During Phase 2, presses on an alternative vigilance button were reinforced and presses on the target button were extinguished. In Phase 3, presses on both buttons were extinguished. During all phases presses on a control button showed the state of the pointer but were not reinforced. Resurgence of the target-vigilance response was observed in the four participants. Additionally, responses apparently induced by responding on the target button were observed on the control button only during the resurgence phase.

 
47. Differences in resurgence between previously reinforced behavior and previously reinforced and extinguished behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SARAH SUMNER (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: The term “resurgence” generally refers to the reappearance of certain behaviors during extinction. Different definitions describe these behaviors as previously reinforced, previously extinguished, or simply previously learned (see Catania, 1998; Epstein, 1984; and Lieving & Lattal, 2003). At first glance, these definitions seem the same. And, researchers have not given much thought to the differences between them. However, these definitions could refer to different initial teaching procedures, and these differences may produce different results during extinction. The present study used the Portable Operant Research and Teaching Lab (PORTL) to examine how differences in the initial teaching procedure affected the behavior of college students during extinction. In the first condition, participants learned four behaviors. Each behavior was extinguished before the next behavior was taught. When all four behaviors were put on extinction, they resurged in the reverse order from how they were taught. A second condition followed the same procedure as the first with one difference. Each behavior was not extinguished before the next behavior was taught. When these four behaviors were put on extinction, they resurged in the order they were learned. These results indicate that the initial training procedure can influence the order in which behaviors appear during extinction.
 
48. Effects of Differential Reinforcer Magnitude of an Alternative Response on the Resurgence of Academic Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY L. BAXTER (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University), Taysha Cerisier (Syracuse University), Samantha Sallade (Syracuse University), Joshua Circe (Syracuse University)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Several studies have looked at ways to mitigate resurgence of a target behavior by manipulating dimensions of reinforcement for an alternative behavior. To date, only one study has examined differences in resurgence following different magnitudes of reinforcement for the alternative behavior, and only one study has addressed resurgence in an academic setting. The current study evaluated resurgence of a target academic response when all responses were placed on extinction subsequent to a phase of high- or low-magnitude reinforcement for an alternative response. Four neuro-typical fourth-grade students participated and their rate of problem completion was measured across sessions. In Phase 1, students were reinforced for completing addition problems. In Phase 2, students were reinforced for completing subtraction problems, but not addition problems. Finally in Phase 3A/3B, reinforcement was not provided for any response (i.e., extinction). In Phase 3A, extinction was not signaled and resurgence was only observed in 3 of the 4 students. In Phase 3B, extinction was signaled and resurgence of the target response occurred for all four participants, with variable levels across the high- and low-magnitude conditions. Implications and directions for future research will be discussed.
 
49. Primacy Effects in Operant Renewal Procedures
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RODRIGO BENAVIDES (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Rogelio Escobar (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: The order in which responses are trained in different contexts can determine the recurrence of behavior after extinction. While some authors suggest that greater renewal occurs with the first trained stimulus (primacy), other authors inspired by the behavioral momentum model suggest that renewal should be greater with the stimulus closest to extinction (recency). To study this inconsistency, the renewal of lever pressing in rats with training in multiple contexts was studied. In Experiment 1, lever pressing was trained on three levers in three successive phases. Each response was trained in a different context. Subsequently, after extinguishing responses in a fourth context, each of the three original contexts was presented semi-randomly. In Experiment 2, the lever press response was similarly trained and extinguished, but exposure to the contexts during the test phase was done in ascending or descending order. Data indicated that the first contextual stimulus in which the response was trained produced greater renewal than the stimuli closest to extinction. The inconsistency between the predictions derived from the behavioral moment model and renewal findings is discussed.
 
50. Inexpensive Muscle Sensor as an Aid for Recording Bruxism-Related Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
BRISSA GUTIÉRREZ (Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México), Rogelio Escobar (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Diurnal bruxism is self-injurious behavior that involves clenching or grinding of teeth that could cause oral-facial pain and physic damage in bone and gum structures. Usual recording methods consist of marking a sheet of paper whenever audible teeth grinding occurs. While muscular-tension sensors could produce a more accurate record, this equipment is generally expensive and difficult to use in applied settings. Recent developments in electronics have produced sensors that have solved some of these issues. This poster describes an electronic device designed to record the occurrence of bruxism-related behavior. The device includes a muscle sensor calibrated to record movements of the jaw associated with teeth clenching and grinding. The device was tested with two participants, one of them diagnosed with bruxism. Participants performed two tasks during 5 minutes each. The first consisted on watching a “relaxing” video and the second, solving a modified Stroop test in a computer that served as an “stressing” situation. As in previous studies, bruxism-related behavior increased during the stressing situation relative to the relaxing condition. The results suggest that the device can be used effectively as an aid for recording bruxism-related behavior. The component list, electronic diagrams, and the programs used are provided for free.
 
51.

Identifying the Functional Reinforcers for Self-Injurious Behavior Maintained by Both Automatic and Social Reinforcers in the Presence of Self-Restraint

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KELLER OLIVER STREET (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Automatically-maintained self-injurious behavior (SIB) is often difficult to assess and treat due to several variables. Two of these evaluated in past research include difficulties associated with SIB that is multiply maintained by both automatic and social reinforcement and SIB that is associated with self-restraint. In the current study, we evaluated these variables with a child with autism spectrum disorder who was exhibiting severe automatically-maintained SIB. First, we present data on multiple functional analyses conducted to determine the relationship between self-restraint and self-injury. We found evidence of no functional relationship between self-restraint and SIB (i.e., self-restraint was not negatively reinforced by the removal of SIB, self-restraint was not maintained by access to SIB, and SIB was not maintained by access to self-restraint). Next, SIB was further evaluated to determine if social reinforcers also played a role in maintaining the behavior. Through a series of functional analyses including conditions with and without sensory extinction, we identified that SIB was multiply maintained by attention in addition to automatic reinforcement. The results from this participant are discussed in relation to the past research on these topics and recommendations for clinicians.

 
52.

Will Walk for Food: Assessing Variables That Affect Token Accumulation

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Sean Regnier (Western Michigan University), NICHOLAS VAN ZANDT (Western Michigan University), Anthony DeFulio (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Token reinforcement procedures are robust interventions for producing positive behavior change. Token reinforcement is especially amenable to investigating the conditions under which an organism will accumulate reinforcers prior to using them. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of the token production schedule, exchange production schedule, and token generality, on accumulation. Five participants completed up to nine experimental conditions over approximately 30 days. Participants worked on a computerized paint by number task and earned one token for between 100 and 300 responses and could exchange their tokens at any time during the experiment. The travel distance required to make the exchange, effort required to earn a token, and the generality of the token was manipulated across conditions. The primary dependent variable in this study was the number of tokens accumulated at each exchange period. Overall, as the token production schedule increased, accumulation decreased, and as the exchange production schedule increased, accumulation increased. Both findings were consistent with previous research. For three of the five participants, accumulation increased as generality increased. Future research should investigate the extent that token generality disrupts the relationship between token production, exchange production, and accumulation.

 
53.

Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches Will Work for But Not Always Consume Sucrose

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NAOMI ROSE ZIEGLER (St. Cloud State University ), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Previous research indicates cockroaches will press a lever to access reinforcement; however, laboratory observations suggested the reinforcer is not always consumed, bringing into question the function of such lever-pressing behavior. Subjects in this study were male Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC). Methods were based on a reinforcer assessment by Dixon et al. (2016). Frequency of lever-pressing, and consuming sucrose solution were recorded. During the experimental phase, two MHC received access to sucrose solution contingent on lever-pressing on a fixed ratio one (FR1) schedule. An ABAB withdrawal design was used for two MHC, with A being baseline, and B being FR1 schedule. Another subject’s access to sucrose solution was yoked to a different subject’s sucrose consumption. That subject was then placed on an FR1 schedule. Data on cumulative records indicate MHC increased lever-pressing during the FR1 schedule, but consumed solution less than half of the times it was presented. Responding ceased after an extinction burst during the return to baseline conditions. Responding ceased completely on the FR1 schedule when directly following the yoking procedure. These results not likely explainable via place preference, higher ground preference, or satiation accounts of responding. Observing response, foraging, sign tracking, and induction are discussed as possible explanations.

 
54.

Traditional Conditioned Place Preference Might be Aversive to the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DANIELLE VESEL (Saint Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

The literature pertaining to the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach is lacking in several areas. One such area fit for study involves the conditioned place preference regarding floor texture and preferred versus nonpreferred solutions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between these stimuli to determine if a conditioned place preference should occur when a Madagascar Hissing Cockroach is in a state of deprivation. Four male cockroaches were used to investigate this association. Cockroaches experiencing exposure to the solutions displayed an inclination towards inactivity. Preferences shifted from one of the available floor textures to the center area in which the cockroaches were initially placed, the preference change displayed through their lack of movement. Although this inactivity provided a change in place preference, data were inconclusive as to why this change occurred. Potential factors leading to this change are discussed. Future research has many areas that could provide evidence as to which components may be more important the change displayed.

 
55.

Assessing Conditioned Place Preference/Aversion With Scent and Texture in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa)

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ZOE ALEXANDRA COSATO (St. Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) or Aversion (CPA) were assessed in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa). The scent of .1 ml of 91% Isopropyl Alcohol was paired twice with 60 grit sandpaper or AstroTurf after texture preference and smell preference were determined. Single trial learning was potentially demonstrated, although evidence does not support CPP or CPA taking place under these specific conditions.

 
 

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