Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #534
Monday, May 25, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
33.

The Impact of Trial Type and Instructional Errors on Acquisition During Discrete Trial Training

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SUMMER BOTTINI (Binghamton University), Jennifer M. Gillis (Binghamton University), Raymond G. Romanczyk (SUNY at Binghamton)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

Discrete trial training is one evidence-based instructional procedure within Applied Behavior Analysis. Two important considerations when using this procedure is trial presentation type and treatment integrity. Research has demonstrated both these considerations affect skill acquisition for children with developmental disabilities but has not rigorously examined their independent and interactive impact on learning in larger samples. The present study is a translational approach to better understand learning during discrete trial training. Using an arbitrary computerized learning task, we compared trial presentation type (massed trial versus task interspersal) on skill acquisition during high- and low-treatment integrity conditions (100% integrity versus 75% integrity) in 166 college students. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated task interspersal resulted in better acquisition and maintenance than massed trial and low treatment integrity significantly impairs learning. No interaction between trial presentation type and treatment integrity emerged. Additionally, specific patterns of learning emerged during low treatment integrity conditions that suggested some participants developed faulty stimulus control. Discussion of learning processes and implications for instruction is included in light of present findings.

 
34.

Differential Effect of Feedback on Performance and Its Relation With Students’ Past Knowledge

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RITA OLLA (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Monica De La Puente (University of Nevada, Reno), Laura Crosswell (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

Chase and Houmafar (2009) explored in a large-enrollment class setting the effect of basic feedback (specification of correct/incorrect answer) and elaborate feedback (basic feedback + information on the topic addressed in the question) on the students’ performance when taking quizzes. This research was conducted in laboratory settings. An eye tracker was also used to verify correlations between performance and participants’ eye gazes on screen. A between-group design was implemented, using two groups, one for each type of feedback. Ninety-eight undergraduate students, having a different level of knowledge on Operant Conditioning, were recruited and randomly assigned to the groups. The participants read a textbook chapter on Operant Conditioning followed by two sets of quiz. The “first attempt” showed them the feedback assigned. Change in the performance between the quiz scores was measured. The results, significant at p=0.106, demonstrated an enhanced change in the performance for the participants in the elaborate feedback group, an important result considering that most of the participants having no previous knowledge of Operant Conditioning, by chance, were assigned to the elaborate feedback group. This corroborates the superior effect of the elaborate feedback in supporting the learning of new content. The eye tracker data demonstrated statistically significant longer eye gazes when the answers provided were wrong compared to the correct ones.

 
35. The Effect of Direct Instruction on Spanish Language Acquisition in a Preschool Free-Play Environment: A Single-Case Design
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LUCY SCOTTI (Monongalia County Schools and West Virginia University), Joseph R. Scotti (WHOLE Families, PLLC), Bobbie Warash (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract: The increase in Spanish speakers within the United States calls for an expansion of preschool curricula. There are multiple arguments about the best time or critical periods for children to learn a second language. Using a single-case design to reflect individual differences, this study demonstrates that preschoolers can learn Spanish vocabulary with an average of 30 minutes of instruction per week. Combining direct instruction with developmentally appropriate practices and hands-on activities, we taught five categories (e.g., colors, foods, numbers) of five Spanish vocabulary words. Six four-year-old children (3 girls) participated in activities incorporating English and Spanish words into play-based interactions. Prompts, feedback, and praise were used, and progress was measured via cumulative records (see attached sample figures). Girls improved over baseline on use of Spanish words; boys showed little improvement. All children improved in fluency of identifying a pictorial response. Across the five-week intervention, all children demonstrated improved pronunciation and increasing independence in use of the Spanish words. Cumulative graphs and tables will demonstrate the impact of the combination of direct instruction and interactive activities. This method is easily incorporated into a naturalistic classroom setting by inserting vocabulary, directives, and bilingual instruction into the daily routine.
 
36. Active Learning Investigations Citing Freeman et al. (2014): A Critical Analysis of Citation Accuracy and Reporting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AMEDEE MARTELLA (Purdue University), Nancy Marchand-Martella (Purdue University), Ronald C. Martella (Purdue University ), Jeffrey Karpicke (Purdue University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract: “Remarkable attention” has been placed on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education with focused efforts on college engagement and reform in this area. Martella and Lovett (2019) reviewed 57 articles that incorporated active learning and found active learning is not well defined and varies in the amount of lecture included. To further investigate this literature, we conducted a search on "active learning" and publication year=2014 in Web of Science Core Collection showing the meta-analysis of 225 studies conducted by Freeman et al. (2014) had almost 1000 more citations than the next most highly cited article. Given the seminal work of Freeman et al. (2014) and the differing definitions of active learning, it seems critical to ensure accuracy of the reported findings surrounding active learning given that reference quality and accuracy have been and continue to be an issue in journal publishing. There were two purposes of this study. First, we are determining the accuracy of the citations of Freeman et al. (2014) in published active learning investigations. Second, we are also determining the accuracy of claims made by Freeman et al. and others (e.g., active learning is a constructivist approach; lecture is ineffective).
 
37. Effects of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction on Academic and Nonacademic Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
JOSHUA M. PULOS (University of Oklahoma), Corey Peltier (University of Oklahoma), Kristi Morin (Lehigh University), Tracy Eileen Sinclair (University of Oklahoma), Kendra Williams-Diehm (University of Oklahoma)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract: An important behavioral disposition for in-school and post-school success of students with disabilities is self-determination. One way to teach behaviors associated with self-determination is through an evidence-based practice, the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the experimental literature on studies implementing the SDLMI. A total of 25 studies (k = 19 single-case, k = 6 group design) were included in the review. With an insufficient number of group design studies, we only used single-case studies for the quantitative synthesis. We determined intervention effects using visual analysis, Tau-U, and the between-case standardized mean difference (BC-SMD). Based on visual analysis, we determined 14% demonstrated strong intervention effects, 39% demonstrated moderate intervention effects, and 47% demonstrated weak intervention effects. The Tau-U effect size across studies ranged from 0.33 to 1.09, with an omnibus of 0.78 (CI95% = [0.67, 0.89]). The BC-SMD for individual studies ranged from -0.30 to 14.35. Moderator analyses revealed of the nine variables analyzed (i.e., quality appraisal, interventionist, disability, race, gender, grade level, applied setting, dependent variable, and intervention level), only quality appraisal, interventionist, and race served as moderators. Implications for practice, limitations, and implications for future research will be addressed.
 
38. English Language Learners' Decode Words Using Build A Word-EASY Spelling with Phonics Electronic App
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LAURICE JOSEPH (The Ohio State University), Kelsey Ross (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Build A Word-Easy Spelling with Phonics electronic application (app) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of letter-sound correspondences for five kindergartners who are English Language Learners (ELLs). This app is essentially an electronic version of the word boxes which entails students saying the sounds and sliding letters into drawn boxes that correspond to the sounds heard in a word. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of this app across kindergartners’ letter-sound correspondences performance. Generalization was also examined by having the students make letter-sound correspondences when presented with untrained real words, nonsense words, and spelling words. Visual analysis (level, immediacy of effect, variability, consistency, and trend). Tau-U effect size estimates were also completed to determine the magnitude of the intervention effects for each student. A functional relationship occurred between the electronic app and students’ performance on letter-sound correspondence probes. Moderate to large intervention effects were observed across the participants. Participants maintained their high level of performance over several weeks after the intervention ended. Participants were also able to generalize their decoding skills to untrained real and nonsense words.
 
39.

Teaching English Learners With Disabilities to Summarize Passages

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH HORTON (Hope College), Sophia R D'Agostino (Hope College)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

The need for effective, research-based interventions focused on the reading needs of English learners with disabilities is critical. Previous research indicates the importance of investigating this need through single subject design studies. In this study, a single-subject multiple-probe design was used to investigate the effects of the Modified GIST Strategy involving systematic prompting and positive reinforcement on the summarizing skills of English learners with disabilities between the ages of 15 and 17 years. Following the baseline phase, the participants received tutoring in the Modified GIST Strategy through modeling and guided instruction. After tutoring, the participants’ independent summarizing skills were measured by having participants read expository passages and summarize text. Two weeks following the intervention phase, maintenance data was collected for each participant. Results from visual analysis indicate an improvement in the summarization skills for all participants, as there was an immediate change in level and trend between baseline and intervention. Results also demonstrate that the participants’ summarization skills remained high during maintenance probes. Procedural fidelity was high at 98.76 percent and inter-observer agreement was 95.02 percent. The results are promising for this group of participants, and future research should address further investigations with the Modified GIST Strategy.

 
40.

Examining the Impact of Technology on Student Engagement, Performance, and Achievement: A Comparison of Kahoot and Socrative

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLIN GRANT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Washington, D.C.)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

Constantly increasing in versatility, technology has enabled educators to deliver material to students in fun and unique ways. However, it is important to understand how the introduction of technology is effecting student learning. In order to better understand this impact, my study has compared a game-based technology, Kahoot, to a non-game-based technology, Socrative. The goal of the study was to understand how technology impacts student engagement, performance, and achievement. A control condition, with no technology was used to establish a baseline level across variables. An alternating treatments design was used across two math classes consisting of one teacher and 15 students. The results have shown that Kahoot (a game-based technology) promotes engagement amongst students, however performance decreases due to the fast-paced Q&A format of the game. Socrative (a non-game-based technology) may produce better performance amongst students than Kahoot in a math class. Achievement appears to be relatively high across all conditions.

 
41.

The Effects of Contingency Contracts on the Correct Use of Punctuation Marks in Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHIAS GRÜNKE (University of Cologne)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple contingency contracting intervention on the correct use of punctuation marks in freely produced texts by elementary school children with learning disabilities. These symbols are an essential way of clarifying what one wants to get across when interacting through written language. Contingency contracting can be considered a promising strategy for facilitating the development of academic skills in struggling students. The benefits of the intervention were evaluated using an ABC multiple baseline design across three subjects. Results indicated that this technique was very helpful in distinctly boosting the performance of the participants. The percentage of properly used punctuation marks varied between 0.00 and 13.35 on average during baseline conditions. Immediately upon the onset of the intervention, the ratio increased markedly, reaching mean levels between 86.50% and 88.85%. Applying contingency contracts requires little effort on the part of teachers and can be viewed as a very serviceable tool to support struggling students in their endeavors to produce stories with proper punctuation.

 
42. The Effects of a Class-Wide Multicomponent Motivational Intervention on the Writing Performance of Academically Challenged Elementary School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHIAS GRÜNKE (University of Cologne)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a simple multicomponent motivational intervention on the writing performance of a class of low-achieving fourth graders under everyday conditions in schools. An ABAB design was utilized to establish a functional relationship between the independent variable (a treatment involving explicit timing, immediate feedback through self-scoring, and positive reinforcement through verbal praise and the display of high scores) and the dependent variable (the total number of words written). The students took very well to the intervention and significantly increased their performance whenever it was carried out. All applied procedures to measure the benefits of our multicomponent motivational intervention (visual inspection, effect size calculation, and piecewise regression analysis) suggest that the approach has a tremendous potential to bring even a whole class of very low-achieving elementary school students to eagerly engage in writing. As the results have impressively shown, it does not take much to make a difference.
 
43.

Teaching Addition to Students with Moderate Disabilities Using Video Prompting

Area: EDC
SCOTT DUEKER (Ball State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

Academic performance for students with moderate to severe disabilities falls far behind their typically developing peers and puts them at risk for continued dependence after school ends. Video prompting is an evidence-based practice that has been used to teach various non-academic skills; however, few studies have focused on using video prompting to teach academic skills other than reading. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across students design to evaluate the use of video prompting to teach single- and double-digit addition to three students with moderate disabilities. Results indicated that all three students improved their accurate completion of addition problems immediately upon introduction of the video prompting intervention. In addition, all three students completely faded the use of the videos and generalized completing addition problems to another setting. Social validity of the intervention was high across all participants, their families, and their teacher.

 
44.

Supporting English Language Learners Within the Classroom With Video Modeling

Area: EDC
DACIA MCCOY (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

English language learners (ELL) are at risk of academic failure when classroom expectations are not effectively communicated and they are unable to engage in classroom instruction. This single-subject design study investigated the effects of a video self-modeling intervention on the classroom behavior of preschool ELLs exhibiting low levels of engagement and/or high levels of off-task behavior. Prior to group time, the child viewed a brief self-modeling video of appropriate behavior (i.e., engagement). A parent of the target child provided voice-over on the videos in the child’s home language, clearly stating the classroom expectations described by the teacher. The results indicate an increase in engagement and decrease in off-task behaviors for all 4 children to levels comparable to English-fluent speaking and ELL peer comparisons in the classroom. This intervention was viewed favorably by both the teachers and children and is considered an effective and efficient intervention to use within the classroom setting.

 
45. Evaluation of Self-Regulated Strategy Development to Improve the Narrative Writing Performance in Students with Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA SZALWINSKI (Ivymount School ), Amanda Leichliter (The Ivymount School)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract: In addition to the use of writing in academic contexts, writing is used to communicate with others. Students with autism exhibit a wide range of deficits that can be detrimental to the writing process. Research suggests high efficacy when self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) is implemented during one on one instruction with children with autism, leading to gains in overall written products (i.e., number of words written, inclusion of functional essay elements). The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the SRSD program in increasing the writing ability of students with autism when taught in a small group format. Intervention consisted of SRSD taught for 30 minutes, 4 times a week in small groups of 1 adult to 3-5 students. Data was collected on the number of words written, number of functional essay elements, and stage level according to Six Traits writing checklist. A multiple baseline across groups design was used to demonstrate control. Results suggest that using SRSD to teach narrative writing was an effective strategy in increasing students writing ability.
 
46. The Effects of Self-Questioning on the Reading Comprehension of English Language Learners in Elementary School Classes
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ABDULRAHMAN ALSULTAN (The Ohio State University), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract: The ability to read and comprehend material is fundamental to attaining a successful academic life and adulthood (Mellard & Patterson, 2008). However, for the majority of at-risk learners, the deficit becomes more pronounced as they progress through school and as reading requirements become more demanding. English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities are more likely to lag in education, which limits their progression and opportunities in life. In addition, ELL students with learning and comprehension challenges, without the necessary interventions, receive low academic grades and struggle through classes, which may explain the high dropout rate among ELL students (Olsen, 2014). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the self-questioning with visual prompt fading on the reading comprehension of fifth-graders who struggle with reading comprehension. A multiple-probe experimental design across four ELL students was used to evaluate the effects of self-questioning on the ability of participants to answer comprehension questions. The study took place in an urban charter school located in the Midwest. The participants were trained to generate and answer questions while reading an expository passage, followed by a multiple-choice comprehension quiz. The results indicate that the participants successfully maintained the self-questioning skills two weeks following intervention. The study findings are consistent with previous findings demonstrating the effects of the self-questioning intervention on struggling readers.
 
47. Increasing the Frequency of Basic Phonics Skills to Effect Oral Reading Fluency for First Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Failure
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
JEREMY D MOELLER (The Pennsylvania State University)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract: The current study used a multiple baseline, multiple probe single-case design to determine the effects of using Frequency Building to Performance Criterion (FBPC) with early reading skills (i.e., letter-sound correspondence, blending sounds into words, and repeated reading) on oral reading fluency. Teachers identified five first grade students at-risk for reading failure to participate in the research. The five students were identified by being in the lowest placement within the reading curriculum. Four students were provided with FBPC three to five times a week for a total of 30 sessions. After each session students were given novel decodable reading passages and timed for one minute. In addition, students were given weekly curriculum-based measures (CBM) grade-level reading probes. Overall, students demonstrated an increase in oral reading fluency, as measured by one minute passage reading, after the introduction of FBPC with early reading skills, demonstrating an experimental effect for increasing the frequency of early reading skills to oral reading fluency. Students on average increased words read correctly per minute by 62-108% and decreased words read incorrectly per minute by 40-66% from baseline measures. Additionally, students decreased error celertation and made modest gains with correct accel data.
 
48.

The Impact of Text-To-Speech on Comprehension for Students With Learning Disabilities in an Urban School

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TOLULOPE OLAYEMI SULAIMON (Ohio State University Cleveland State University), John Schaefer (Cleveland State University )
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract:

The A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to explore the effects of Text-to-speech (TTS) program (Read & Write Gold 11) on comprehension for 2 fourth grade students with learning disability in an urban school while accessing grade level comprehension text. Participants read fourth-grade level comprehension passages from a reading instruction resource. For each session, the student was timed for 35 minutes to read and answer the comprehension passage. The students manipulated the speech option (Pitch, speed, voice and word pause) of the TTS program to suit them. Results show that the TTS program affected the students’ comprehension score. All participants’ scores increased when the TTS program was introduced to read the comprehension passages. In addition, the participants found the TTS program easy to use with less or no support. Limitation and implications for future research are discussed in this paper

 
49. Reviewing State-Created Curriculum Evaluation Tools through an Implementation Lens
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
KRISTEN ROLF (Utah State University), Sarah E. Pinkelman (Utah State University), Kaitlin Bundock (Utah State University)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract: The curriculum adoption process is the opportunity for school districts to choose effective, empirically supported curricula for use in their schools and marks the beginning of the process of implementing those curricula. This review examined the support provided to school districts by state departments of education to attend to implementation issues when adopting instructional programs in the areas of English/language arts and mathematics. We followed a priori, systematic procedures to conduct a web search and visit each state’s department of education website in search of curriculum evaluation tools. After identifying all of the state-created curriculum evaluation tools in the areas of English/language arts and mathematics, we reviewed the tools and used a priori codes to examine the evidence of alignment between the curriculum evaluation tools and six implementation indicators identified by the National Implementation Research Network. These six indicators address the evidence supporting a program, the supports for users built into a program, the usability and fit of a program within an organization, as well as the needs of the adopting organization and the capacity of the organization to implement the program. We found that 15 states provide state-created curriculum evaluation tools, few tools support users to attend to the implementation issues listed above, and only one state provides a tool that thoroughly addresses the six implementation indicators. We conclude by identifying future areas of research and discussing how state and local education agencies may proactively address issues related to the implementation of empirically supported instructional programs during the curriculum adoption process. Results of this review may provide insight as to how state departments of education may support school districts to choose and fully implement empirically supported curricula.
 
51. The Effects a Fluency Building Intervention on Math Facts Performance for Students Receiving Intensive Academic Support
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES STOCKER (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Emily Crumpler (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alexandra Gonzales (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates systematic practice with math fact families efficiently and effectively improves fluency. The present investigation tested the effects of a fluency building intervention on math facts performance with four elementary school students participating in multi-tiered systems of support. The researchers employed a multiple baseline design across three sets of fact families. Intervention components consisted of modeling the fact family followed by three, one-minute practice trials with immediate feedback delivered between each timing. The students received up to a ten-day window of intervention on one set of fact families before moving to the next set. Results suggest a significant increase in digits correct per minute and a decrease in digits incorrect per minute. Study outcomes also suggest that fluency instruction focusing on the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction operations can plausibly serve as a viable alternative to instruction with isolated and unrelated math facts. Discussion points on stimulus equivalence as well as implications for practitioners and recommendations for future research will be shared.
 
52.

The Effectiveness of an Adapted Direct Instruction Math Strategy Using Manipulatives and Visual Placemats on the Development of Quantifying Numbers by Two Thirteen-Year-Old Boys With Special Needs

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M NEYMAN (Gonzaga University), Jordyn McKenna (Gonzaga University)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of an adapted Direct Instruction (DI) Mathematics Strategy using manipulatives and visual prompting leveled placemats on quantifying numbers by two thirteen-year-old boys with both Down syndrome and a hearing impairment in a special education self-contained classroom. The study used an event recording system within a changing criterion design to assess each participant’s development of quantifying the correct numbers. To quantify a number, the participants were asked to give a specified number of manipulatives within a specified time. Intervention adapted a Direct Instruction Mathematics instructional strategy where the researcher guided the participants through most to least visual prompting placemats. The visual prompting placemats included (1) the specified numeral and boxes, (2) boxes only, (3) numeral only, and (4) blank. During instruction, the researcher modeled how to place the manipulatives on the placemat based on its prompting level and then had the participants respond independently. As the participants showed accurate and fluent responding during a specific placemat level, the researcher proceeded to introduce the next placemat level to reduce visual prompting. Instruction continued until the participants reached independent responding on the blank placemat. Appropriate feedback was provided based on correct and incorrect responses. The results showed improvement in both participants’ abilities to quantify numbers from 1 to 6 across six weeks of intervention. Using the manipulatives and fading the visual prompts on the placemats in combination with the DI Mathematics teaching format provided scaffolded instruction to develop the participants’ number quantifying skills. Also, the manipulatives and visual components provided the participants concrete understanding of a specific number and allowed them to differentiate across number names.

 
54. Comparing Single-Case Design Quality Appraisal Tool Outcomes: Functional Communication Training with Communicative Supports in Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CIARA OUSLEY (The Pennsylvania State University ), Tracy Jane Raulston (The Pennsylvania State University), Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago), David McNaughton (The Pennsylvania State University), Naima Bhana (The Pennsylvania State University), Theoni Mantzoros (The Pennsylvania State University)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract: Several white papers have recently called for increased attention on improving the quality and rigor of single-case design, a research methodology commonly conducted in special education settings. As a result, various research groups have developed protocols describing quality standards. Zimmerman and colleagues (2018) applied three quality evaluation tools (What Works Clearinghouse Standards, Council for Exceptional Children Quality Indicators, and Single-Case Analysis Review Framework) to sensory-based interventions (a non-evidence-based practice) to compare the tools. Their results indicated that the three tools yielded similar methodological rigor outcomes of the studies despite the differing quality standards targeted in each tool. They called on research teams to compare these tools to a well-established intervention. In the current review, we applied the three aforementioned tools to functional communication training (FCT) combined with augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) supports for individuals with developmental disabilities in school settings. We identified 38 studies which contained 59 single-case designs. Preliminary data support some statistically significant correlations between tools yet differing evidence-based practice outcomes. These differences may cause confusion for practitioners, leading to inaccurate adoption of evidence-based practices in schools. Implications for researchers seeking to utilize quality protocols, as well as suggestions for practitioners seeking evidence-based interventions, will be presented.
 
55.

An Evaluation of Mirror Training and Modeling: Teaching Sign Language to Children With Developmental Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MELIA SHAMBLIN (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Temple S Lovelace (Duquesne University)
Abstract:

Previous research studies have indicated that the use of mirrors can facilitate the acquisition of motor imitation skills in individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities, though the generality of these findings have not replicated in more recent research. Experiment 1 of this study sought to replicate and extend these results by implementing a training procedure with mirror training and traditional modeling methods to teach three children with autism spectrum disorder specific American Sign Language signs. Responses taught with a mirror training methodology were found to unreliably result in a faster acquisition in only one of three participants. Reliable responding during only the modeling conditions increased for one participant and in one participant, signing responses failed to emerge using either presentation method. Experiment 2 seeks to refine confound variables determined in Experiment 1, focusing primarily on prerequisite skills that may be required prior to the emergence of sign language demonstration abilities, such as general imitative responding.

 
 

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