Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Paper Session #279
New Applications of Behavior Analysis to Behavioral Safety Issues
Sunday, May 24, 2020
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Marriott Marquis, Level M4, Liberty M
Area: CSS
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
 
Changing Driver Yielding Behavior on A Citywide Basis: A Tale of Two Cities
Domain: Applied Research
RON VAN HOUTEN (Western Michigan University), Jonathan Hochmuth (Western Michigan University)
 
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to increase yielding on a city wide basis in two cities located in large metropolitan areas, Ann Arbor, MI and Saint Paul, MN. A multifaceted treatment program was used to increase yielding in both cities that consisted of highly visible enforcement, public posting of the percentage of drivers yielding to pedestrians each week along with the record, and low cost engineering treatments. Enforcement and the low cost engineering components were only introduce at treatment sites, while measures were obtained at generalization site to assess whether changes were taking place at untreated crosswalks. The percentages posted on the feedback sign was only based on data collected at the treated sites. The program produced a large change in yielding at the treatment sites and a more modest change at the generalization sites. All data were collected by research assistants who followed a staged crossing protocol. Probe data were collected on naturally crossing pedestrians at all sites. Increases in yielding to naturally occurring pedestrians were larger than those for staged crossings at both the enforcement and generalization sites. This replicates data observed in other studies and appears to be related to naturally crossing pedestrians crossing more aggressively than staged crossings.
 
A Behavior-Analytic Approach to the Anti-Vaccination Movement
Domain: Theory
SUMAH CONFER (Eastern Connecticut State University), James W. Diller (Eastern Connecticut State University), Jeffrey Danforth (Eastern Connecticut State)
 
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of diseases that are preventable by vaccination. As vaccination involves behavior, behavior analysts are uniquely positioned to contribute to solving this socially significant problem. The present paper explores a behavior-analytic approach to understanding the function of the behavior of people who choose both to have their children vaccinated and/or those who do not have their children vaccinated, and potential interventions to increase vaccination. An introduction to the problem is followed by a brief history of the anti-vaccination movement. In our analysis, a failure to vaccinate is conceptualized as a noncompliance response (i.e., medical non-adherence), and conditions giving rise to that noncompliance are evaluated. In this process, the roles of avoidance, the functional-altering impact of rule-governed behavior, and countercontrol are considered. Potential solutions informed by applied behavior-analytic literature to increase the probability of of vaccinations (e.g., contingency management and behavioral safety) are discussed.
 
 

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