Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

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Poster Session #79
Saturday, May 25, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
87.

Using Behavioral Economics to Evaluate Differences in Delay Discounting With Individuals Convicted of Criminal Offenses

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY MOORE (University of Kansas, Center for Community Health and Development, Department of Applied Behavioral Science), Jomella Watson-Thompson (University of Kansas, Center for Community Health and Development, Department of Applied Behavioral Science), David P. Jarmolowicz (The University of Kansas), Shea M. Lemley (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Criminal behavior is a persistent social problem. Nationally, nearly 68% of individuals released from prison return within three years (National Institutes of Justice, 2014). There is increased interest, including by researchers and federal agencies (e.g., National Institute of Justice) to examine the neurocognitive deficits of offenders. However, additional research advancing the science and practice of examining decisions to commit or abstain from crime, is needed. Individuals who have been convicted of criminal offenses often have co-morbidities or co-occurring conditions such as alcohol and substance abuse, disease, and/or mental illness (Jaffe, Huang, & Hser, 2012). Behavioral economics provides a promising approach for evaluating a variety of reinforcer pathologies including substance abuse, problem gambling, alcohol abuse, and obesity (see, MacKillop, et al. 2011). However, few studies have specifically examined behavioral economics methodology with individuals who have been convicted of criminal offenses. In the present study, participants were recruited from a community-based re-entry program in Kansas City, Missouri. Participants completed computerized assessments including a delay discounting task. Data are presented on delay discounting rates among different types of offenders. Delayed discounting values were analyzed based on offender types including violent offenses, non-violent offenses, sex offenses, and drug offenses. Based on pilot-testing of the computerized assessment, overall the hyperboloid functions seemingly fit the data well for the discounting of money by individuals who had been convicted of multiple offenses (r2=.94), or committed more severe crimes such as sex (r2=.90) and drug-related (r2=.89) offenses. The monetary valuation for sex, drug, and multiple offenses decreases with the delay in time. Additionally, it was found that criminal offenders, particularly those with more severe offenses, displayed similar patterns of delay discounting as identified in previous studies for other maladaptive behaviors (e.g., drug use, gambling). The lessons learned and practical recommendations for advancing behavioral economic research toward reducing criminal behavior and recidivism are presented.

 
88. A Behavioral Economics Study on the Valuing of Polystyrene Alternative Food Containers
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE LAU (ABC Group Hawai'i), Sara Ann Dinkelo (ABC Group Hawai'i), Kelly Deacon (ABC Group Hawai'i)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: “Styrofoam”, or more specifically polystyrene, is a type of plastic that is commonly provided in restaurants as a cheap, disposable container to carry food home, or simply eat out of. Despite the fact that it is made from non-renewable fossil fuels, detrimental to the environment and the health of humans, use is high. There are, however, alternative containers that could help eliminate microplastics from our beaches, oceans, and the tummies of animals- including us. So, why don’t we use those alternatives? The delayed and indirect problematic contingencies may not compete well with the immediate and seemingly more direct rewards. We may discount the problems associated with our use of non-essential, single-use plastics, including polystyrene. As patrons to a restaurant, we may also feel that we don’t have a choice in the matter. This study will seek to determine the number of restaurant patrons that will pay the cost difference between polystyrene and a compostable alternative, when the option is presented for them immediately at the point of purchase.
 
89.

Caregiver Substitutability of Evidence-Based Practices: A Behavioral Economic Evaluation

Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAWN PATRICK GILROY (Louisiana State University), Jodie Waits (Louisiana State University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Increases in the use of alternative, unsupported treatments have been observed in multiple countries, including the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom (Eisenburg, Davis, et al., 1998; Coulter & Willis, 2004; Segar, 2011). When used as an alternative to empirically-supported treatments, these treatments represent a suboptimal use of time and resources. Using the Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk) platform, this study evaluated the demand for an empirically-supported treatment for child behavior problems with and without the availability of an alternative, treatment option unsupported by research. Participants were caregivers who endorsed difficulties with child behavior and a willingness to pursue behavioral treatment. Preliminary results indicated that a high degree of caregivers elected to substitute an evidence-based treatment for an alternative, unsupported treatment to varying degrees. These findings represent a novel extension of the applied behavioral economic framework and support continued efforts to use operant demand methodology to inform policy regarding evidence-based treatments.

 
90. Delay Discounting of Reinforcer Loss Evident in Climate Change Policy Preference
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
MASON TODD (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Lacie Campbell (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Unprecedented rises in atmospheric CO₂ and other emissions following the industrial revolution are markedly impacting Earth’s geographical and ecological systems. Delay discounting models have traditionally emphasized a hyperbolic decrease in the subjective value of an appetitive commodity over time; however, many outcomes related to climate change may be more appropriately framed as a decrease in the subjective value of reinforcer loss over time. The purpose of the present study was to compare participants delay discounting of climate change (reaching atmospheric point of no return) to monetary discounting of reinforcer loss observed in prior research. We administered a climate change discounting survey and a monetary discounting task to over 300 college student participants. Curve fit analyses suggest that the climate change discounting task produced hyperbolic discounting that resembled and may operate at greater intensity than traditional monetary discounting. We did not observe a correlation between discounting of climate change and monetary discounting, suggesting that trait impulsivity may not provide an appropriate account of behavioral economic factors that could influence or inform policy related to climate change. Implications for national policy reform are discussed.
 
91.

Delay Discounting and Social Processes in Relation to Commodity Valuation

Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno), ALEXANDRA HELEN WILLIAMS (University of Nevada Reno), Allysan Thomas (University of Nevada Reno), Kasey Carajan (University of Nevada Reno ), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Delay discounting has been shown to be related to psychological flexibility, social discounting, and substance-use disorders, suggesting that addiction and social processes are related. While relations between delay discounting and the valuation of various commodities have been extensively examined, relations between such commodities and social discounting have not. This study aims to assess such relations, primarily those between social discounting, delay discounting, psychological flexibility, and valuations of food, alcohol and firearms. Eighty U.S. adult participants were recruited using Amazon MTURK and administered questionnaires using Qualtrics. Adjusting-amount procedures were used to measure delay discounting, social discounting, and commodity valuations (i.e., where participants had to choose between an adjusting, smaller amount of money for anything or a fixed, larger gift card for a particular class of commodities). Social discounting was also measured using a monetary-choice questionnaire and a novel slider assessment procedure. Results support previous findings between delay and social discounting and magnitude effects on commodity valuation. However, the tendency for shallow social discounters to value firearms higher than steeper discounters and the lack of relation between delay discounting and firearm valuation suggests important differences between the two forms of discounting and further contextualizes the utility of such procedures.

 
92. Empirical Evaluation of Game Components Based on Learning Theory: A Preliminary Study
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CHANGSEOK LEE (Yonsei University), Seo-I Lee (Yonsei University), Hee Won Kim (Yonsei University), Mincheol Jang (Yonsei University), Yujin Kim (Yonsei University), Suhyon Ahn (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Gamification is a technique that applies game factors to non-game fields. Identifying game factors that make people engage in a game has gained significant attention in gamification, especially in health and education field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between high ranking and low ranking games in 3 factors generated from learning theory. 450 female/male adults ages from 20 to 49 completed Questionnaire for Identifying Game Components (QIGC), which consists of 46-items aimed to measure 3 factors generated from operant conditioning (e.g., antecedents, rewards & natural rewards). In the Roll Playing Game (RPG), which is the most played genre, five high ranking mobile RPG games and five low ranking mobile RPG games were selected. The results showed that high ranking games include more options for natural rewards, immediate and high quality rewards, and are evaluated better in terms of design, sound, accessibility, user interface and management. These results suggest that learning theory is a useful framework to understand and identify gamification factors and apply them to the non-game field.
 
93.

Developing a Questionnaire Based on Learning Theory for Identifying Game Components

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Mincheol Jang (Yonsei University), SEO-I LEE (Yonsei University), Changseok Lee (Yonsei University), Hee Won Kim (Yonsei University), Yujin Kim (Yonsei University), Suhyon Ahn (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Most questionnaires in the game fields were developed based on experiences and opinions, limiting their usage in terms of understanding human behaviors and identifying effective factors to make game successful. The purpose of this study is developing a new scale for game developers based on learning theory, in order to identify game elements that affect game behaviors among users. Through previous research analysis, interviewing game experts and applying ABC framework based on learning theory to items, total of 46 items were developed: 10 items of natural rewards from playing games, 13 items of reward systems within games, 23 items of game design and construct element. And, 450 adult participants ages from 20 to 49 completed the questionnaires for the games they were familiar with. The exploratory factor analysis showed two factors (intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement) in natural rewards, three factors (predictable reward, unpredictable reward, and punishment) in reward systems, and three factors (game management, influencing, and game design) in game design and components. The confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable fit indices (CFI, TLI and RMSEA). Also, internal consistency falls in the acceptable range. These indices indicate that the new scale is a reliable and valid instrument. Finally, implications were discussed.

 
94. The Effects of Systems and Contingency Analysis and Intervention on Task Completion
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
ADRIENNE MUBAREK (The Chicago School ), David Pyles (The Chicago School)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Cultural selection in behavior analysis has been posited as a form of behavioral selection to explain and discuss group behavior. Some research in this area has discussed cultural selection as a “metacontingency,” or aggregate product, that is the results of interactions of a group of individuals. The aggregate product is said to be the reinforcing contingency that maintaining certain individual behaviors within the group. This study compared group performance in terms of the aggregate product, the level of the individual, and then both combined. During each session, two groups of three individuals were asked to build a Lego set (one set per group). At the end of each session, the participants were awarded point based on accuracy and duration. Depending on the condition, the participants saw either their individual earnings and duration, the groups individual earnings and duration, or both. Results for both groups showed that the combined condition was most effective at addressing performance. This may support the need to consider providing consequences based on aggregate performance, along with individual performance measures, to maximize desired outcomes.
 
95. Studies on Metacontingency Relations in Brazilian Law
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
VIRGÍNIA CORDEIRO AMORIM (Universidade Federal do Pará - UFPA; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso - UFMT/Cuiabá), Lenise Ghisi (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso – UFMT/Cuiabá), Nadia Rodrigues (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso – UFMT/Cuiabá), Emmanuel Z. Tourinho (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Metacontingency has been used as a unit of analysis in several studies on Brazilian laws. This study evaluated the methods used in those investigations in order to identify what kind of information they add concerning: a) reference to behavioral / cultural relations to ground the Law proposition, b) the relations described in the law; c) the control that the law provides of practices regulated by it; d) cultural intervention potentially supported by the Law; and e) cultural interventions effectively carried out under the protection of the law. Sixteen theses or dissertations identified in the repositories of ninety-six graduate programs in Psychology in Brazil and four scientific articles cited by them were examined. The analysis of these studies may provide subsidies for original approaches to legislation on different topics, in light of the concept of metacontingency.
 
96. Using Contingency Contracts to Decrease Problem Behavior of Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNA EDGEMON (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Jodi Coon (Auburn University)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Contingency contracts are one form of contingency management that have been shown to decrease smoking in adults (Dallery, Meredith, & Glenn, 2008),  increase academic productivity of disadvantaged youths (Kelley & Stokes, 1982), and increase physical activity in undergraduate students (Irons, Pope, Pierce, Van Patten, & Jarvis, 2013).  Contingency contracts may also be effective for decreasing problematic behavior (e.g., verbal aggression, physical aggression, noncompliance) displayed by adolescents who are incarcerated (Gendreau, Listwan, Kuhns, & Exum, 2014).  Effective implementation of contingency contracts with this population may result in decreased problematic behavior from the adolescents as well as decreased aversive consequences for both adolescents (e.g., time out, loss of privileges) and staff (e.g., involvement in incident report).  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of contingency contracts to decrease problematic behavior of three adolescent males who had been adjudicated for sexual offenses. Suggestions for future research are included.   Keywords: contingency contracts, contingency management, adolescents
 
97.

Behavioral Skills Training to Increase Interview Skills of Adolescent Males Who Have Been Adjudicated

Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNA EDGEMON (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Soracha A O'Rourke (Auburn University), Sally A Hamrick (Auburn University)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Behavioral skills training has been shown to teach firearm safety skills to children (Miltenberger et al., 2004), to teach blackjack skills to adults (Speelman, Whiting, & Dixon, 2015), and to teach accurate pouring to college students (Hankla, Kohn, & Normand, 2017). Behavioral skills training may also be effective for teaching interview skills to adolescents who have been adjudicated. Improved interview skills in this population may result in future employment, leading to decreased likelihood of recidivism (Visher & Courtney, 2007; Visher, Debus, & Yahner, 2008; Yahner & Visher, 2008) and increased access to reinforcers such as social interactions and income. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of BST to improve the interview skills of adolescents who had been adjudicated. Effects of BST were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across behaviors design. Procedures implemented were adapted from Stocco, Thompson, Hart, and Soriano (2017).

 
Diversity submission 98.

Sexual Harassment Prevention Training: Review and Discussion of Effectiveness Research and Potential Behavior Analytic Contributions

Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
ZOEY ISABELLA ULREY (University of Southern California), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

There is an increasing awareness of the imbalance of power that exists between men and women, exemplified by wage gaps, lower incidence of women CEOs, and prevalence of sexual harassment towards women in all settings. Sexual harassment is a prevalent problem in the workplace, despite the availability of harassment trainings required in many companies. Because behavior analysts have the expertise to change behavior, general societal problems such as sexual harassment can and should be addressed by behavior analysts. This poster will review research on sexual harassment trainings done in institutions. A small amount of research has examined perceptions of the effectiveness of trainings, but insufficient research has been done on how trainings decrease sexual harassment behaviors. Based on the research and common procedures for trainings on sexual harassment, limitations will be addressed and directions for future research will be presented. Potential improvements for sexual harassment training procedures, based on proven behavioral training procedures in other areas, will be discussed and proposed.

 
99. Increasing Detained Adolescents' Tolerance of Delays and Denials
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
SORACHA A O'ROURKE (Auburn University), Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Cassidy McDougale (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kelli Thompson (Auburn University), Barry Burkhart (Auburn University)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Delay tolerance is based on systematically increasing the duration of exposure to the undesired stimuli. Research suggests juvenile sexual offenders are more likely than non-adjudicated juveniles to present with reports of anxiety, aggression, and misconduct. Engaging in such behaviors while in residential facilities can lead to loss of privileges, interfere with other treatments, and contribute to negative staff-student relationships. The current study evaluated the effects of a progressive time delay to increase tolerance to aversive situations for three detained adolescents. Targeted problem behaviors included repetitive verbal negotiation following restricted access to preferred activities, excessive cleaning in the presence of unorganized stimuli, and inappropriate vocalizations under conditions of low attention. Results indicate this behavior analytic intervention was successful in increasing two adolescents’ ability to tolerate non-preferred situations. Data collection is ongoing for the third participant. Clinical implications of the use of behavior analytic treatment procedures for adolescents adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior are discussed.
 
100.

Behavioral Intervention for Disruptive Behavior in Adolescents and Adults With Addiction Problems

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
FELIPE DIAZ (Guadalajara University), Jonnathan Gudiño (Guadalajara University), Jaime Gutiérrez (Guadalajara University), Maria Acero (Guadalajara University), Karina Franco (PENDING)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence requires immediate attention due to the high incidence of this behavior and its direct association with aggressiveness and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this research was to apply a behavior modification program for disruptive behavior in adolescents and adults. The participants are five adolescents from a youth integration center and five adults in the south-southeast regional justice center. Record sheets are used for the occurrence of behaviors and an application for a mobile device for behavioral registration. The initial records operationalist the disruptive behaviors of the program and were carried out by two observers who met at least 80% of agreement. A stimulus preference evaluation was conducted and subsequently a multiple baseline design consisting of a behavioral contract and token economy. The program lasted four weeks and a follow-up phase. The predicted results include the decrease in disruptive behavior after the intervention in both groups. The results will be discussed in relation to the importance of intervening on disruptive behaviors in populations that are difficult to access and with behavioral problems such as aggression and addictions. Identify strategies and early intervention for this type of behavior will be proposed.

 
101. Toward the Development of a Systematic Analysis of Implicit Bias: Refining Measurement Tools
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
JANICE TA (University of Nevada, Reno), Jovonnie L. Esquierdo-Leal (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Jose Ruiz (University of Nevada, Reno), Kasey Carajan (University of Nevada, Reno), Andrew Erin Arballo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Since the early 1980s, researchers have been interested in understanding and measuring implicit bias. Although a number of tools, such as the IRAP, have been developed to measure implicit bias, few (if any) have developed a systematic process for selecting stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to test a recent methodology developed at UNR for selecting stimuli to be utilized within the IRAP. This study was divided into two parts. The first part of the study used a relational history survey, which required participants to describe statements and images (e.g., rural and urban settings) using one-word adjectives, synonyms, and verbal properties. The top ten most commonly used descriptions were compared to experimenter-determined stimuli and then included in a second selection phase. By drawing upon the previous research in behavior analysis, we utilized a sorting methodology to determine which words should be incorporated into the IRAP. Results pertaining to the differentiation between experimenter-determined stimuli and stimuli determined by a representative sample will be discussed.
 
 

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