Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

Previous Page

 

Poster Session #97
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
139. Self-Control Equipment Assessment: Empirical Identification of Appropriate Forms of Equipment Assisted Self-Control
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA FISHER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute; The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute; The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Drew E. Piersma (Kennedy Krieger Institute), ALEXANDER Rodolfo AREVALO (Kennedy Krieger Institute )
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Self-restraint (SR) is a debilitating, self-limiting behavior that restricts one’s own movement. An inverse relationship has been observed between SR and self-injurious behavior (SIB). Although SR can result in decreased rates of SIB, continuous SR may interfere with one’s ability to interact with the environment and acquire adaptive skills. One method of reducing SR, while also maintaining low levels of SIB, might be to establish self-control skills via the use of self-control equipment (SCE). SCE includes materials that, when used, allow movement but compete with SR. Griffin and Roscoe (2005) demonstrated the utility of empirically identifying alternative SCE to replace SR through a preference assessment. The current study extends this research by directly comparing the effect of various forms of SCE on SR, SIB, and engagement with preferred stimuli to periods where no SCE was available in a Self-Control Equipment Assessment (SCEA). Additional levels of support (e.g., prompting) were systematically applied to identify effective competing SCE for an individual with Type 3 automatically maintained SIB. Using the SCEA, two pieces of SCE were identified to compete with SR and SIB while still allowing engagement with toys. This equipment may be further analyzed by incorporating it into treatment.
 
140.

Quantitative Analysis of Wound Surface Area Among Individuals With Automatically Maintained Self-Injurious Behavior

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY N. CARVER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; Kennedy Krieger Institute), Molly K McNulty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), ALEXANDER Rodolfo AREVALO (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Previous research has found correlations between wound surface area (WSA, cm2) and rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB; Wilson, Iwata, & Bloom, 2012). Rooker et al. (2019) found a negative correlation between differentiation in the FA and a different injury characteristic (number of injuries). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend both studies, and investigate whether response rate in, or percent differentiation based on, relevant FA conditions correlated with WSA across seven individuals with automatically maintained SIB (ASIB). That is, we investigated the generality of the finding from Wilson et al., using a combination of methods from both studies. Results suggest that percent differentiation in the FA tends to predict total WSA for ASIB; that is, lower differentiation in the FA predicts more total WSA. Further, when tested independently, rate of SIB in the play and rate of SIB in the test condition of the FA had a weaker correlation with total WSA. These findings are similar to those described by Rooker et al. in that the number of contexts in which an individual engages in SIB appears to be more predictive of injury characteristics than the rate of SIB in any given condition for individuals with ASIB.

 
141. Examining the Impact of Problem Behavior Through the Use of a Severity Rating Scale
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNA BASS (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Schiethauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Challenging behavior exhibited by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities can pose significant negative impacts on patients, families, and their environments. The Problem Behavior Severity Scale was developed at a clinic specializing in the treatment of severe problem behavior and is administered during the patient intake process. The assessment examines the impact of problem behavior via several outcomes, including physical harm caused to patients or others, property damage, and structural modifications. Data are collected through caregiver interview via open-ended questions. Interviewers use responses to rate the severity of each category. Based on results from 300 individuals referred to a specialty clinic for challenging behavior, 81.66% of clients’ problem behavior resulted in physical harm, 72% resulted in damage to the environment, and 42% had environmental changes as a result of challenging behavior. In addition to describing the impact of challenging behavior, the utility of this measure is discussed as it relates to identifying the most applicable and effective resources for both patients and caregivers.
 
142. The Use of Combined Contingencies in the Treatment of Targeted and Nontargeted Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ROSE MORLINO (University of Georgia), Courtney Mauzy (University of Georgia), Jamila Salim (University of Georgia), Jessica Turpin (University of Georgia), Emma Charlton (University of Georgia), Karla Zabala (University of Georgia), Andrea Zawoyski (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: The use of combined contingencies might be beneficial in the treatment of problem behavior. In the current study, we assessed avoidant movements and dangerous acts (e.g., climbing on tables) exhibited by a young boy with autism spectrum disorder in the context of academic demands. During baseline, avoidant movements resulted in a 30-s break from demands; there were no programmed contingencies for dangerous acts. During baseline, avoidant movements occurred when instructions were delivered and compliance was low (0%). The individual also engaged in dangerous acts during the 30-s break period. During the intervention phase, we compared two conditions using an alternating treatments design. In condition 1 (break only), compliance with instruction resulted in a 30-s break. In condition 2 (enriched break), compliance with the instruction resulted in a 30-s break with access to preferred tangible items. Extinction was implemented for avoidant movements in both conditions. Results indicated that both conditions effectively resulted in decreased avoidant movements and increased compliance. However, nontargeted dangerous acts remained high in the break only condition. Dangerous acts decreased to zero levels in the enriched break condition. This finding supports the utility of using combined contingencies in the treatment of problem behavior.
 
143. Treatment of Automatically Maintained Subtype Two Self-Injury Using Competing Tasks
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE HOWELL (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer Vetter (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Zachary Husak (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julia Gilloran (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: There is an extensive literature base supporting the use of competing stimuli to reduce automatically maintained self-injurious behavior (ASIB). However, establishing contingencies for accessing alternative reinforcers via differential reinforcement with tasks may also reduce ASIB (Rooker et al., 2018). In the current study, we evaluated procedures to reduce subtype 2 ASIB for an 11-year-old male with autism. Replicating procedures typically used within competing stimulus assessments, a competing task assessment (CTA) was conducted to identify tasks associated with low rates of ASIB and high task engagement. Across three phases, multiple intervention components with gradual increases in intensity (e.g., alternative task presentation, prompted task completion, and response blocking and redirection) were assessed. Summative results indicated that in addition to presenting one set of task items at a time, the response blocking and redirection components were associated with the lowest rates of ASIB and task engagement. In an extended treatment evaluation, three tasks (i.e., stack blocks, put in, stack cups) were formally evaluated and schedule thinning was completed. Results indicated that a reinforcement schedule of 10 tokens was most effective in maintaining low rates of ASIB and high task engagement.
 
144. Comparison of Baseline Levels of Problem Behavior During Functional Analyses and Extinction
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA E. CARR (University of Arizona; University of Iowa ), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Baseline assessments of problem behavior most often include either functional analysis (FA) data or extinction (EXT) of the target response. The choice between these procedures occurs for both clinical and conceptual reasons. Clinically, individuals may use FA as the baseline to avoid an increase in problem behavior which can occur with the use of EXT. Conceptually, individuals may use EXT as the baseline to determine the persistence of problem behavior when challenged. Although EXT should produce higher rates of target responding than FA conditions, that has not been shown empirically in the context of parents working with their children’s severe problem behavior at home. The purpose of this study was to compare baseline levels of problem behavior when FA and EXT procedures were conducted via telehealth prior to the start of treatment. Data from 29 young children with autism spectrum disorder were evaluated, retrospectively. The average percent of intervals of problem behavior in the identified functional condition(s) of the FA and EXT baselines were compared. Results showed that problem behavior occurred at higher levels during the EXT baseline for 86% of the participants and the results were significant based on Tau-U. Implications of the results will be described.
 
145.

Treatment of Automatically Maintained Geophagia in a Preschooler With Developmental Delay

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CALLIE GILCHREST (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Steven Lindauer (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Geophagia is the intentional consumption of dirt, soil, or clay. Dangerous health risks of geophagia include parasitic infections, metal poisoning, and gastrointestinal problems. In the current study, geophagia was assessed and treated in a 5-year-old male preschooler with developmental delays who was referred for outpatient behavioral treatment of pica. Primary items consumed were dirt, soil, and sand. Functional analyses results suggested geophagia was maintained by automatic reinforcement due to responses occurring almost exclusively in alone conditions, in the absence of social consequences. Additionally, preference and treatment analyses were conducted to identify stimuli that would compete with geophagia. Matched and unmatched stimuli were presented during baseline conditions to determine the role of oral stimulation in geophagia responses. Stimuli that best competed and yielded the lowest rates of geophagia were then provided noncontingently during treatment sessions, which has resulted in decreases in rates of geophagia.

 
146.

Effects of Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Self-Injurious Behavior of a Child With Bainbridge-Ropers Syndrome

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JAYNE MEREDITH MURPHY (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

A 12-year-old male was referred to a severe behavior applied behavior analysis (ABA) clinic for the assessment and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB). The client has a rare diagnosis, Bainbridge-Ropers Syndrome (BRPS). BRPS was first described in 2013, and has only been identified in approximately 30 individuals in the literature (Koboldt et al., 2018). BRPS is due to changes in function of the gene additional sex combs-like 3, ASXL3. This gene instructs cells in various organs at different stages of development (Bainbridge et al., 2013), and this mutation is problematic for growth and functioning. Due to the limited amount of individuals currently diagnosed with BRPS, there is a need for increased evidence to support appropriate and efficient assessment and intervention strategies. The client seen in the severe behavior clinic was considered an early learner and due to difficulties related to his diagnosis of BRPS, assessment and treatment of his SIB was challenging. Through various functional assessments tailored specifically to the client, the treatment team was able to identify an appropriate function of his SIB and behavioral interventions were found to be effective for the client based on visual analysis of the data.

 
147.

Applied Evaluation of Synthesized and Single Contingencies Maintaining Challenging Behaviors

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA A. CLARK (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Functional analysis (FA) is the most widely researched method for assessing problem behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities and is a vital component in developing treatments for these individuals (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013; Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). This study compared results of two functional analyses, testing synthesized and single contingencies. Familiar staff members who worked with the participants completed the Open- Ended Functional Assessment Interview (Hanley, 2009). Both participants’ behavior was hypothesized to engage in challenging behaviors maintained by escape from demand and access to preferred tangible items. Test conditions for both participants included the following: control, escape, tangible and synthesized escape/tangible. Results of this study indicate that challenging behavior may at times be maintained by more than one single contingency without also occurring under synthesized contingencies while at other times may be maintained by both single and synthesized contingencies.

 
148.

The Naked Truth: Extending Latency-Based Functional Analysis to Assess Disrobing in an Adult Residential Setting

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALLYSON MAE TOWLES-HOLDIMAN (Bancroft), Kellie P. Goldberg (Bancroft), Victor Chin (Bancroft; Rowan University)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Disrobing is a socially stigmatizing behavior impacting people with developmental disabilities. It can be a difficult problem to manage in community settings which may lead to social isolation, poor integration with peers, or placement in restrictive settings (Carlson et al., 2011). Traditional functional analysis (FA) procedures rely on measuring repeatability of a behavior while testing isolated functions (Iwata et al., 1994). Disrobing poses a challenge for this methodology since repeated occurrence would require a therapist redressing the client, potentially providing additional attention, which may serve as a confounding variable (Thomason-Sassi et al., 2011). For disrobing, and other behaviors that cannot be repeated due to practical or ethical concerns (e.g.: elopement, vomiting, severe SIB), latency-based functional analyses can be used to identify function. However, latency-based FAs may take time for the participant to detect the contingencies, which uses additional time and resources and may fail to adequately identify automatically maintained behavior. The present study examined the use of an extended latency-based FA on disrobing for an adult in a residential setting. In test conditions, the participant was instructed to put on clothing. Following the initial disrobing, the participant contacted the contingency and was redressed. Latency to disrobing was measured for before and after the contingency. Results indicated that behavior is likely automatically maintained because behavior was evoked at approximately the same latency throughout all conditions, irrespective of the presence of the potentially reinforcing contingency.

 
149.

A Case Example of the Disruptive Effect of Protective Procedures on Subtype-2 Automatically Self-Injurious Behavior

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDER AREVALO (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Molly K Bednar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rose Nevill (University of Virginia)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Results of recent research identified subtypes of automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (ASIB) that vary greatly in terms of their responsiveness to treatment. Subtype-2 ASIB has been shown to be one of the most treatment-resistant forms of behavior. As such, protective procedures (blocking and protective equipment) are sometimes used to treat this behavior. However, the collateral effects of these procedures on other forms of self-injurious behavior are unclear. We document the effects of these two procedures on the automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior of an individual who experienced theses protective procedures. Results provide preliminary evidence of response variation in automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior as a function of blocking and protective equipment. Potential implication of the current results will be discussed.

 
150.

Reduction of Rule Infraction Behavior by Pseudo Self-Monitoring in a Child With ADHD

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
NOZOMI YOSHIDA ( Meisei University), Keisuke Kuwano (Spectrum Life Co., Ltd.), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pseudo self-monitoring on rule infraction behavior in a child with ADHD who showed rule infraction behavior in a teaching situation using a card game. Pseudo-self-monitoring is a procedure in which a participant monitors the behavior of another person imitating the participant (Wada and Takeuchi, 2019). The participant was a child with ADHD, 16 years old. As a method of this research, we created a video of the behavior of others imitating the participation behavior in a teaching situation using a card game. Several scenes in the video were presented to the participant in random order for evaluation. The frequency of rule infraction behavior was averaged 66.4% during the baseline, averaged 20% during the intervention phase, and averaged 24.8% during the probe phase. In other words, it was shown that pseudo self-monitoring was effective in reducing the rule infraction behavior of children with ADHD, and that the effect was maintained.

 
151.

Utilizing a Non-Concurrent Multiple Baseline to Limiting Risk During a Treatment Analysis

Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
GABRIEL LOPERGOLO (Bancroft), Kelly Trucksess (Bancroft), Brittany Diamanti (Bancroft), Hailee Perez (Bancroft), Adrianna Whitman (Bancroft), Timothy Nipe (Bancroft)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a common topography among individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Head directed self-injurious behavior can lead to significant and long-lasting injury and will typically require some form of intervention. Due to the dangerous nature of head directed self-injury, standard forms of assessment can put the individual at increased risk if allowed to engage in repeated instances of the behavior. In this study, a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across functions with latency as the dependent measure was utilized in order to establish experimental control. This approach limited repeated instances of SIB during baseline and eliminating the need for a return to baseline during treatment. Results indicated that latency to SIB increased when the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was introduced across three identified functions: escape from demands, social avoidance, and access to tangible items. This study indicates that the use of latency as a dependent measure in combination with a multiple baseline design may offer clinicians an alternative to more traditional designs to decrease the risk of injury when SIB is the targeted behavior.

 
152.

Reducing Pica by Teaching the Exchange of Inedible Items

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KELSEY ELBON (Bancroft), Hailee Perez (Bancroft), Adrianna Whitman (Bancroft), Amanda Marie Finlay (Bancroft), Timothy Nipe (Bancroft)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Pica, or the persistent ingestion of non-edible objects, is dangerous and may lead to various health implications such as gastrointestinal complications, lead poisoning, infections, and other dental health problems. Pica is challenging to treat, and is maintained in the absence of social consequences (Piazza, et. al. 1998). The identification and use of items that compete effectively with pica to reduce ingestion of inedible items has shown to work under very controlled conditions. However, the noncontingent delivery of items on a schedule rich enough to compete with pica may be difficult or even unethical to utilize over long periods of time. There is a small body of research has shown that utilizing differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior, i.e., the exchange of an inedible item, may reduce rates of pica, e.g., Kern, Starosta and Adelman, 2006, while circumventing some of these concerns. The current study demonstrates the efficacy of differentially reinforcing the exchange of edible items that had previously been identified to effectively compete with pica with the inedible items the individual encountered across sessions.

 
153. An Ethical Responsibility of Cultural Competency: Models of Disability, Microaggressions, and Professional Considerations in ABA
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
NATALIA BAIRES (Southern Illinois University), Rocco G Catrone (SIU-Carbondale), Amrinder Babbra (Doctoral Student), Sebastian Garcia-Zambrano (Southern Illinois University), Manish K. Goyal (Southern Illinois University), Darwin S Koch (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: As behavior analysts, our code of ethics demands a certain level of competency when ethically changing the behaviors of others. With the footholds of globalization creeping onward, and a nation’s populace that is growing increasingly diverse (Fong & Tanaka, 2013), being culturally aware of the clients and their families in which this caring profession serves is paramount. This presentation reviews important models adapted from other fields of study in hopes to promote a multidisciplinary approach to addressing the cultural competencies when working with families with autistic children. Disability Theory Models will be applied to the way ABA may lead to unintentional ableism. Examples of microaggressions towards those with disabilities will be depicted and what behavior analysts can do to minimize these. Finally, the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS; Bennet, 1986) will be illustrated and applied to ABA as a way to not minimize differences between professionals and clients, but to have a model to increase sensitivity to work with those who may have different backgrounds from the clinician. Each section references back to the current BACB ethical guidelines, creating relevance of models and interventions to the behavior-analytic tradition.
 
154.

Parent Training in Languages Other Than English for Children With Disabilities: A Literature Review

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
JACQUELINE ZAMBRANO (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

To better understand parent trainings on challenging behavior interventions for parents that speak a language other than English, we conducted a review of the existing literature. We conducted a database search and ancillary searches. Six studies evaluating parent training in challenging behavior interventions in a language other than English were identified. The articles identified were analyzed to determine the types of trainings that had been used and to determine the impact that these trainings had on the child’s challenging behaviors. Across the articles, there were 151 parent participants and 151 child participants. The most common language of parent training was Chinese. The existing literature shows that weekly group parent trainings were most commonly used. The scarcity of articles highlights the need for more research in this area. Specifically, future research should evaluate the efficacy and social validity of research supported challenging behavior interventions with parents who speak languages other than English. Implications and directions for future research will be discussed.

 
155. Validity of French Versions of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System for Infants and Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE-JOËLLE BRACONNIER (Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières), Carmen Dionne (Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières), Annie Paquet (Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: A need for assessments linked to early intensive behavioral intervention curriculum programs, and useful for intervention purposes, is identified by literature (Gould et al., 2011). Besides, a portrait of the child’s needs is required to make the best decisions for intervention (Bagnato et al., 2010). Many childcare providers report their dissatisfaction of conventional assessment tools (Bagnato et al., 2014). The Assessment, Evaluation and Programming System for Infants and Children (AEPS®), 2nd edition (Bricker, 2002), an authentic assessment and intervention tool, is a promising option. The 3rd version is currently submitted to a translation process. This study aims to contribute to the validation process of both French editions of the AEPS® assessment. A quantitative survey with two online questionnaires is proposed. Participants were Quebec childcare providers from five public early intervention services centers (n = 26). From those, experienced users completed the second questionnaire about the 3rd edition (n = 15). Results show many positive effects on professional evaluation practices. Furthermore, the tool’s items and procedures reflect the characteristics of an authentic assessment based on the eight evaluation-specific quality indicators (Bagnato et al., 2010). The AEPS® presents a high level of social acceptability, and facilitates teamwork and parents-professionals collaboration.
 
156.

Video Modeling in Teaching Individuals With Developmental Disabilities to Engage in Leisure Activities

Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
CHAIDAMOYO GOODSON DZENGA (Tennessee Technological University), Krystal Kennedy (Tennessee Technological University), Emily Loftis (Tennessee Technological University), Argnue Chitiyo (Ball State University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Leisure activities have been linked in providing an opportunity for individuals with developmental disabilities to acquire adaptive skills which are necessary for successful inclusion in the general public. Teaching individuals with developmental disabilities to engage in leisure activities is widely acknowledged in improving communication skills, social interaction skills and also providing an opportunity for behaving appropriately in society. Studies involving individuals with developmental disabilities have mainly focused on interventions on feeding and self-care and leisure activities have been somewhat an afterthought. Leisure activities for individuals with disabilities are often selected by their caregivers. This literature review analyzed studies that used video modeling, a non-intrusive behavioral antecedent intervention, to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to engage in leisure activities. Participants in the study were individuals 3 years and above with varying diagnosis that fell under the generic term developmental disabilities. The studies used single-case designs that were evaluated using guidelines of the What Works Clearing House (2017). Studies published from 2001 to 2018 (n =10) were identified. For individuals with severe developmental disabilities, preference assessments should be conducted to identify their preferred leisure activities so that they may engage in leisure activities of their choices.

 
157. The Effects of Video Models on the Independent Transitioning of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BRENDON NYLEN (University of Iowa), Seth King (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Transitions encompass termination of one activity and initiation of another activity or movement across locations. Individuals with developmental disabilities frequently encounter difficulties in independently transitioning without assistance. Transitions are important because individuals are expected to transition throughout life across different contexts such as school or a job. Video models have been used with the intended goal of increasing independent transitions. Video models encompass a variety of approaches to depicting a recording of a desired behavior for the viewer to imitate. This study reviewed research between 1999 and 2019 that used video models to increase the independent transitioning of children with developmental disabilities. Authors of identified studies (n = 11) assessed the influence of video models on behavioral dimensions of transitioning (e.g., latency) as well as the occurrence of inappropriate behaviors during transitions. Of the cases identified within the studies (n = 40), 45% satisfied contemporary standards of evidence. Findings of these cases were mixed however. Implications for practitioners are discussed following a description of results.
 
158. Antecedent Manipulations for Decreasing Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH PRESCOTT (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Individuals with intellectual disabilities often engage in problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands. One method of treating this behavior is to eliminate the response-reinforcer contingency by implementing escape extinction. However, this procedure can be difficult or unsafe to implement with many individuals. Therefore, it is important to explore alternative intervention options, such as motivating operation manipulations. The purpose of this poster is to describe various antecedent manipulations that have been used to reduce the evocative effect of demands. Some of the procedures reviewed include: demand fading, task interspersal (also referred to as the high-probability request sequence), and introducing a reinforcement contingency for compliance. Variations in these procedures will be reviewed as well as suggestions for implementation in clinical practice. Articles were included in this review based on pre-specified inclusion criteria (e.g., functional control is demonstrated through a single-subject experimental design). Interobserver agreement was assessed for article inclusion and was 100%.
 
159. A Systematic Review of Reinforcement Schedule Thinning Following Functional Communication Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
EMILY PAIGE EXLINE (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a highly effective intervention to reduce challenging behavior among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Despite the vast literature supporting FCT effectiveness, the intervention is not without criticism. One such criticism is that the continuous schedule of reinforcement for the functional communicative response that is typically utilized during initial phases of intervention cannot be maintained in natural settings. Reinforcement schedule thinning addresses this drawback with various approaches to systematically thin the schedule of reinforcement to a schedule that is more appropriate for natural change agents in natural settings. A systematic review of the literature identified 53 articles in which one of five schedule thinning approaches was implemented after implementation of FCT: (a) delay-to-reinforcement, (b) chained schedule of reinforcement, (c) multiple schedules of reinforcement, (d) response restriction, and (e) alternative activity. These studies indicate wide procedural variability across reinforcement schedule thinning approaches. Results will be further analyzed and discussed.
 
160.

Antecedent Choice-Making Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior for Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
PROVIDENCE LIVELY (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Antecedent choice-making interventions involve offering an individual a choice in how to complete a task prior to the onset of that task. In order to better understand the possible relationship between antecedent choice making and challenging behavior, a review of the existing literature on the use of antecedent choice-making interventions to reduce challenging behavior was conducted. A systematic review of the literature identified 30 articles in which antecedent choice was implemented to reduce problem behavior. The studies were summarized according to characteristics of the participant, antecedent choice intervention, problem behavior, and other dependent variables such as task completion. In addition, the included studies were analyzed according to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC; 2017) Single Case Research Design Standards. The literature indicate that antecedent choice-making interventions involve both within-activity choices such as choice of activity materials or setting as well as across-activity choices, such as the order of activities. Initial results indicate the effectiveness of choice-making interventions to reduce challenging behavior. Results will be further analyzed and discussed.

 
161.

The Use of Technology in Vocational Skills Training for Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
MACKENZIE RAYE WICKER (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Current research has identified poor post-school outcomes for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities; in fact, poorer than any other disability group. Employment support such as vocational skill training can improve outcomes and increase opportunities for paid employment. With recent advances in technology, a myriad of technology devices and programs offer relatively inexpensive and portable forms of support to vocational training programs. Moreover, today’s ubiquitous use of technology allows for the use of technology supports in a way that may not be as stigmatizing in the work setting relative to more traditional forms of support. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature regarding the use of technology in vocational skills training programs. Articles identified via a systematic search of the literature are summarized according to (a) participant characteristics, (b) vocational skills targeted, and (c) technology device characteristics. In addition, the included studies are analyzed according to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC; 2017) Single Case Research Design Standards. Results will be further analyzed and discussed.

 
162.

An Evaluation of Functional Communication Training to Treat Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA RAMIREZ-CRISTOFORO (The University of Texas at Austin ), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Fabiola Vargas Londono (The University of Texas at Austin )
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a well-known and often recommended intervention to treat problem behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities. FCT consists of teaching a functional, alternative communicative response to replace problem behavior in the individual’s repertoire to allow them to obtain functional reinforcers that previously maintained problem behavior. Despite a number of literature reviews on FCT, to date, no literature review has examined studies that have evaluated FCT as a treatment for negatively reinforced problem behavior. It may be beneficial to explore treatment related factors to inform practitioners and researchers on how to increase the social validity and generalization of FCT outcomes for negatively reinforced problem behavior(s). The primary purpose of this literature review was to evaluate factors that impact the effectiveness of FCT alone and/or in conjunction with other interventions to treat negatively reinforced problem behaviors. Results across 47 empirical studies supported and extended prior literature review findings. Some novel identified findings on factors that can affect FCT efficiency and generalizability were quality of reinforcement, variability of mands, and the exposure of problem behavior to establishing operations. Recommendations for clinicians and potential avenues for future research will be discussed.

 
163. Resurgence of Clinically Relevant Behaviors: A Systematic Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
JESSE PERRIN (Pathways), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University ), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Basic, translational, and applied researchers have all identified resurgence as a phenomenon with significant implications for successful behavioral intervention. Resurgence can occur during both unplanned changes to treatment as well as planned changes. Many function-based treatments used in applied settings with clinically relevant behaviors, including FCT and NCR, appear to have components that may lead to resurgence. In 2017, Kestner & Peterson published a systematic literature review that included resurgence studies focused on clinically relevant behaviors. Since their publication, the amount of resurgence research focused on clinically relevant behaviors appears to have increased significantly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to systematically review research on resurgence of clinically relevant behaviors published after the Kestner review to identify new findings and directions of recent research. This review includes 13 articles published from 2016-2019. The articles were identified systematically with 85% initial agreement. The findings of the review identified themes within the published research that include stimulus control, history of reinforcement, and behavioral momentum theory. Limitations, future research directions, and possible applications are also discussed.
 
164.

Prevalence of Treatment Relapse in Children With Destructive Behavior

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
NATASHA CHAMBERLAIN (Children’s Specialized Hospital–Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH–RUCARES)), Kayla Randall (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brian D. Greer (Children’s Specialized Hospital–Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH–RUCARES) and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Daniel R. Mitteer (Children’s Specialized Hospital–Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH–RUCARES)), Ryan Kimball (University of Saint Joseph)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Practitioners commonly test for generality of treatment effects during the end of patient admissions (Stokes & Baer, 1977). Tests may include conditions such as conducting treatment with a novel implementer, in a novel setting, or large decreases in reinforcement. Research suggests that tests for treatment generality often produce treatment relapse (Pritchard, Hoerger, & Mace, 2014). Treatment relapse is generally defined as the reemergence of undesirable behavior following successful treatment (Wathen & Podlesnik, 2018). The current study quantified the prevalence of treatment relapse during these common generality tests for 12 participants enrolled in an outpatient treatment program for severe destructive behavior. We retrieved information on the (a) child's age, (b) referral concerns, (c) diagnoses, (d) level of intellectual disability, (e) treatment duration, (f) undesirable behavior targeted, (g) function of behavior, (h) rates of behavior during assessments and treatment, (i) rates of behavior during tests for generality, and (j) generality test type. We compared mean rates of undesirable behavior during treatment to mean rates of undesirable behavior during tests for generality. Destructive behavior resurged in 18 of 24 applications and renewed in 9 of 14 applications. These findings are discussed in terms of clinical application for the treatment of destructive behavior.

 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
SABA DONATE