Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

Previous Page

 

Poster Session #96
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
128.

The Effects of Audience Gender on Gender-Biased Verbal Behavior and Self-Editing

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
FERNANDA SUEMI ODA (The University of Kansas), Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Bruno Silva (Castrolanda Cooperativa), Justin Charles Hunt (Endeavor Behavioral)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

Gendered behaviors can be expressed as verbal behavior. Having access to self-editing behaviors can provide additional information about a verbal episode. A software that is an experimental analogue of social media model represents a promising avenue for studying verbal behavior. A multielement design was employed to investigate the effects of female and male audiences (i.e., independent variables) on gender biased verbal behavior and self-editing using an analogue online chat. Dependent variables included self-editing, disagreeing, interrupting, and pressuring. A software program was developed. Participants were 28 typically developing adults. They were instructed to interact with confederates by playing cooperative games. Differentiated responding across genders for disagreeing, interrupting, and pressuring was observed for 19, 14, and 13 participants, respectively. Covert disagreeing was emitted more frequently in the presence of male confederates. Covert pressuring was emitted more frequently in the presence of female confederates.

 
129. Effect of a Program to Enhance Paraphrasing in University Students
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
HORTENSIA HICKMAN (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM), Sergio Mendez (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FES-Iztacala, UNAM), Ilse Fernández (UNAM, FES-Iztacala), Julio Ramírez (UNAM, FES-Iztacala)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Paraphrase is a skill that is related to reading comprehension which is essential in academic training, especially at a university level. Among other issues, this ability is considered as a study strategy. Starting from the fact that paraphrase is a skill that can be trained, the objective of the present study is to evaluate a computer program to enhance this ability. The program was developed using the Super Lab V. 4 software. It considers the following phases: Welcome, Instructions, Pretest, Intervention, Posttest and Gratitude. A reading and subsequently questions with closed response options were presented in the pretest and in the posttest. In the Intervention phase, a phrase was shown to the participant and he had to press a key to continue, then the same phrase and three response options were shown, which referred different types of paraphrasing. The phrases attended methodology, biology or psychology subjects. Once the student selected the phrase, he could earn 1 or 5 points depending on the type of paraphrasing. The program recorded both the selection of the responses and its latency. A non-probabilistic sample was used, consisting of 103 students belonging to the first semester of the Psychology career. A Pretest-Postest design was implemented. The measure for the data analysis was the selection of the paraphrasing type and the emitted responses both in the pretest and in the posttest by the participants. A Student's t-test was applied. Results showed statistically significant differences between the pretest and the posttest responses. There was also a change in the selection of the paraphrases from a basic to a complex level. It is concluded that the educational software is a good tool for teaching and learning paraphrasing ability. Keywords: Paraphrase, university students, paraphrase program.
 
130. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to an Arithmetic Problem of Rates of Mediating Verbal Behavior
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
MIKE HARMAN (Briar Cliff University), Summer Williams (Briar Cliff University ), James House (Briar Cliff University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which a final verbal response is dependent on mediating verbal behavior (covert or overt) occurring between the offset of the discriminative stimulus and the target response. Furthermore, this study measured changes in rates of mediating verbal behavior across five exposures to a discriminative stimulus. Participants solved fifty arithmetic problems with no accompanying visual stimuli while continuously emitting overt verbal behavior. For some problems, distractor stimuli were present (experimental condition) and for others, distractor stimuli were absent (control condition). The experimenter collected data on participants’ mean latency to respond, accuracy, and rates of echoic and self-echoic responses emitted during the response interval. Participants’ mean latency to respond significantly decreased across exposures, but decreased to a greater degree in the control condition. Participants’ mean accuracy significantly increased across exposures, but increased to a greater degree in the control condition. Participants’ mean rates of echoic and self-echoic responses significantly decreased across exposures, but decreased to a greater degree in the control condition. The results of this study indicate that the necessity of verbal mediation may depend on (a) the presence of distractor stimuli, and (b) the learning history with the discriminative stimulus.
 
131. The Effects of a Writer Immersion Intervention on the Functional Writing of Elementary School Students
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LEITER (Teachers College), Victoria Verdun (Teachers College Columbia University ), Ruby Sara Gibson (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: A functional writing repertoire is a vital component of any child’s education, as it allows children to affect the behavior of others beyond the immediate effects of speaking. In the present study, researchers used a replicated AB design to investigate the effects of a writer immersion package on the functional writing and conditioned reinforcement for the writing of four third-graders. During the intervention, two writers were given drawings that included a shape, a line, and a word, and instructed to write about the picture in such detail that a naïve reader could draw it. The writers then watched attempt to follow their directions. If the drawing was missing any components, the researcher instructed the writer to rewrite their directions. This process continued until the writer was able to write functional directions on their first attempt with a novel picture. The results showed that the writer immersion package successfully increased the number of functional components in the writing of both the writers and drawers in the intervention. Researchers did not find any noticeable changes in the participants’ conditioned reinforcement for writing. Future research should investigate modifications in the writer immersion package and how they affect conditioned reinforcement for writing.
 
132.

Descriptive Assessment of Active Listening and Topics for Initiating Future Conversations

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Sylvia Aquino (California State University, Northridge), Stephanie A. Hood (California State University, Northridge), Marcus Daniel Strum (California State University, Northridge), JESEY GOPEZ (California State University, Northridge )
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

There is limited research on teaching individuals how to actively listen and then use this information in subsequent conversations. Listeners must discriminate topics the conversation partner is interested in and enjoys discussing, and to avoid topics that elicit or evoke emotional responses or may otherwise be aversive. First, we conducted a descriptive assessment of conversations among 16 neuro-typical individuals across 1:1 conversations with a friend and 1:1 conversations with a novel conversation partner. Topics most commonly discussed were work and movies. We also conducted a structured-descriptive assessment to identify how individuals respond to their conversation partner when they initiate conversation on topics with preferred or aversive properties. Data from the structured-descriptive assessment suggest that individuals make less comments related to a topic they find aversive. Individuals make more comments, smile more frequently and lean in toward their conversation partner when preferred topics are discussed. These data may inform research and practice for teaching individuals complex social skills that contribute to an established speaker and listener repertoire that may impact their overall interactions and quality of life.

 
133.

Proposal of Curriculum Module to Extend Tacts Using Sentences in Children With Cochlear Implants

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ANDERSON NEVES (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP, Brazil), Deisy De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Ana Cláudia Moreira Moreira Almeida Verdu (Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP), Leandra Silva (Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais, Bauru, SP, Brazil), Adriane Moret (Universidade de São Bauru, Bauru, SP, Brazil)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

Children with cochlear implants (CIs) who are readers usually produce more accurate speech when textual behavior than tacts. Equivalence based instruction (EBI) and matrix training can promote auditory comprehension, speech accuracy in tacts and verbal productivity, from a minimum set of sentences taught. The present study evaluated the effects of an EBI module on equivalence relations (between pictures, and dictated and printed sentences), accuracy in tacts, and recombinative performances, in six children with CI, readers and who had inaccurate tacts. Three sets of sentences were phonetically-balanced, arranged into subject-verb-object matrices and planned in progressive difficulty (regular and irregular words, and pseudo-sentences); nine sentences in the diagonal were taught, and 25 were evaluated in recombinative probes. The teaching module was organized into three steps and multiple probes evaluated all relations in EBI-network. In each step, were directly taught matching pictures to dictated sentences (AB) by MTS and by exclusion teaching; and construction of sentences under dictation (AE) by CRMTS. According to multiple baseline between sets, all participants learned the taught relations (AB-AE), increased the accurate tacts (BD), and produced both equivalence and syntactic (intra-intersets) relations. The results subsidies a broader curriculum of sentences for the rehabilitation of children with CI.

 
134. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on Variability, Speech Accuracy, and Emergence
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE LAFRANCE (H.O.P.E. Consulting, LLC; Endicott College - Institute for Behavioral Studies), Thais de Souza Mascotti (São Paulo State University, Brazil), Leandra Silva (University of São Paulo, Brazil), Ana Claudia Moreira Moreira Almeida Verdu (São Paulo State University, Brazil and National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Teaching)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The current study investigated the effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) on the emergence of listener and speaker behavior (i.e., tacts and echoics), as well as increases in the accuracy of participants’ vocal-verbal behavior. Four young boys participated (ages 5-7). Three had a diagnosis of Autism. The fourth had a diagnosis of Auditory Neuropathy and used a cochlear implant. Experimental phases included: 1) pretests of all operants (listener, tacts, echoics), 2) listener training 3) tests of emergence (tacts and echoics), 4) MEI, and 5) tests of emergence (tacts and echoics) with untaught stimuli. This sequence was repeated across three sets of stimuli. Results show a high degree of variability, and a low degree of accuracy (below 40% correct) in pretests, and reduced variability and increased accuracy (above 70%) in post-MEI tests of emergence. Additionally, all participants demonstrated emergent tacts following MEI. However, the accuracy of participants’ verbal behavior was slightly lower with untaught sets of stimuli, and this effect was observed to maintain in follow-up. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
 
135.

Using a Perspective-Taking Skill Taught in a Contrived Setting to Teach a Perspective-Taking Problem Solving Response in a Social Situation

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Stefano Assetta (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Riccardo Bordoni (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

During study 1 we taught an adolescent with ASD to pass a “false belief” task using multiple-exemplar training (MET) and prompting and fading. During baseline we presented three different role playing scenarios (RPS) adherent to the “Sally and Ann” test but using preferred characters; the student failed to provide the correct perspective-taking (PT) response. During the training phase we presented novel RPS interspersing oral scenarios (OS), teaching the student to tact the controlling variables of his own behavior and the behavior of the character before providing the PT response. During post training the student correctly provided PT responses for the same scenarios presented in baseline, for three novel OS and for a novel “false belief” task (unexpected contents). During study 2 we probed a problem solving response that implied an applied PT response in the natural environment in a social situation. Consistently with previous researches the student failed to generalize the PT response in an applied setting. Then we taught, using MET and prompting and fading, the problem solving response in the natural environment chaining the PT response to the problem solving response. During post-training the student provided the problem solving response without engaging overtly in the PT response.

 
136.

Using Autoclitic Frames to Teach a Component of Perspective Taking to a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Alessandro Dibari (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Lorenza D'arcangelo (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Claudia Costella (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Angela Cardascia (Associazione Bambini Autistici (ABA) - Conversano)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

We evaluated procedures for teaching one student with ASD a component of perspective-taking: identifying their own knowledge based on sensory information, using prompting, fading and reinforcement. During the intervention we taught him to tact the verbal or non-verbal stimuli that evoked his response and to discriminate between known or unknown information based on the verbal statement provided by the experimenter. Specifically, after presenting a verbal statement with or without salient stimuli to the student, we taught an autoclitic frame (e.g. “because I see/hear/touch” or “because I don’t see/hear/touch”) in response to the question “why do/don’t you know?” We evaluated the clinical efficacy of the teaching procedures using a multiple baseline across test conditions design. After no response in baseline for the three test conditions, we used a different set of stimuli during the teaching phase. After reaching mastery criteria we presented again, as post training, the same set of stimuli used in baseline. The student reached mastery criteria for the untaught sets in each test condition. We discuss how this skill may be related to more advanced perspective taking skills, based on Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior.

 
137.

Teaching Complex Direction Following With Conditional Discriminations Using Joint Control

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DAVITA FORD (Chase Behavior Solutions; Florida Institute of Technology), Chris Krebs (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

Following instructions is an important tool that children need in their repertoire to be able to participate in their community. However, many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum disorder have difficulty following instructions involving multiple steps. Joint control training is an effective way of teaching children to follow complex instructions and has been shown to generalize across instructions (Causin, Albert, Carbone, & Sweeny-Kerwin, 2013). Joint control occurs when a response is emitted from the control of two separate, but simultaneously available, stimuli. When an instruction is given, the individual engages in a rehearsal response while simultaneously tacting stimuli in the environment. Once the rehearsal and the tact have point-to-point correspondence, a selection is made (Lowenkron, 1998). Joint control training with 3-step instructions was evaluated with a 5-year-old with autism. The participant was taught to rehearse the instruction prior to responding. Following training, novel instructions were given. Results confidently demonstrate that upon implementation of joint control training, the participant was able to accurately follow trained instructions and novel instructions. Joint control training has the potential to add a skillset into a child’s repertoire that can be used daily in the community. Keywords: Joint Control, listener responding, direction following, self-echoic

 
138.

The Effects of Echoic Response Requirement During Auditory Visual Discrimination Training on the Emergence of Tacts in Children Diagnosed With Autism

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE CAROLINE COSTA CARNEIRO (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Mariéle Cortez (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Daniela S. Canovas (Grupo Método - Intervenção Comportamental), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of requiring echoic responses during an auditory visual discrimination training on the emergence of tacts in a five years-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using an adapted alternating treatment design with pretest and posttest probes. In the auditory-visual discrimination training, the first set with three stimuli (set A), echoic responses were not required during the auditory visual discrimination training, while for the second three stimuli set (set B), echoic responses were required during the auditory visual discrimination training. After meeting mastery criteria on the auditory-visual discrimination training, tact responses were assessed for the six stimuli. The results showed full emergence of tacts in both conditions, although the participant needed less training sessions to master criteria on the condition in which echoic responses were required. The procedure is currently being applied to another children in order to verify generality.

 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
SABA DONATE