Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #305
Sunday, May 24, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
146.

What Should We Do? A Problem Solving Approach to Identify Skill-Acquisition Procedures to Resolve Persistent Errors

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VALERIA LADDAGA GAVIDIA ( University of North Texas), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas )
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Many procedures based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) increase skills for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite empirical support, issues can arise during ABA intervention, which can be difficult to resolve. Decisions about modifications to intervention may be based on the individual learner’s history or repertoire, the behavior analyst’s repertoire, and resources in the literature. In the current project, a problem solving approach was used to identify potential modifications after constant-prompt delay with represent-until-independent error correction and non-differential reinforcement did not increase correct responses for a six-year-old boy with ASD. We conducted a detailed error analysis, a brief literature review, and multiple brief assessments using strategies identified in the literature. The error analysis suggested prompt dependence and potential sources of faulty stimulus control. Based on the extant literature, we evaluated differential observing responses, prompt fading, blocked trials, and differential reinforcement. Several procedures required multiple teaching steps that were inefficacious or slow to produce change. Ultimately, differential reinforcement with enthusiastic praise increased independent responding. A description of our problem solving approach coupled with supporting data will be presented. Recommendations for the adoption of a similar approach to identify individualized interventions for persistent errors and prompt dependence will be discussed.

 
147. An Evaluation of Stimulus Preference Using a Progressive Response Effort Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AVISHA PATEL (Rider University), Robert W. Isenhower (Rider University ), Frances A. Perrin (Rider University), Cynthia Bott-Tomarchio (Eden Autism Services), Rachel Tait (Eden Autism Services ), Kelly Dunn (Eden Autism Services )
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract: Formal stimulus preference assessments are widely used to help determine which stimuli are likely to function as reinforcers during intervention. In the current study, a procedural variation of the multiple stimulus with replacement (Windsor, Piché, & Locke, 1994) preference assessment was conducted where the distance to the most preferred item was manipulated parametrically in order to assess the relationship between stimulus preference and response effort. Three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated. Five stimuli identified as preferred using a paired choice preference assessment (Fisher et al., 1992) were presented on a line about 4 inches in front of the learner and about 3 inches apart from each other. During the first minute all stimuli remained on the 4-inch line. Each stimulus was immediately replaced when selected, and the stimulus with the most selections became the target. Target distances were 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25 inches. In the ascending sequence the target stimulus was moved to the next line further from the learner each subsequent minute. In the descending sequence the target was moved to the furthest line after the initial minute and was then moved one line closer each subsequent minute. Data were collected on the number of selections to each stimulus at each target distance. Results suggest that participants engaged in more response effort to select target stimuli. Implications for preference and reinforcer assessments will be discussed.
 
148.

Functional Analysis and Treatment of Diurnal Bruxism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Savannah Tate (University of Florida), KYLE HAMILTON (University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Rachel LeeAnn Schmidli (University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Diurnal bruxism is the grinding of upper and lower teeth indicated by an audible sound. The diurnal distinction is due to the individual engaging in bruxism while awake. Previous literature evaluated the use of a prompting procedure that consists of a vocal and physical prompt called a combined cue (Barnoy et al., 2009 & Armstrong et al., 2014). Armstrong and colleagues (2014) also conducted a functional analysis to identify the function of bruxism in one participant. In the current study, we extended the literature in two ways. First, we conducted an extended ignore condition (Querim et al., 2013) to ensure the behavior was not socially mediated. Next, we evaluated the use of a bite band with the combined cue prompting procedure using an ABAB reversal design. We measured the frequency of bruxism and independent mouthing and converted the measures to response per minute. We also measured the duration of independent mouthing following the first iteration of baseline and treatment. Results for a five-year old child with autism indicate that the combined cue and presentation of the bite band decreased rates of bruxism while increasing rates of independent mouthing. However, more participants are needed to determine the effectiveness of this treatment.

 
149.

Implementation of a Social Emotional Learning Program: Modified and Adapted to Meet the Learning Needs of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Disabilities

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHARON R. GAINFORTH (Stepping Stones Centre)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Robust research links positive educational and well-being outcomes with students’ participation in SEL programs. Outcomes for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), however are not as favourable. The purpose of this study was to identify the outcomes of students with ASD and their NT peers following their participation in a SEL program that was modified to meet the needs of students with ASD. Ninety-seven students participated in this mixed method action research design study. Quantitative data were gained from the pre-post administration of the Social Emotional Intelligence–Youth Version (SEI-YV). Qualitative data were obtained through teacher and student questionnaires. NT students significantly increased their scores of the Apply Consequential Thinking competency. The effect size for three other competencies exceeded Cohen’s (1988) convention for a small effect. The students with ASD achieved a medium effect size for two competencies, and a small effect size for one competency. Qualitative data corroborated the results, showing a reduction in challenging behaviours, generalization of learned targets, and an increase in empathy. When an SEL program is taught in a manner that meets the learning needs of students with ASD, students with ASD and their NT peers can obtain improved outcomes.

 
150.

Teaching Children With Autism to Make Empathetic Statements in Presence of Non-Verbal Affective Stimuli

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GUIDO DANGELO (DALLA LUNA - BARI, ITALY), Claudio Radogna (DALLA LUNA - BARI, ITALY), Maria Graziano (DALLA LUNA - BARI, ITALY)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Empathy is the ability to identify verbal and non-verbal stimuli associated with different affective states and to respond to them appropriately. The deficit in showing empathy, commonly found in people with autism, can significantly compromise the ability to establish, maintain and develop social relationships. The purpose of this study is to increase the ability of people with autism to identify nonverbal affective stimuli and respond to them with empathic responses. The present research included two participants, aged 7 to 9 years, with autism spectrum disorder. Across multiple exemplars training, nonverbal affective stimuli were presented, commonly associated with various private events, such as physical pain, sadness and fatigue. The therapist (a) provided a rule, (b) presented the non-verbal stimulus, (c) suggested leading questions in order to lead participants to identify non-verbal stimuli associated with other people's private events and to respond with empathic statements. The results indicated that both participants acquired the ability to respond with empathic statements and generalized the ability to novel situations, on which training had never been conducted before. These data show that children with autism can learn to detect non-verbal affective stimuli and provide empathic responses as a result of behavioral interventions.

 
151. Evaluating an eHealth Case Management System in an Intensive Behavioural Intervention Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMY PANKEWICH (University of Manitoba; St.Amant), Toby L. Martin (University of Manitoba; St.Amant Research Centre), Kerri L. Walters (St. Amant; University of Manitoba), Charmayne Dube (New Directions; University of Manitoba)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract: Early intensive behavioural internvention (EIBI) is a treatment program designed to increase adaptive behaviour and decrease maladaptive behaviours for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The current standard of data collection used by EIBI programs in Manitoba is paper-and-pencil. Participants were three Autism Consultants and one Autism Senior Tutor currently employed in a large, community-based EIBI program. Differences between accuracy of collecting Discrete Trial Teaching and challenging behaviour data using paper-and-pencil and an eHealth tool (TNAC®) were examined. Questions regarding the social validity of both methods of data collection were also examined. There were no substantial differences in accuracy between collecting DTT and challenging behaviour data using paper-and-pencil or TNAC®. Respondents indicated in the social validity questionnaires that paper-and-pencil was the preferred method to collect data across all categories. These findings suggest that using an eHealth tool for data collection could provide benefits to an EIBI program if the social validity components are addressed.
 
152. Examining the Function of Behavior Prior and Following Instructional Fading and Rapport Building
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHAELA RICE (May Institute), Stephanie Coe (May Institute), Meghan Silva (May Institute)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with deficits in social interaction, accompanied with restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). Some individuals with ASD also engage in problem behavior (e.g., aggression) when presented with instructional demands (Love, Carr, LeBlanc, 2009). One hypothesis is when demands are presented without building the framework of rapport building, escape-maintained problem behavior and social avoidance may be evoked (Cariveau, et al., 2019). Although rapport building has been shown to be effective in reducing problem behavior (Cariveau, et al., 2019; Shillingsburg, Hansen, & Wright, 2018), a functional analysis has yet to be included as part of the assessment and treatment package. The purpose of this study was to conduct a functional analysis prior to and following the instructional fading and rapport building treatment described by Shillingsburg and colleagues (2018) to determine the function of the problem behavior and determine if the treatment was effective in suppressing the behavior. Participants included two male students with ASD who attended a school setting and presented with dangerous behavior. Results suggest rapport building and instructional fading can result in suppressed rates of maladaptive behavior multiply maintained by escaping academic demands and accessing tangibles.
 
153.

Training Parents of Children With Autism Who Have Limited English Proficiency Using Video Prompting

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATALY LIM (University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Fabiola Vargas Londono (University of Texas at Austin), Adrienne Russell-George (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Conventional training procedures often involve verbal instructions and verbal feedback. However, a parent whose first language is not English might not necessarily speak or understand the language used by the trainer. The primary aim of the present study was to address the question of how to provide effective parent training in the presence of a language barrier between the trainer and the parent. A multiple baseline design across three mother-child dyads was used to evaluate the efficacy of a video prompting intervention on mothers’ fidelity of implementation. A replication was conducted with a fourth mother using an alternating treatments design. All mothers' primary languages were Spanish and had limited English proficiency. English-speaking therapists who did not speak Spanish conducted all training sessions. Parents were trained to teach their children with autism independent dressing skills. All parents reached mastery criterion during sessions with their trainer. Three mothers generalized these skills to sessions with their children. Follow-up data indicates maintenance of skills. Independent dressing skills increased for four children. This pilot study suggests that video prompting could potentially mitigate language barriers and successfully teach immigrant mothers with limited English proficiency to use behavioral strategies to facilitate child independence in dressing.

 
154. Reinstatement of Multiple Mand Topographies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WHITNEY TRAPP (The May Institute), Clare Liddon (The May Institute), Courtney Bright (The May Institute)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract: Previous research demonstrates that recurrence of previously treated behavior following a fixed time delivery of reinforcers, also known as reinstatement, can be observed in socially significant behavior; specifically, problem behavior (Falcomata et al., 2013). The current evaluation extends previous literature to determine whether reinstatement can be observed in other forms of socially significant behavior, such as communicative responses, and whether reinstatement will be observed in the presence of multiple response forms for the same reinforcer. A three-component, sequential design was used to evaluate the reinstatement of mastered mands (i.e., picture exchange, picture point, and TouchChat via iPad). Conditions included: Fixed Ratio Reinforcement, Extinction, and a yoked, Fixed Time condition. All mand modalities were exposed to all three conditions. Results from the current evaluation suggest that reinstatement can be observed in appropriate behavior, and across multiple response forms. Interpretation of these results may suggest the use of a reinstatement test to identify the best mand modality for use in communication training when total communication approaches fail to identify a single response modality to target for instruction.
 
155. A Preliminary Examination of the Influence of Medical Marijuana Products on Aberrant Behavior of Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLIN ROSS (MECA), Gloria Satriale (PAAL Program), Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Abstract: Recently, there has been increasing use of medical marijuana. Coinciding with this trend is the belief that marijuana products can be used to treat symptoms of autism. There are no controlled studies evaluating the effects of marijuana on autism. Advocacy groups have formed to promote use of marijuana to reduce behavioral episodes and increase social behaviors. No scientific evidence exists that this drug is causally related to any improvements in developmental, behavioral or social areas. In contrast, most national organizations related to substance abuse strongly argue that marijuana is potentially dangerous.The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between changes in problem behaviors and the use of the marijuana products. Participants included adolescents diagnosed with autism. Target behaviors for which a marijuana product was prescribed were operationally defined. Staff gathered daily data on the occurrence of these targeted behaviors, and the dates of administration of the marijuana products. Results showed no direct correlation between the use of the marijuana product and positive changes in problem behavior, casting doubt on the efficacy of this intervention. This suggests the need for the involvement of behavior analysis when manipulating medication in order to empirically evaluate the impact of such interventions.
 
156.

Staff Preference: Another Dimension of Assessment and Its Relation to On-Task and Compliance Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA ZAWACKI (PAAL), Gloria Satriale (PAAL Program)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

This study seeks to investigate the effects of staff preference (highly preferred staff versus less preferred staff) on the affect, compliance, and on-task behavior of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during demand activities that require prompting for on task engagement and task completion. Individual participants who indicate (through a preference assessment) a clear preference for certain staff members when compared to others, will be included in the study. Each participant will engage in the same demand activity conditions while direct-care staff members will be randomly alternated (highly preferred and less-preferred). Data will be evaluated through an alternating treatments design. Post hoc analysis will be conducted in order to identify the specific characteristics of the highly preferred staff (e.g., physical contact, facial expression, praise). Implications for the study include the value of providing choice and assessing preference of staff members and the potential impact for changing traditional staff training models to emphasize training for staff to position themselves as conditioned reinforcers to the individuals they serve.

 
157. Task Analysis of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOHN BUDDE (California State University, Los Angeles), Anna Lopez (California State University, Los Angeles), Phillip Romero (California State University, Los Angeles), Amanda Small (California State University, Los Angeles), Ya-Chih Chang (California State University, Los Angeles), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract: A number of disciplines and professions provide support to individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Consistent with this, many intervention packages have been developed and researched to support individuals with ASD specifically. Often times these intervention packages have unique names, which may result in confusion for both practitioners and researchers in the field. The present poster aims to consider a number of interventions that fall under the umbrella term of naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions, with the aim of clarifying their specific components and mechanisms to behavior analytic practitioners. Examples of interventions to be considered include Pivotal Response Training, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement Regulation, Early Start Denver Model, and Reciprocal Imitation Training (among others). Commonalities among these various packages will be highlighted, and opportunities for integration and collaboration will be reviewed. This will be accomplished by developing task analyses of each of the interventions we explored. The strengths and weaknesses of the various intervention packages will be laid out for conference participants to consider.
 
158.

Safe and Efficient Analysis of Self-Injury With Students Being Protected by Multiple Forms of Equipment

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY SULLIVAN (May Institute; Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

The Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) has been safely and successfully implemented in a variety of clinic, school, and home settings (Jessel, Hanley, & Ghaemmaghami, 2016; Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014; Santiago, Hanley, Moore, & Jin, 2016), however, there are no studies showing the IISCA being used with individuals who engage in severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) necessitating all-day use of multiple types of protective equipment. The aim of the present study was to safely functionally analyze two participants SIB who wore helmets and arm limiters. A multifactorial analysis was first conducted in which the presence of preferred items and availability of protective equipment was manipulated. Both participants engaged in less dangerous SIB when preferred items were available and when protective equipment was applied. More dangerous SIB and self-restraint occurred when protective equipment was not applied. Next, an IISCA was conducted which showed that both participants’ SIB was also sensitive to a synthesis of social consequences involving escape from demands to access preferred items, protective equipment, and presumably automatic reinforcement. These analysis results allowed for the development of a function-based treatment to decrease rates of SIB.

 
159.

The Effects of Individualized Positive Behavior Support on Classroom Challenging Behaviors and Alternative Behaviors Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication for a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Special School

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EUNHEE PAIK (Dept. of Special Ed. Kongju National University; President, The Korean Association for Behavior Analysis ), Surnhee Lee (Brain Korea 21. Dept. of Special Ed. Kongju National University ), Young Hee Seo (Dept. of Special Ed. Kongju National University), Kwangrim Lee (Dept. of Special Ed. Kongju National University), Hyouja Lee (Korean National University of Transportation)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the individualized positive behavior support on classroom disruptive behaviors for a student with autism spectrum disorder in Korean inclusive regular elementary school . The study utilized multiple baseline design across settings (math subject class, language art subject class, & activity based subject class). Through the functional behavior assessment, it was found that the challenging behaviors functioned as a means for obtaining objects and activity the student want to get in the classroom. The finding from the study indicated that the individualized positive behavior supports(i.e., setting event strategies, antecedent strategies, alternative behavioral strategies, and consequent strategies) were effective reducing those challenging behaviors (lying down on a desk, screaming, hitting on the desk with palm) and increasing use of functional communication of a student with ASD during the intervention and maintenance periods. In other words, teaching AAC use in student as an alternative behavior (a mand) of those challenging behaviors reduced the rate of challenging behaviors and increased AAC use for requesting the prefered objects and choice making in activity. The limitation of the study and future direction in research will be suggested.

 
160.

Mirror Protocol to Increase Observing and Imitation Skills in Adolescents With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CLAUDIA PUCHETTI (VitaLab Educational Centre), Gianluca Amato (VitaLab Educational Centre), Elena Vaccari (VitaLab Educational Centre), Chiara Leuci (Errepiù ), Fabiola Casarini (Errepiù )
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Generalized Motor Imitation is a fundamental evolutionary cusp, we could say that autistic children often have difficulties acquiring it. We collected the results of the "Mirror Protocol" (Greer & Ross, 2008) on 5 teenagers aged 11 to 18 without the verbal repertoire of generalized imitation, all with autism and multiple disabilities. The dependent variables were the number of imitative responses issued and the duration of their observational responses to the instructor's poses during a Yoga class before and after the intervention. The independent variables were implemented using the Learn Units with an individual intensive gross-motor imitation training at the mirror. The experimental design for this study is Multiple Probe Across Subiect. Post-survey data showed a significant increase in attention skills in all participants, while generalized imitation improved for a single subject. The probes were conducted during yoga classes due to the social meaning of inclusion. Furthermore, we should continue to use the imitation skills protocol implementation and improve the efficiency of the intervention. The limitations of this study are due to the short duration of the protocol implementation. The study shows positive results in inducing basic verbal skills and improving participation in group activities in this age group.

 
161.

Teaching Children With Autism to Mand for Information Across Tact and Intraverbal Operants

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMIE GILMORE-BLACK (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Desiree Dawson (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Michael Aragon (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Monroe Meyer Institute )
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

We replicated and extended research on teaching children with autism to mand for information (e.g., Ingvarsson and Hollobaugh, 2019) by evaluating transfer of the “I don’t know please tell me” (IDKPTM) response across operants. We used a progressive prompt delay to an echoic prompt to teach three school-aged boys diagnosed with autism to mand for information when presented with unknown questions (intraverbals) and unknown pictures (tacts). Sessions consisted of three known targets intermixed with six unknown targets, only three of which were exposed to the teaching procedures. Thus far, all participants acquired the IDKPTM response for at least one operant. Ivan’s IDKPTM response generalized within, but not across operants. After directly prompting and reinforcing the answer while differentially reinforcing answering correctly versus manding for information, Ivan acquired previously unknown intraverbals; this additional procedure was not required to acquire previously unknown tacts. Generalization to novel targets in naturalistic settings did not occur until multiple exemplar training was implemented in those settings; however, generalization was subsequently observed when his mother presented unknown intraverbals and tacts. Data collection is ongoing.

 
162.

Practical Functional Assessment and Skill-Based Treatment Process for an 8-Year Old Student With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL JOHN SHERIDAN (The New England Center for Children ), Shannon Ward (FTF Behavioral Consulting), Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

An omnibus mand is sometimes taught when a functional analysis suggests that problem behavior is maintained by a synthesized contingency. However, specifying mands may be a desired outcome. Ward, Hanley, Warner, and Gage (under review) recently differentiated an omnibus mand into specific mands for three learners, but treatment stopped after functional communication training. The present study replicated the methods described by Ward et al. and extended the study to include a skill-based treatment that taught a tolerance response, compliance with academic work, and extension to a second caregiver (e.g., Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). First, a functional analysis was conducted and suggested the client’s problem behavior was sensitive to escape from demands to tangibles and attention. An omnibus mand was initially taught and then differentiated into specific FCRs (“I want a break”). Next, the learner was taught a tolerance response (“okay”) when reinforcers were denied. Academic tasks were then progressively introduced until the client completed a maximum of 18 demands. Last, treatment was extended to a second caregiver; problem behavior remained low, and communication and completion of academic tasks remained at optimal and desirable levels. A social validity questionnaire indicated that classroom teachers were satisfied with the outcomes of treatment.

 
163. A Match-to-Sample Teaching Procedure to Facilitate Independent Page Navigation and Stimulus Class Formation for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Users
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CATHY J. BOOTH (Simmons University Autism Bridges)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine whether it was possible to teach Speech Generating Device (SGD) page navigation in response to wh-questions using a fading match to sample procedure and would this procedure lead to emergence of stimulus classes? Specifically, would this teaching method facilitate transfer of stimulus control from vocal and symbol to vocal only for: (1) Initial acquisition, (2) Generalization to new stimuli, (3) Interspersed wh-questions with known stimuli, and (4) Interspersed wh-questions with novel stimuli. This study used an errorless, match-to-sample response prompt faded by distance, and then time to teach navigation to the expected stimulus class page (i.e., wh-question) on the SGD. The two participants demonstrated successful acquisition of navigation on their SGD to respond to wh-questions as well as generalization to novel stimuli and mixed wh-question presentation, following the implementation of an errorless match-to-sample teaching procedure. Results support previous studies demonstrating: (1) Stimulus class formation using multiple exemplar and match to sample procedures (Fields, et al,. 2002) and (2) Multiple exemplar training to teach wh-question responding (Doggett, et al., 2013; Jahr, 2001). One participant demonstrated improvements in a sorting task designed to test for emergence of stimulus class formation (Fields, et al., 2014).
 
164. The Effects of Material Choice on On-Task Behavior During Art Activities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRENNA R GRIFFEN (University of Arkansas), Jessica Miller (University of Arkansas), Elizabeth R. Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract: An emerging database of research suggests that making choices between or within tasks can increase task engagement and decrease challenging behaviors in children with disabilities. Providing choices within tasks may be more acceptable and feasible to teachers in school settings or for children with limited task repertoires. The current study examined the effects of material choice on on-task behavior during arts and crafts activities for three preschool children with autism. This study included a yoked choice phase designed to differentiate between the effects of choice and preference. This intervention was moderately effective for one participant, who showed the highest level of on-task behavior during the choice condition and similar lower levels during baseline and yoked conditions. This result is consistent with previous research, which suggests that choice and not preference alone can increase task engagement. One participant showed consistently low levels of on-task behavior throughout all phases of the study. The last participant showed highly variable rates within all phases. Possible interpretations of these results, limitations and suggestions for future research are examined.
 
165.

Evaluating the Effects of Social Skills Interventions Among Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MONIQUE BARNETT (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Travis Wong (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Social skills, such as the ability to initiate conversations or engage in play, is a commonly identified deficit among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the increase in classroom integration, social skills deficits among children with ASD remain evident. Researchers have identified several strategies (e.g., peer modeling) that have been demonstrated to be beneficial in alleviating some social skills deficits. However, previous meta-analyses have found mixed results regarding the efficacy interventions to address social skills deficits in ASD. The current meta-analysis sought to examine and extend the current literature on social skills interventions in inclusive school-based settings for preschool-aged children with ASD. Twenty-five single-case (SCD) and group design studies were evaluated to determine the overall efficacy and fidelity of each intervention; maintenance and generalization of target skills were also assessed. Results from the current study suggest that the reviewed social skill interventions were moderately effective overall with higher treatment fidelity observed in SCD studies. The results of this synthesis could be beneficial to applied behavior analysts in terms of the identification of strategies to modify interventions to improve their use and accessibility in inclusive school settings. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, inclusive settings, meta-analysis, social skills

 
166.

The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Stereotypic Behaviors in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRAVIS WONG (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Monique Barnett (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

One of the main deficits among individuals with ASD is the presence of stereotypic behaviors, which are described as “repetitive and apparently purposeless body movement, body parts movement, or use of the body to generate object movement (Lewis & Bodfish, 1998).” Although previous applied behavior analysis research has indicated consequence- and punishment-based interventions can be effective in decreasing stereotypic behaviors, recent research has focused on antecedent-based interventions. For example, recent research suggested antecedent physical exercise interventions can be effective on reducing stereotypic behaviors. The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine the literature pertaining to the effects of physical exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviors among individuals with ASD. The current meta-analysis included 10 intervention studies (i.e., four group design studies and six single-subject design studies) to examine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviors. To quantify and compare results, we calculated effect sizes for the group design studies and percentage of nonoverlapping data points for all participants included in the single-subject studies. Results indicated that exercise interventions can be effective in reducing stereotypic behaviors in individuals with ASD. No significant differences were found in the moderator analyses related to participant’s sex, age, and total number of treatment sessions.

 
167.

Using Behavior Skills Training to Teach a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder Hand Raising Skills

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA P. SCOTT (Marquette University ), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University), Mary Halbur (Marquette University), Diana Meredith (Center for Language Acquisition and Social Skills Intervention ), Courtney Lyn Meyerhofer (Marquette University)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

Discriminating when to raise your hand is a necessary skill for children to acquire in order to actively participate within group instruction and to minimize distracting behaviors such as shouting over teacher instruction and interrupting peers (Charania, LeBlanc, Sabanathan, Ktaech, Carr & Gunby, 2010; Vargo, Heal, Epperley, & Kooistra, 2014). The skills involved with hand raising help prepare children for the general education setting as well as group activities that comprise most of the instruction in preschool settings. Previous researchers have taught learners to raise their hands using discrimination training and rules (e.g., Charania et al., 2010) as well as implementing a multiple schedule with rules (e.g., Vargo, et al., 2014). In the current study we extended previous research by teaching a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), to raise his hand using behavior skills training (BST) prior to group instruction sessions that contained intraverbal and motor response opportunities that simulated circle time activities in a classroom. Ongoing results suggested that BST was an efficacious procedure to teach a child to raise their hand during group instruction following instruction to do so. Potential future directions and clinical implications will be discussed.

 
168. A Systematic Review of Linguistic and Verbal Behavior Outcomes of Pivotal Response Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HEATHER J FORBES (University of Kansas), Jason Travers (University of Kansas), Jenee Vickers Johnson (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract: Professionals focused on communication goals for learners with autism are tasked with specifying the forms and functions of the communication skills they target. Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is a popular intervention for improving targeted and untargeted communication skills for learners with autism, but it is unclear which communication skills professionals should address with PRT. We systematically reviewed the communication outcomes reported in experimental research to determine linguistic forms and verbal behavior functions associated with PRT. Fifty studies met inclusion criteria. We found most researchers aggregated results or did not report sufficient detail to determine linguistic forms and/or verbal behavior functions. Generalization of communication skills to untargeted people, settings, materials, and/or activities was evident. However, only one study clearly indicated untargeted linguistic forms emerged following PRT, and no researchers described results indicating the emergence of generalized or collateral verbal behavior functions. We suggest PRT researchers more clearly define and report primary, generalized, and collateral communication-specific outcomes in order to advance research and practice.
 
169.

Augmentative Communication Screening Tool for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA L. GIBSON (BlueSprig Pediatrics), Elizabeth J. Preas (UNMC ), Leslie VanWinkle (UNMC), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

One in 59 children in the general US population has a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and approximately 30% of those children are unable to function in everyday activities due to lack of appropriate verbal communication (CDC, 2019). Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC; picture exchange, manual sign, or a dynamic speech-generating device) are alternatives to verbal speech, which enables children with ASD to successfully participate in their homes and community. However, no known research-based communication-screening tool is currently available to providers when selecting an AAC. In Study 1, an online communication screener for families of non-verbal children with ASD was developed to identify an effective alternative modality of communication along with a direct observation tool to verify caregivers’ report of child skills. Study 2 determined the potential efficacy and efficiency of four different augmentative communication modalities for teaching requests to four children with ASD within an adapted alternating treatments design. The results of Study 1 and 2 were compared to determine if the screener recommendations resulted in the selection of the most efficient and appropriate modality of communication for each child. Implications of these findings will be discussed.

 
170.

Reducing Stereotypy Using a Differential Reinforcement Procedure With an Adult With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY BUTLER (Rutgers University), Ashley Kobylarz (Rutgers University), Christeen Scarpa (Rutgers University), Doug Stacquadanio (Caldwell-West Caldwell School District), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

Motor and vocal stereotypy are topographies of behavior common among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Such maladaptive behavior may impede and interfere in learning new skills and decrease work performance in a vocational setting. Previous research has evaluated different intervention strategies to decrease these topographies of behavior. Most commonly, there is a focus on interventions, which have been conducted with children, and less common, with adults, in controlled settings. We evaluated the practicality of implementing a simple differential reinforcement procedure with an adult with ASD in multiple, dynamic environments. A differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) was used to reduce vocal and motor stereotypy in which positive reinforcement was delivered in the absence of the target behavior for a systematic period of time. Results indicate rapid decreases in motor and vocal stereotypy upon implementation of the intervention and maintenance of low levels of behavior.

 
172.

Practical Functional Assessment and Skill-Based Treatment With Non-Verbal Adolescents With Severe Problem Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARA VANDERZELL (Upstate Cerebral Palsy), Allison Kim (Upstate Cerebral Palsy), Erika Rose DiNatale (Upstate Cerebral Palsy), Jessica Lynn Hanson (Upstate Cerebral Palsy)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

Many researchers have replicated Practical Functional Assessment and Skill-based Treatment procedures with individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder; however, this has typically involved younger children, often who are language able (e.g., Hanley, et al., (2014); Strand et al., (2016); Herman et al. (2018)). Currently, there is a gap in the literature involving adolescents with severe disabilities attending a residential school. This study aimed to conduct a Practical Functional Assessment and implement Skill-based Treatment with two non-verbal adolescents with severe problem behavior and no functional communication. In addition to conducting this treatment with this profile of student, unique synthesized reinforcers were identified and treatment design deviated from what is outlined in the existing literature. The results showed that a novel, omnibus mand and waiting (toleration) response were acquired without evoking problem behavior. In addition, several chains of contextually appropriate behavior were successfully developed for each adolescent.

 
173.

Using Graduated Exposure to Decrease Phobic Avoidance of a Pressure Cooker in a Child With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA BENNETT (ACI Learning Partners; Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A Krebs (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

Approximately 30% of persons diagnosed with autism under the age of 18 have a co-morbid diagnosis of a specific phobia (van Steensel et al., 2011). Responses to these phobic stimuli can vary and often interfere with adaptive functioning. The current study evaluated effects of graduated exposure plus differential reinforcement to decrease phobic avoidance responses (i.e., vocal protests, covering ears, flopping on the floor, and elopement) to a pressure cooker by a seven-year old male diagnosed with autism. The treatment package reduced phobic avoidance responses related to the presence of a pressure cooker across analog and naturalistic settings. In addition, parents reported high satisfaction of the procedures and results

 
174.

Matrix Training and Instructional Feedback With Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder in an Educational Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREA DANIELLE DRISCOLL (May Institute ), Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. ), Karly Covall (May Institute ), Meghan Silva (May Institute )
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

Matrix training consists of arranging components of target responses across two axes (e.g., nouns, verbs) and strategically selecting combinations for intervention (e.g., diagonal noun-verb tacts). Frampton, Wymer, Hansen, and Shillingsburg (2016) found that tact noun-verb training with diagonal targets in Matrix 1 produced correct responding with non-diagonal targets in Matrix 1 and all targets in a Generalization Matrix. We replicated these procedures and extended them using instructive feedback (IF). The baseline and post-treatment probes consisted of the instructor demonstrating an action with a figure and asking “What’s happening?” During treatment sessions for Matrix 1 diagonal targets, the instructor demonstrated the action with the figure then asked the 5-year-old with autism to imitate it. As the child imitated the action, the instructor provided IF action what the figure was doing (e.g., “The bird is flying”). Results indicated that some targets were acquired after only exposure to IF; however, not all tacts were demonstrated consistently. Differential reinforcement and tact probes were added to treatment sessions and responding stabilized for the majority of targets. The findings indicate recombinative generalization may be established after exposure to IF, more closely mirroring procedures used with typically developing children.

 
175.

Assessing the Effectiveness of Three Treatment Packages to Treat Echolalia in a Boy With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Guido Dangelo (DALLA LUNA - BARI), Stefania Natale (DALLA LUNA - BARI, ITALY), Consiglia Trentadue (DALLA LUNA - BARI , ITALY), MARIANGELA ACQUAVIVA (Dalla Luna )
Discussant: Thea H. Davis (Autism Bridges)
Abstract:

Echolalia is a stereotypical behavior usually maintained by its sensory consequences. Previous research has shown how difficult it is to reduce problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. For this reason, it is necessary to identify the specific treatment options for each student. The present study investigates the application of 3 different treatment packages to reduce echolalia in a boy with autism, using a multi-element design: (a) response interruption and redirection (RIRD), (b) listening to music, (c) DRO and contingency contract. The participant showed a reduction in echolalia when a DRO and contingency contract were used. After the identification of the most effective treatment, the duration of the treatment sessions was gradually increased and the reinforcement schedule was thinned. In fact, in the initial assessment in the contingency contract and DRO condition, reinforcement was provided each 30 seconds, for the absence of problem behavior. During treatment, the duration of the treatment sessions was systematically increased, amounting at 5, 7 and 10 minutes and reinforcement was provided every 60 seconds. Echolalia continued to decrease in these conditions as well. The present research contributes to identify effective and individualized treatment packages for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

 
176. Systematic Identification of Video Preferences and Reinforcing Effects
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Hugo Curiel (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), EMILY CURIEL (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Video preferences and their reinforcing effects were identified for four children diagnosed with autism. Staff and parents identified and rank-ordered the videos that were used in the assessments. Multiple-stimulus-without-replacement preference assessments were conducted using multiple computerized tablets. Concurrent-operants reinforcer assessments were subsequently conducted with the participants’ high-preferred, low-preferred, and control videos. Access to high-preferred videos was shown to sustain higher levels of target responses, as compared to alternatives, on sorting and puzzle completion tasks. Nominated stimuli and presumed ranks, video preferences, and the predictive validity of the preference assessment are discussed.
 
177.

Tolerating Denials to Purchase Preferred Items in aCommunity Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY E ARNOLD (The Faison Center)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to teach an adult male with Autism to tolerate occasional denied access to purchasing a preferred item at a retail location. Shaping was utilized to increase (a) the length of time in a retail location, (b) the length of time the client waited to receive his preferred item, and (c) the number of peers accompanying the client in the retail location. In addition, the client was provided with noncontingent access to an alternate preferred item. Through this intervention, the client's rates of problem behavior and repeated mands decreased to levels manageable enough to transition him from being a 1:1 client to joining a 3:1 group.

 
178.

Evaluating Differential Reinforcement for Treating Food Selectivity Within a School Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KARLY COVALL (May Institute), Kara Lee Romanetz (May Institute), Sarayu Padmanabhan (May Institute), Tiana Reed (May Institute), Meghan Silva (May Institute)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Food selectivity is a common feeding problem that refers to food refusal behaviors and consumption of a limited variety of foods which may lead to negative health effects (Bandini et al., 2011). Escape extinction has found to be effective for treating food selectivity; However, it may lead to unwanted behavioral side effects and be inappropriate for certain environments (Sharp et al., 2017). Differential reinforcement has been used as an alternative to escape extinction, however, its efficacy in isolation is mixed (Najdowski et al., 2010). Penrod and colleagues (2010) examined the effect of a treatment package consisting of differential reinforcement, demand fading, manipulation of the reinforcer magnitude, and escape extinction on consumption of non-preferred foods for three individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Only one participant demonstrated increased food consumption without escape extinction. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of differential reinforcement with demand fading and manipulation of the schedule of reinforcement on the food selectivity of a young boy with ASD within a school setting. The results of the multiple baseline across food groups with an embedded changing criterion design indicated an increase in the food consumption of non-preferred foods from baseline levels.

 
179.

An Approach to Increase Eye Contact in Children With Autism Using an Elicited Orienting Response

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BASAK TOPCUOGLU (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment and Research), Nicole Adriaenssens (Florida Institute of Technology), Stephanie Brand (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Ada Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology), Cheyenne Dong (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment and Research), Tiara Putri (Florida Institute of Technology), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

One of the earliest and most noticeable characteristics of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is impaired eye contact. Currently published research on increasing responding to name with eye contact has primarily involved separate and combined procedures such as physical prompting, visual prompting, differential reinforcement, and overcorrection. The current study evaluated the effects of an auditory orienting response using a variety of short, non-social sounds to elicit eye contact. When eye contact occurred following presentation of the non-social auditory stimulus, the experimenter used conditioning procedures to pair the presentation of the participant’s name with a highly preferred stimulus. This procedure was used as a supplement to differential reinforcement to increase eye contact in four young children with ASD. Results suggest the current procedure may be an effective way to teach young children with ASD to make eye contact in response to a name call.

 
180.

Delay-Denial Tolerance Training With Specific Mands in a School Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KARA LEE ROMANETZ (May Institute), Stephanie Coe (May Institute), Meghan Silva (May Institute), Michaela Rice (May Institute)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism and other developmental disorders frequently display behaviors that interfere with daily function, including potentially dangerous behaviors such as aggression, self-injury, and tantrums (Murphy, Beadle-Brown, Wing, Gould, Shah, & Holmes, 2005). Delay-Denial Tolerance (DDT) training is shown to be an effective intervention in decreasing problem behavior and increasing acceptable alternative behaviors (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). This intervention incorporates eliciting attention, manding, a tolerance response, and contextually-appropriate behavior (CAB) during the delay period. The traditional DDT approach involves the use of an omnibus mand (i.e., “My way”). However, this may not be suitable with all students with already varied manding repertoires. In this study, we examined DDT training with the use of specific mands in the school setting across three individuals with different communication modalities using a multiple-baseline across behaviors design. All participants demonstrated reduced problem behavior and increased alternative behaviors. One participant demonstrated generalization of all responses to the natural environment without specific training. The incorporation of specific mands and the limitations of implementation in a school setting are discussed.

 
181. Treatment Outcomes for a Sibling Identified as Symptomatic for Autism at Eight Weeks Old
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA WEISSER (New England Center for Children), Kathryn Couger (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Infant siblings of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have an 18% recurrence risk at 3 years old (Osnoff et al., 2011). Graupner and Sallows (2017) reported symptoms in children under 3 months of age. The purpose of the current investigation was to document early emergence of symptomatology in a sibling and the outcomes of early treatment. Early markers were first noted at eight weeks and included: flat affect, no response to sound out of sight, no response to name/voice, eye contact avoidance, and inconsistent tracking of visual stimuli. At three months, parent-implemented treatment was initiated with little change in symptoms. At six months, 15 hours of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) began with greater gains in skills. However, the participant continued to perform below age level by 12 months of age. At 12 months, 30 hours of ABA began and at 22 months, the participant no longer met the requirements for an ASD diagnosis. Interobserver agreement was assessed with an average of 82.9% across sessions. The attached graph shows the participant’s age equivalent scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Assessment over time.
 
182.

A Within-Subjects Comparison of Functional Analyses With Brief and Extended Session Durations

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT BENJAMIN CORNAGLIA (Western New England University; The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), Lee Griffith (Western New England University)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

According to recent surveys, clinicians rarely conduct a functional analysis (FA) prior to intervention due to time constraints. A solution that has been evaluated and found to be promising is to conduct a 5-min session FA. However, the relative utility of independent 5-min and 10-min session FAs has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to compare two independently conducted FAs of 5- and 10-min sessions, for the problem behavior of six individuals with autism spectrum disorder. For each participant, the same function of problem behavior (escape) was identified across 5- and 10-min session FA. In addition, the 5-min session FA averaged 67 min (range, 45-100 min), whereas the 10-min session FA averaged 125 min (90-150 min), showing that the 5-min session FA resulted in an average time savings of 45%. A subsequent treatment analysis that included differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) was conducted to assess FA outcome validity. DRA was effective in decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate communication for all participants. The 5-min session FA and DRA treatment analysis combined averaged 122 min (range, 100-155 min), suggesting that an effective function-based treatment could be identified in under 3 hours, without compromising validity.

 
183.

Examination of Teaching Handwriting Using the Handwriting Without Tears iPad Application

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
XI'AN MAYA WILLIAMS (Marquette University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University ), Mary Halbur (Marquette University), Maria Clara Cordeiro (Marquette University), Lauren Debertin (Marquette University), Diana Meredith (Center for Language Acquisition and Social Skills), Alyssa P. Scott (Marquette University ), Courtney Lyn Meyerhofer (Marquette University)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Handwriting is an important fine motor skill and it may act as a prerequisite for other academic and communication skills. The skills involved in handwriting are especially important in school-age children due to their prominence and inclusion in activities during a large portion of the school day (Marr et al., 2003). Previous researchers have used the Handwriting Without Tears ® workbook to teach handwriting to typically developing children. However, due to the relative novelty of the iPad application, there is limited research on the efficacy of the program with children who have fine motor deficits through a behavior analytic lens. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a modified Handwriting Without Tears (HWT) ® application for two children with autism spectrum disorder. Prompts, reinforcement, and modified trial arrangements were included as part of the treatment package. In addition to efficacy, we assessed generalization to handwriting with a stylus and a natural writing instrument. Preliminary results suggest the program was efficacious in teaching letter tracing. Implications will be discussed, and future research ideas will be provided.

 
184. The Effects of Service Setting on Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention Program Delivery
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KARLI PEDREIRA (University of Manitoba), Toby L. Martin (St.Amant Research Centre)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI) is consistently acknowledged as an effective treatment for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). More recently, these services are being delivered in a wider variety of service settings (Classrooms, daycares and preschools). Variations in service settings allow for more cost-effective treatment programs and may also widen the accessibility of services. However, it is unclear whether treatment can be delivered with high consistency and accuracy in settings where procedural variations in treatment are expected (e.g., presence of peers, level of control, staff staining). Given the evidence supporting negative outcomes associated low treatment integrity, the lack of research examining whether the setting of service delivery has an effect on treatment quality represents a serious gap in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to evaluate three aspects of EIBI that may be most affected by program variations as a function of setting: (a) the accuracy and consistency of Discrete-Trials Teaching (DTT), (b) the number of teaching trials delivered, and (c) the scope of domains targeted. The project will include three experiments: (a) indirect assessments evaluating the effect of service setting on treatment quality, (b) direct assessment of DTT integrity, and (c) measurement of service intensity comprehensiveness (i.e., number ofteaching trials delivered and skill domains targeted).
 
185.

Teaching Autoclitics to a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using PECS

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN DEBERTIN (Marquette University ), Mary Halbur (Marquette University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University), Xi'an Maya Williams (Marquette University)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a commonly used form of augmentative communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) given its relative ease of teaching, inexpensiveness, and limited complex motor movements required (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Charlop-Christy, Carpetner, Le, LeBlanc, & Kellet, 2002). However, limited research exists on using PECS to teach autoclitics. Autoclitics are verbal behavior that alter the function of other verbal behavior and can increase the precision of verbal statements, which can promote more reinforcing consequences for the speaker (Howard & Rice, 1988; Skinner, 1957). The present study evaluated this gap in the research by teaching autoclitics to a child with ASD who used PECS for 1-2-word phrases. The tact frames “I see” and “I hear” were trained using sound recordings and stimulus cards. To teach these frames, a progressive prompt delay was initially used, but due to over-selection of one stimulus, a within stimulus-fading procedure was implemented. The ongoing results suggest that the stimulus-fading procedure lead to higher levels of correct responses. Future research should extend these procedures with different autoclitics to facilitate learners’ ability to communicate with their community by using longer phrases (e.g., talking about the environment, asking for quantities of items).

 
186.

Decreasing Challenging Behavior for an Individual With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Using a Collaborative Interdisciplinary Approach

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN LEFEVRE (Melmark), Erin Way (Melmark), Sharon Lausch Onda (Melmark), Kelly Mieczkowski (Melmark)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may also be diagnosed with other disorders which may impact effective treatment. Current research finds between 30%-50% of individuals diagnosed with ASD also present with characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), yet prior to the DSM-V, this dual diagnosis was not possible, as an ASD diagnosis was an exclusionary criterion for ADHD (Leitner, 2014). With the change in the DSM-V criteria for diagnoses, a dual diagnosis of ASD and ADHD became possible, and research regarding comorbidity of ASD and ADHD became more prevalent. Leitner (2014) suggests that when comparing individuals with both diagnoses versus individuals with a single diagnosis, individuals with co-occurring symptoms experience greater symptomology, are more difficult to treat, and may be less responsive to standard treatments for either disorder. A collaborative interdisciplinary team may be one solution in effectively treating individuals dually diagnosed with ASD and ADHD. The present data are the result of collaboration between a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) and a Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (MHNP) to reduce aggression and darting, and increase on task behavior for a 14-year old female diagnosed with ASD and ADHD. Here, the behavior Analyst was able to provide frequency data and temporal relations for multiple behaviors, which were analyzed by the BCBA and MHNP together. From there, medication changes in the form of introducing a stimulant were prescribed, and data were collected pre and post treatment change for analysis by the BCBA and MHNP. The addition of the medication resulted in a significant decrease in aggression and darting, and an increase in on task behavior.

 
187.

Interventions to Increase Compliance With Medication Administration: A Literature Review

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FINLEY CRUGER (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

Failure to adhere to medical regimens is associated with negative health outcomes and increased mortality rate (CDC, 2017). However, individuals may struggle with swallowing pills, resulting in noncompliance and disruption during medication administration. As a result, medication administration techniques such as crushing medication or allowing pills to be chewed may be used. However, crushing or chewing some medications can cause patients to overdose or can render the drug ineffective. Past research has investigated the use of behavioral interventions such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and stimulus fading as well as other interventions including modeling and visual aids to increase compliance with pill swallowing. The purpose of this literature review is to outline the efficacy and behavioral basis of interventions used to increase compliance with pill swallowing and discuss directions for future research. The keywords pill swallowing and compliance were used to identify relevant research.

 
188.

A Comparison of Methods for Presenting Tasks to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Systematic Replication

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATSUMI FUJIMOTO (university of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba), Soichiro Matsuda (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

Previous research has demonstrated that the method of presenting a variety of tasks(varied task condition) is more efficient than the method of presenting a single task(constant task condition) to children with autism spectrum disorders (Dunlap & Koegel, 1980). The current study systematically replicated the earlier study by comparing the two approach with 2 boys with ASD. Specifically, we used mastered tasks and an adapted alternating treatments design was implemented to compare the correct responses, response latencies, and affects. The results showed that varied task condition was similar to constant task condition for correct responses and response latencies. Observers judged the Child 1 to be more enthusiastic, interested, happier, and better behaved during the varied task condition. The results suggest that the method of variety of tasks produced superior to the method of presenting a single task for the affect of Child1, the relative effectiveness of the varied task versus constant task conditions during correct responses and response latencies is less clear. The results were discussed for the differences between mastered tasks and target tasks.

 
189.

Increasing Communication via Speech Generating Devices for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison of Aided Language Modeling and Incidental Teaching

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEAGHEN SHAVER (Centre for Behavioural Studies, St. Lawrence College), Christiane Haberl (Centre for Behavioural Studies, St. Lawrence College), Beata Batorowicz (Queens University), Alysha Eaton (Centre for Behavioural Studies, St. Lawrence College)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not develop functional vocal speech and may require alternative/augmentative communication (AAC) systems, such as speech generating devices (SGD). iPad® and the Proloquo2Go™ application is one example of a SGD that may be implemented by clinicians, along with intervention methods aimed at teaching the child to use the device to communicate. This study compared two AAC intervention methods for children who have a diagnosis of ASD and who use iPad® and Proloquo2Go™: aided language modeling (ALM; Binger & Light, 2007) and incidental teaching (IT; Hart & Risley, 1975). A parallel treatments design (Gast & Wolery, 1988) was employed to compare the effectiveness of the two interventions in increasing the use of novel symbol use on an iPad® with the Proloquo2Go™ application. Initial results suggest that IT results in a higher frequency of independent, contextually relevant, single-symbol utterances during a play activity than does ALM.

 
190.

Replications and Extensions of the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis in a School Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUSAN E. TIRELLA (First Bridge Centre), Sarah Fattal (Forest Bridge School), Dhi Jadeja (Forest Bridge School), Kirstie Eayrs (Forest Bridge School), Julia O'Hallarn (Forest Bridge School)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

As the number of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increases, the need to provide an appropriate, school based education grounded in evidence based practice is critical. Recent developments in the functional analysis of problem behaviour have yielded a new tool: the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA). Hanley and colleagues (2014) were able to successfully assess and decrease the challenging behaviour of 3 individuals with ASD in a clinic setting through the use of the IISCA and its corresponding skills-based treatment plan. While additional studies have attempted to replicate the IISCA (Santiago et al 2016), additional research is warranted on its utility across various settings, such as schools. This poster reviews differences in the use of the IISCA and extensions of the IISCA to assess the challenging behaviour of 6 pupils that attend a special school for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Results show varied success across pupils. This indicates that the IISCA may be useful for some, however, without modifications it may not consistently yield data that demonstrate a functional relationship.

 
191.

Reduction of Automatically Maintained Self Injurious Behavior Through the Reinforcement of Mands in Order to Recruit Restraint

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELISSA SPINKS (Maryland Applied Behavior Analysis), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Matthew Harrington (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County ), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

Automatically maintained self-injurious behavior is estimated to occur in approximately 25% of individuals with autism. Several studies noted some of these individuals will also engage in self-restraint; which is described as a form of restricting one’s own responding (Oliver, Murphy, Hall, Arron, & Leggett, 2003) to avoid SIB. One form of self-restraint may be described as recruited restraint, such as manding for handholding or hugs. In contrast, research by Kodak, Northup, and Kelley (2013) demonstrated that physical attention may differentially reinforce problem behavior. The current study was conducted with a 10-year-old boy who engaged in SIB maintained by automatic reinforcement and often held onto caregiver’s hands and arms. In order to determine whether holding hands with others was reinforced by positive reinforcement (access to physical attention) or negative reinforcement (avoiding injury from SIB) a recruited restraint assessment was conducted. During the control condition, Darrin wore arm restraints that limited his ability to engage SIB. During the test condition, Darrin did not wear any protective equipment. During both conditions, access to hand holding with the therapist was freely available. Results from this assessment suggested Darrin recruited staff to hold his hands as a form of self-restraint.

 
192.

Modality-Based Fluency Instruction of Pivotal Responsesand Advanced Skills Emergence on Non-Verbal Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MADOKA OCHI (NOVA LUNA Education & Consulting Center, LLC), Ayuko Kondo (Elche Co., Ltd.), Ginga Sasaki (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

This study purports to provide procedural extension to Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI: Schreibman, et al. 2015) by addressing over-selectivity of certain stimulus modality often documented (e.g., Liss, Saulnier, Fein, & Kinsbourne, 2006) in children on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The goals of the intervention were to establish practical procedures for a child who functions on his/her interests to become more receptive to other people’s interests, and to demonstrate how ensuring core skills such as toy play, engagement, or joint attention would lead to instruction of more advanced skills. Based on a hypothesis that unique pattern of stimulus processing over-selectivity is preventing a child from registering common social cues, we assessed the pattern of stimulus over-selectivity during a naturally occurring play on 3 preschool children with ASD and implemented a three-tier intervention on a condensed schedule (1.5 to 6 hours/week), examining the effects of increased and natural exposure to selected interactions that utilized the specific modality identified as less proficient. Results indicated an increase in the frequency per minute use of all modalities along with generalized quantitative and qualitative improvements in the functional use of untaught skills across setting and people, providing another set of data supporting generative learning (Johnson & Layng, 1994) in preschool children with ASD.

 
193. Using a Self-Guided Training Package to Teach Implementation of Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIN THORVALDSDOTTIR (Western New England University; New England Center for Children), Allen J. Karsina (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract: We used a self-guided study package to train 4 direct-care staff at a school for children with autism to implement functional analysis conditions. The performances of 2 teachers who participated in a live training provided by the school were also assessed. Accuracy on implementing the functional analysis conditions was evaluated during baseline sessions and post-training sessions with the experimenter playing the role of the student. The self-guided study package consisted of a PowerPoint® package with 4 brief functional analysis video examples, embedded pop quizzes and slides with voice over. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design was used. To reach mastery criteria, participants must have performed in the competency role plays at 90% average accuracy or greater across all 3 conditions. Three out of 4 participants who went through the self-guided study package reached mastery criteria. One participant needed feedback to meet mastery criteria. One participant from the live training group met mastery criteria after the training, the other participant needed feedback to meet the criteria. Interobserver reliability was calculated in 30% of sessions with a mean of 98.5% and a range of 86 - 100%.
 
194.

Efficiently Teaching Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Virtual Reality Environment to Safely Navigate Pedestrian Street Crossing

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTEEN SCARPA (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Cecilia Feeley (Rutgers University), Whitney Pubylski-Yanofchick (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Dillon Reitmeyer (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract:

One of the most important and influential activities of daily living for assimilating into the community is the ability to safely navigate unfamiliar settings. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) typically have difficulty with this (Goldsmith, 2009), and in particular street safety is a major concern and may have severe consequences such as injury and possible death. Pedestrian street crossing training is recognized as an integral life skill and is a fundamental step in the development of independence, increasing safety awareness, mobility, and safely integrating into society. The current evaluation utilizes a virtual reality (VR) procedure to facilitate training in a safe, controlled environment to acquire the necessary skills to independently cross the street. Along with VR, behavior skills training was used to examine whether skills would generalize in a natural setting. Results showed four of five participants mastered VR conditions and generalized skills in a natural setting. This study provides a model for efficiently and safely teaching pedestrian street crossing to adults with ASD.

 
195. A Review of Research on Physical Activity
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
CHELSEA HEDQUIST (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Michele M Davidson (Penn State)
Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) recommends 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; jogging, brisk walking, swimming laps, etc.). Regular exercise has many health benefits including weight control, decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, and muscle strengthening. However, few individuals meet this recommendation, particularly those with intellectual disabilities or autism. This poster summarizes current literature on physical activity, fitness, and exercise, with a focus on areas that could benefit from additional research (e.g., appropriate forms of measurement, treatment components for increasing physical activity in individuals with intellectual disabilities or autism, procedures for facilitating maintenance, and assessing social validity). In the current review, 30 articles that included data on physical activity or discussed it as the primary focus of a literature review were included. The experimenter reviewed each study to identify participant diagnoses and communication skills, physical activity tasks that were included, and the dependent variables and forms of measurement used to quantify physical activity engagement. Implications and future research directions will be discussed, including a need for increased focus on individuals with intellectual disabilities and autism, refined measurement systems, and interventions aimed at increasing and measuring exercise intensity to meet the CDC recommendations.
 
196.

Teaching Social Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison of Robot Versus Human Delivered Intervention

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA CAMPBELL (Centre for Behavioural Studies; St. Lawrence College), Meaghen Shaver (Centre for Behavioural Studies; St. Lawrence College), Katie Phillips (Algonquin Lakeshore Catholic District School Board ), Emma Morgan Whelpley (Centre for Behavioural Studies; St. Lawrence College)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract:

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate significant social skills deficits. The use of technology, including robots, is becoming increasingly popular as an intervention to teach social skills to children with ASD, however the research supporting these interventions is limited (Sartorato, Przybylowski & Sarko, 2017). Milo the Robot (Robokind, 2019) is one example of a technology- based intervention to teach social skills. The current study compared social skills training delivered by Milo the robot to training delivered by a human facilitator. The participants included three children with ASD, ages 4, 6, and 8. An ABCB design was used to compare the effectiveness of the two intervention conditions across participants and social skills lessons. During the course of implementation, limitations of the robot condition included slow, repetitive, and lengthy verbal instructions, with unclear expectations as to the expected target responses, which resulted in lack of attending and engagement of the participants during this condition. While data collection is ongoing at this time, the initial findings for two of three participants suggest there is no significant difference in the percentage of correct responding when comparing training delivered by a robot and training delivered by a human.

 
197.

I’m Playing With the Dinosaur. This Crayon is Blue. I’m on a Walk: The Effects of Tact Operant Training on the Scripting Behavior of a Four-Year-Old Male With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA SMITH (Rutgers; Bedrock), Abby Lewis (Teachers College, Columbia ), Melissa Engasser (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc.), Stacey Montoya (Bedrock Clinic & Research Center)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract:

Stereotypy can interfere with positive social interactions, skill acquisition, and appropriate play skills and it can be stigmatizing in community settings (Ahearn, et. al., 2012). For certain individuals, this can be a target behavior for decrease when the individual is missing a repertoire to engage with their verbal community. IH is a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder; his delayed echolalia was observed at the Bedrock Clinic & Research Center. He was diagnosed with ASD in January 2019 and started at Bedrock in April 2019. Antecedent, behavior, and consequence data were collected on his scripting behavior and the conclusion was made that this behavior had an automatic function. The reduction procedure used for IH’s delayed echolalia was Tact Operant Training. When IH engages in vocal delayed echolalia, staff immediately started interrupting and redirecting by giving him vocal conversational language that is functional within his immediate environment. An example of this would be if IH is playing with playdoh while engaging in delayed echolalia, you would immediately interrupt and say “let’s use the blue playdoh.” The ultimate outcome is a 90% decrease in IH’s delayed echolalia and increased conversational skills. The intervention was implemented in September 2019 and is continuously ran. Since, his delayed echolalia has a descending trend and has been as low as 15% of occurrences. The intervention will continue to be implemented by everyone in IH’s environment, including caregivers.

 
200. Assessing Skill Acquisition Through Game-Based Instruction for Participants Who Select Games as Leisure Activities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Courtney Lyn Meyerhofer (Marquette University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University), Marisa E. McKee (Center for Language Acquisition and Social Skills Intervention), Mary Halbur (Marquette University), ABIGAIL STOPPLEWORTH (Marquette University)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Embedding target skills into gameplay for participants who select games as leisure activities may function as a more naturalistic method to acquire target skills during behavioral intervention. In the present investigation, game-based instruction was evaluated on the acquisition of target skills for two participants with large vocal verbal behavior repertoires who selected games as preferred activities. Synonyms were evaluated with a 12-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and idioms were evaluated with a 9-year-old male diagnosed with ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants was conducted. During gameplay, participants played against an opponent who was assigned separate targets. Baseline probes were conducted every three sessions with both participant and opponent sets. Results for the first participant showed acquisition of his target synonyms and half of the opponents. The second participant’s evaluation is ongoing and showing acquisition of both sets of idioms. Incorporating target skills into gameplay was effective for teaching synonyms and idioms to participants. Additional considerations regarding the observational learning of opponent’s targets and the comparison of game-based instruction to trial-based instruction will be discussed.
 
201. Treating Pica Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement using Competing Stimulus Items
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW HARRINGTON (University of Maryland Baltimore County, Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Javron Keene (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Marissa Lewis (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland Baltimore County), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Pica is a dangerous behavior and can lead to frequent hospitalizations and death. In the current study, a 10-year-old male with autism was admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior, including pica. A functional analysis for pica determined the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. An augmented competing stimulus assessment (A-CSA) was conducted where a variety of stimuli combinations were assessed to determine which combination was associated with increases in item engagement and substantial decreases in the frequency of pica. The A-CSA identified a combination of four effective competing stimuli (defined by an 80% decrease in the rate of pica and an 80% increase of engagement) to use in treatment. A treatment consisting of noncontingent access to the effective competing stimuli was initiated to evaluate whether access to the competing items resulted in reduction in pica in a room baited with edible items that resembled non-edible items. Initially a moderate decrease in the rate of pica during treatment was observed as compared to baseline. Prompted engagement, redirection, and blocking were added as additional components to obtain a clinically significant reduction in the rate of pica. The reduction in pica maintained in novel settings.
 
202. A Systematic Review of Single Case Experimental Design Studies in Parent Training for Problem Behaviour
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAIGE O'NEILL (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Meghan Dunnet (Kalyana Support Systems), Claire Shingleton-Smith (Brock University), Alyssa Treszl (Brock University)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that parent training can effectively teach parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to use applied behaviour analytic (ABA) interventions, including interventions designed to reduce problem behaviour. Several systematic reviews have explored the literature in this area; however, none provide a comprehensive review of research quality, the nature of ABA interventions parents are trained to implement, or approaches to ensure parent implementation fidelity, generalization, and maintenance. The current study follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to review single-case experimental design research for parent training in ABA interventions to reduce problem behaviour in children with ASD. Quality ratings and risk of bias assessments of included articles are being completed using the Scientific Merit Rating Scale (National Autism Centre, 2009) and the Risk of Bias Tool (Reichow, Barton, & Maggin, 2018), respectively. A descriptive analysis is also in progress to outline the current state of the literature, and to examine participant demographics, the nature of parent training and parent-implemented interventions, the nature of child problem behaviour targeted by interventions, and approaches to maintenance, generalization, and social validity assessment. In the future, a quantitative analysis of study outcomes will be conducted.
 
203. A Review of Variations in Social Preference Assessments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KALEY KNAPP (Western New England University; New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Researchers often utilize preference assessments to identify preferred edible and leisure items for individuals with developmental disabilities. However, some concerns with edibles are satiation and dietary restrictions, and some limitations of leisure items are restricted interest patterns (exclusively engaging with only one item for extended durations). In addition, both edibles and leisure items may not be appropriate for consumption in certain settings. Therefore, it may be helpful to evaluate other classes of potential reinforcers, such as preferred topographies of attention. Use of attention as a reinforcer is advantageous because it is cost-effective, readily available, and a typical consequence provided in many settings, which may facilitate maintenance of targeted skills. The purpose of this poster was to provide a summary of the literature on social preference assessments. Nine articles were identified that included a preference assessment of only social stimuli and a subsequent reinforcer assessment. Several variations across studies were found, including the type of preference assessment format conducted, the pre-assessments used to identify the stimulus array, the stimulus representations included, and how outcome validity was assessed. The clinical implication of the findings and future research directions will be discussed.
 
204.

Pyramidal Behavioral Skills Training for Staff Providing Applied Behavior Analytic Services to Adults With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
IAN PHILIP BOBER (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services: Rutgers University), James Maraventano (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services; Rutgers University), Whitney Pubylski-Yanofchick (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services; Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract:

The training of human services staff in behavior change methods is often a labor-intensive function of the supervising behavior analyst. The pyramidal application of behavioral skills training (BST) has been demonstrated an effective means for promoting the acquisition of skills related to behavior analytic treatment, while increasing the efficiency of the individual behavior analyst’s training efforts. As BST has potential for broad application, we extended a pyramidal BST approach toward job skills training for service recipients enrolled in a program providing support for adults with autism in the community setting. During pre-training assessments, 10 staff members were instructed to role-play BST using given task analyses. Following BST-based instruction in the application of BST (a pyramidal paradigm), participants demonstrated improved performance of BST component skills in the role-play setting, with regard to baseline levels. High performance levels were also observed during subsequent on-the-job assessments of staff conducting BST with service recipients in the generalization setting.

 
205. Disseminating Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention to Low Income Families
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALLISON GERMANN (Michigan State University), Sarah M Avendano (Michigan State University), Brittany Hunter (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Kristine Rodriguez (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is the most empirically supported treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the dissemination of EIBI to low income families has been limited in the extant literature. The present investigation evaluated EIBI outcomes for 19 low income children following one year of treatment. Children were enrolled in an EIBI center, affiliated with a University. Each center was housed within a local early childhood education center for typically developing children. All participants received 30 hr per week of EIBI services for the year. Measures included the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Protocol. Outcomes for this sample were compared to a sample of 9 children who were not considered low income, based on the United States Housing and Urban Development standards for the geographic area. Results will be discussed within the context of delivering EIBI to economically diverse children and families. In addition, we’ll describe systems level procedures for disseminating EIBI to this subgroup.
 
206. Embedding Identity-Match Prompts to Establish Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations and Tacts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARLY ZELINSKI (Marquette University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University), Marisa E. McKee (CLASS Intervention)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Fisher et al. (2019) demonstrated that a treatment package including 5 components was effective in teaching initial auditory-visual conditional discriminations (AVCDs) and tacts to children with autism. The present study evaluated the identity-match prompt with error-correction components with an 8-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder who engaged in vocal stereotypy and had deficits in attending. The participant had initial AVCD and tact repertories but demonstrated these skills inconsistently. This study involved a vocal discriminative stimulus (SD) and the selection of a correct comparison picture from an array of pictures. Additional components included repetition of the initial SD and alternating between 0-s and 6-s prompt delay sessions. We tested whether these procedures would facilitate the emergence of tacts that corresponded to the trained AVCDs. Targets assigned to the first set met AVCD mastery criteria and emergence of tacts was demonstrated in baseline sessions. Additional set(s) will be assigned. These data provide preliminary support that AVCDs may facilitate the emergence of tact responses and extend research that IMP with error correction may be an effective strategy to teach AVCDs.
 
207.

Functional Analysis and Treatment for a Child With Social Avoidance Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA SENN (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Destiny Davis (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kelly Rothrock (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract:

Few studies have examined evaluation and treatment of social avoidance as a function of behavior in children with autism despite this characteristic being commonly associated with the disorder. A standard functional analysis of aggressive, self-injurious, and disruptive behavior was completed with a boy diagnosed with autism. A potential social avoidance function was indicated by elevated behavior in the toy play condition and low rates of behavior in the ignore condition. It was suspected that avoidance may be specifically sensitive to verbal attention. A modified functional analysis was conducted comparing responses during sessions with no verbal attention, continuous verbal attention, and a control of no interaction. Rates of behavior were elevated in both test conditions. After functional analysis, a modified 3-step prompting procedure consisting of a textual, gestural, and physical prompt hierarchy was utilized to teach the functional communication response (FCR) of asking for “time by myself” using an iPad application. Treatment was implemented in which only the FCR produced reinforcement and all problem behavior was placed on extinction. Signaled availability was also introduced to indicate when the FCR would result in reinforcement. This case demonstrates a method for successfully identifying a social avoidance function, leading to a successful function-based treatment.

 
208. Recombinative Generalization of Tacting Noun Verb Combinations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA MARIE LARSON (Verbal Beginnings), Dylan Rutter (Verbal Beginnings )
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) produce less complex language than their peers (Eigsti et al., 2007). For example, only 5% of 30-month-old children with ASD combine words (Ellis Weismer et al., 2011). Procedures that minimize the need for direct teaching and increase generalization to other targets are paramount to address these deficits (Striefel et al., 1976). The combination of multiple known components into a previously untaught response has been described as recombinative generalization (Goldstein & Mousetis 1989). Recombinative generalization has been successfully used to teach a variety of different skills including tacting noun-verb combinations (Frampton et al., 2016). By replicating the methods of Frampton et al. (2016), the present taught responses with overlapping components with one 3-year-old boy with ASD. Mastered nouns were combined with mastered verbs and one example of both noun and verb were taught in combination. After teaching the first three targets the related six targets were mastered with no further teaching. Experimental control was established when the number baseline tact noun-verb combinations increased after each set was mastered. These findings support the use of recombinative generalization to teach tact noun-verb combinations and increase complex language in children with ASD. References Eigsti, I., Bennetto, L., & Dadlani, M. (2007). Beyond pragmatics: Morphosyntactic development in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1007-1023. Ellis Weismer, S., Gernsbacher, M., Stronach, S., Karasinski, C., Eernisse, E., Venker, C., & Sindberg, H. (2011). Lexical and grammatical skills in toddlers on the autism spectrum compared to late talking toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(8), 1065-75. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1134-4 Frampton, S., Wymer, S., Hansen, B., & Shillingsburg, M. (2016). The use of matrix training to promote generative language with children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49(4), 869-883. doi:10.1002/jaba.340 Goldstein, H., & Mousetis, L. (1989). Generalized language learning by children with severe mental retardation: Effects of peers' expressive modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22(3), 245-259. doi:10.1901/jaba.1989.22-245 Striefel, S., Wetherby, B., & Karlan, G. (1976). Establishing generalized verb-noun instruction-following skills in retarded children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 22(2), 247-260. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(76)90005-9
 
209. A Treatment Comparison of the Effects of Reinforcement-Based Interventions on the Suppression of Pica
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH SLOCUM (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Lindsay Lloveras (University of Florida ), Jacquelyn Caffera (Florida Autism Center)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Pica, the ingestion of nutritive substances, is a type of self-injury that is commonly observed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pica can pose serious health risks for persons affected with this disorder including hospitalization, surgery, and even death. Previous researchers have concluded that pica can be maintained by social attention and automatic reinforcement. The most effective treatment for automatically reinforced pica to date has been non-contingent access to preferred foods plus blocking. In the present study, the participants included two children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The researchers used an alternating treatment design to determine the effects of reprimands, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and non-contingent reinforcement on rates of pica that were hypothesized to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. All sessions were conducted in a naturalistic environment. In the baseline sessions, the rate of pica per minute was displayed at high levels. Once treatment sessions were implemented, the rate of pica per minute significantly decreased to near zero levels, however, no differentiation between the treatment conditions was observed. The researchers will return to baseline conditions and attempt to demonstrate differentiation between the various treatment options to determine the most effective treatment for decreasing pica for future participants.
 
210. Language Environments in Home and an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GREESHMA SANCHULA (Michigan State University), Sarah M Avendano (Michigan State University), Shelby Rosalik (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: The favorable effects of exposing young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to language on the child’s adaptive, social communicative, language, and cognitive development are well established. Understanding how much language a child is exposed in their home and clinical environments has important clinical implications for clinical programming and parent training. The purpose of the present investigation was to preliminarily analyze the language experienced by seven children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of 2 and 5 years old in their home and early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) environments using observational research methods. A Language ENvironmental Analysis™ (LENA) device was used to automatically capture and analyze the number of adult words spoken in the presence of the child. Other measures including child vocalization count and conversation turn counts between the focal child and other adults and children will also be measured and analyzed in the child’s home and EIBI environments over the course of a day. Results and implications for clinicians and parents will be discussed.
 
211.

Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN RAE (Affiliation One: Western New England University; Affiliation Two: The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract:

Children should engage in at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily, per the recommendation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, many children do not meet this requirement, and children with intellectual disabilities are less likely to do so. Therefore, it is important to evaluate strategies for increasing physical activity in this population. The purpose of this study was to conduct a treatment analysis in the context of a single activity duration-based preference assessment. Physical activities were identified via an indirect assessment and included treadmill, elliptical, stepping on a bosu ball, and a stationary bike. Intervention components included prompting alone, prompting plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), and prompting plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Dependent variables were appropriate activity engagement and heart rate. The two activities associated with the highest levels of physical activity were the treadmill (with prompting and NCR intervention components) and elliptical (with prompting and DRA intervention components). Once an effective treatment was identified for each form of physical activity, a modified paired-stimulus preference assessment was conducted both with and without intervention components to assess the effects of intervention on response allocation to each physical activity over a sedentary activity.

 
212. Common Mistakes of Parent-Collected ABC Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CHRISTOPHER TUNG (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Parent-collected Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Data is a tool that can be utilized by therapists to determine potential functions of their clients’ problem behaviors and caregiver-delivered consequences that need to be altered. ABC data can also inform the therapist as to which conditions should be included in a more standardized assessment (e.g., Functional Analysis). However, mistakes are commonly made which may conflict with caregiver report, mislead therapists to assess for functions that are not present, or omit assessments for functions that are present. In the present review, ABC data from clients admitted to an outpatient program for the treatment of problem behavior were reviewed. The purpose was to identify common mistakes that caregivers make when collecting ABC data to inform therapists of how to prevent or correct future mistakes. Results indicate that ABC data mistakes fall within five categories: 1) not recording all instances of problem behavior, 2) collecting data on non-targeted behaviors, 3) not writing indicative antecedents, 4) not being able to recall data back to the therapist, 5) recording data at a later time. For one client, all mistakes were related to not writing indicative antecedents. At least 3 clients’ data will be presented.
 
213. An Evaluation of Group-Level Interventions to Increase Vegetable Consumption: A School-Wide Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY SEIDEN (Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg), Lauren Davison (Hogan Learning Academy), Ben Bacon (Hogan Learning Academy), Brittney Miller (Hogan Learning Academy), Megan Gring (Hogan Learning Academy), Fred E. Carriles (Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg), Keith E. Williams (Penn State Hershey Medical Center), Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg )
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Studies have identified the estimated prevalence of selective feeding disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as approximately 70%. In addition, studies have shown children with special needs do not consume the recommended daily amount of vegetables leading to nutritional deficits. This study used a multiple treatment reversal design to examine and compare the effects of two interventions on the consumption of target vegetables in a private school setting. Participants included 39 children all diagnosed with ASD. During baseline, the participants were given five bites of two different vegetables along with their packed lunch with no programmed consequences for mealtime behavior. During the first intervention condition, pre-meal presentation, the participants were given access to the vegetables prior to the start of lunch with no programmed consequences for mealtime behavior. During the second intervention condition, modeling and prompt, the participants observed a researcher model the consumption of the food and the researcher provided a prompt to the student to try the food, with no programmed consequences for mealtime behavior. Preliminary analysis of the results shows that the intervention pre-meal presentation had not produced higher participant consumption of food items than that of the baseline condition.
 
214. Efforts Towards Comprehensive Transition Programming in the US Virgin Islands
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARA GUNNING (Island Therapy Solutions)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: There are infinite cultural influences that affect the delivery of adult transition services; these include family involvement, employment opportunities, community perception, and cultural norms which require adaptations to traditional transition planning. This poster specifically addresses barriers to, and efforts towards implementation of transition services in the US Virgin Islands. With significantly lower socioeconomic status, literacy, and educational resources than traditional clinical and transition programming in the United States, communities face significant barriers to effective treatment. Components of an effective treatment package include family involvement and collaboration. Hirano, Rowe, Lindstrom, and Chan (2018) describe factors which inhibit family participation, and comment that the perception of lack of involvement is due to family issues; however inequities in cultural capital, socioeconomic status, and structure may be the primary barriers. The authors go on to suggest that providing resources and tools to meet basic needs may remove primary barriers to family involvement. In addition to the barriers to family involvement, treatment planning should also consider the community's exposure to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Lopez and Kennan (2014) concluded that communities’ lack of exposure to individuals with autism, perceptions and stereotypes, and a lack of understanding can dissuade employers from hiring or promoting autistic individuals; this may further ostracize them from the community. Additionally, objectives and instructional protocols may not be fully derived from a standardized assessment or transition questionnaire and ecological inventories are required in order to plan and prepare for effective service delivery. The programs described in this poster address a 2-prong approach; one client-driven and one community-driven to address transition from both perspectives. By enabling individuals to discover their interests, self advocate, and understand their options on-island they will be able to access their community in a meaningful way. By working with organizations and companies to develop autism friendly hiring, supervising, co-working, and customer service, the community will likewise reach individuals in a meaningful way.
 
215. Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior through Intervention on Precursor Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY ANN CHESBROUGH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alyssa Fisher (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Zoe Newman (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Severe problem behavior (SPB), such as self-injurious behavior (SIB), poses an imminent risk of harm. Thus, identifying treatments that intervene before SPB occurs are highly desirable. Research has suggested there may be responses that reliably precede and predict the occurrence of SPB, called precursors (e.g., Fahmie & Iwata, 2011). Intervening on the precursor may decrease the probability of occurrence of the SPB itself. This study reports on an assessment designed to disrupt the occurrence of automatically maintained SIB (ASIB) exhibited by a 17-year-old male diagnosed with autism by intervening on a precursor hypothesized to form a behavior chain culminating in SIB. The adolescent’s ASIB was categorized as subtype II, which is highly resistant to treatment involving reinforcement alone (Hagopian, Rooker, & Zarcone, 2015). Rates of the precursor and SIB were evaluated when no disruption procedure was in place and then compared to rates during the implementation of three different disruption procedures. Each was implemented for 5 s contingent on the precursor or SIB. Relatively lower rates of SIB were observed across the three disruption procedures. These data suggest that intervening on a precursor for ASIB may decrease the frequency of SPB and therefore reduce risk of injury.
 
216. Classroom Staff as an Establishing Operation for Aggressive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COREY OLVERA (The Center for Discovery), Johanna F Lantz (The Center for Discovery)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Functional analyses (FA) that do not evoke challenging behaviors, despite them being observed in the natural environment, suggest the presence of an EO that is not represented. This study investigated how classroom staff influenced operant responding during functional analysis conditions for an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder and aggressive behavior. No aggressive behaviors were observed during initial FA conditions. The FA was then conducted with staff member “Cindy” with whom the behavior was typically observed within the naturalistic environment. It was established that Cindy served as the EO for challenging behavior, with the highest rates of aggression occurring during demand and divided attention conditions, suggesting that the value of escape and access to attention was increased in her presence. Functional communication training (FCT) was initiated where the student requested “play” in the context of demands with Cindy. Thus, FCT resulted in both an escape from demands and access to a preferred play activity with Cindy. Preliminary results support the effectiveness of the FCT intervention. A reversal phase is planned to further test the intervention followed by denial tolerance. This study illustrates the benefits of manipulating additional antecedent variables when standard FA procedures are not informative.
 
217.

A Practioner's Guide to Teach for Generalization in ABA Treatment for Autism and Other Disabilities Using the R.E.AL. Model

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRENDA J. TERZICH-GARLAND GARLAND (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc. (ABC)), Mari R. Ueda-Tao (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc. (ABC))
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

This poster shows how practioners can plan and effectively train for generalized behavior change in the applied setting utilizing The R.E.AL. Model (Recreating Environments to Accelerate Learning). It teaches for generalization using a unique five step process, which systematically changes environmental antecedents and consequences in order to effectively increase skill acquisition within any existing ABA program. The structure of each level allows for observable, measurable accountability as to how a concept, verbal operant, skill, or repertoire was acquired based on the environmental conditions present. Each level provides the practitioner with a behavior analytic structure by which treatment plans are evaluated and targets to teach for generalization are identified. The R.E.AL. Model begins the behavioral process to teach for generalization during stimulus discrimination training of concepts and the teaching of skill acquisition taught in a highly structured environment. The process continues when systematically introducing stimuli and contingencies within the natural environment. Special emphasis in bridging concepts and skills in order to teach complex repertoires follows, establishing multiple-control, and generalized social behavior to the verbal community. Data indicate skill acquisition across all ABA program areas. The R.E.AL. Model systematically trains for generalization so practitioners can increase skill acquisition across all applied settings.

 
218.

The Treatment of Food Selectivity in anAdult With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WHITNEY PUBYLSKI-YANOFCHICK (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Center, Rutgers University), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

Up to 89% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have some type of feeding difficulties (Ledford & Gast, 2006). Food selectivity, while common in young children typically resolves in the neurotypical population. However, it may persist into adulthood in individuals with ASD if left untreated (Birch, 1999). Kuschner et. al. (2015) found, using self-report, that young adults with ASD were more likely to report food selectivity than in the neurotypical comparison group. While effective treatments for food selectivity have been identified for young children and the school-aged population, little research has been conducted on treatments with the adult population. This is important because adults have a longer history of food selectivity, which may make it more resistant to treatment. In this study, we used a combined changing criterion and alternating treatment design to compare positive and negative reinforcement contingencies to increase consumption of a variety of novel foods by an 26-year-old adult with ASD. We found that both contingencies increased consumption of novel foods. Additionally, he preferred the positive reinforcement contingency. Finally, treatment effects generalized to non-treated foods. The current protocol represents a novel strategy for addressing food selectivity in adults with ASD.

 
219.

Latency-Based Attention Assessment Among Individuals With Social Avoidance Functions

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRYSTA PAIGE LAMOTTE (Marcus Autism Center ), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine )
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

In some individuals with autism spectrum disorder, the presentation of attention is an establishing operation for problem behavior, and the removal or avoidance of that attention serves as negative reinforcement (Harper, Iwata, & Camp, 2013). The present study evaluated the use of an attention latency assessment with 3 participants who exhibited problem behavior maintained by avoiding social interactions. Participants were exposed to a variety of conditions (physical attention, close proximity, vocal attention, etc.), and interaction was terminated contingent on problem behavior. We measured aversiveness by average latency to the first instance of problem behavior across all series of the assessment. Idiosyncratic results were obtained regarding the type of attention found to be most aversive. Results of this type of assessment could be used to systematically fade from less aversive social interaction to more aversive social interaction through a demand fading approach when treating problem behavior maintained by social avoidance.

 
220.

Pretest/Post-Test Evaluation of Language Measures After a Year of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHELBY ROSALIK (Michigan State University), Sarah M Avendano (Michigan State University), Greeshma Sanchula (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been shown to have positive effects on the language outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Child language outcomes are often measured using standardized assessments. Some biases that are can be associated with standardized assessments that threaten their internal validity can be associated with the assessor’s presence, the assessor’s ability to implement the assessment, the and the contrived nature of many assessments. Many of these biases can be addressed when automated data collection procedures are implemented to capture and asses a child’s language ability. The purpose of the present investigation was to capture the language outcomes of children with ASD one year after beginning EIBI. A pre-test post-test design will be used to analyze the changes observed in the child’s language. The children’s language was measured using Language ENvironmental Analysis (LENA) software and affiliated devices to collect and analyze data on the child’s language throughout one full treatment day. The primary language measure of interest is the child’s vocalization count per hour. Clinical results and implications will be discussed.

 
221.

Establishing Tangible Conditioned Reinforcers for Children With Autism using a Discrimination Training Procedure

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL YOSICK (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Kristina Gerencser (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine )
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

A core deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is restricted interests, which for children with ASD often manifests as few items with which they engage with in a leisure context. When children have few leisure items that function as reinforcers during intervention, progress can be limited. This study used a discrimination training procedure to condition non-preferred leisure items as reinforcers for two children with ASD. Neutral tangible items were established as discriminative stimuli by reinforcing a specific engagement response in the presence of the item. Free-operant preference assessment probes of item engagement were conducted prior to conditioning, during conditioning, and post-conditioning. Following an observed treatment effect during free-operant probes, the conditioned item was then tested for reinforcing efficacy while teaching a new skill. Results indicated the discrimination training procedure led to greater levels of engagement during free-operant probes with each item that was conditioned for both participants. During the test for reinforcing efficacy, the conditioned item demonstrated some reinforcing properties, though not as strong as the participants’ primary reinforcers.

 
222. Evaluation of the Latency-Based, Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMINA NOOR WONG (Queens College, CUNY), Theresa Fiani (City University of New York - The Graduate Center), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Functional analysis is a general process that identifies potential antecedents and consequences influencing problem behavior, which in turn informs effective intervention. The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) is a recently developed functional analysis format that evaluates an individualized, synthesized contingency in a single test condition compared to a matched control. Problem behavior is typically measured as a rate during the IISCA; however, the safety of the analysis period could be improved by reducing sessions to a single response using latency as a measure of response strength. We conducted this study in two parts with 10 participants diagnosed with autism who exhibited problem behavior. First, the data from five rate-based IISCAs were reanalyzed to determine if the outcomes of a latency based measure would correspond to that of rate. Second, five latency-based IISCAs were conducted to validate the results of the reanalysis. Overall, differentiated outcomes implicating socially mediated functions were obtained using latency as a measure of response strength while reducing (a) the participants’ exposure to problem behavior and (b) time required to conduct the analysis.
 
223. Social Validity: A Comparison of Social Skills Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRANK KEVIN DAVIS (California State University, Northridge), Juan Geovanni Torres (California State University, Northridge), charles Thomas Gageby (California State University, Northridge), Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Assessing social validity enables consumers and clinicians to more effectively evaluate the social significance, appropriateness, and importance of the behavior change goals, treatment procedures, and outcomes (Wolf, 1978). Evaluating treatment acceptability promotes ongoing clinical refinement that operates in the client's best interest (Common and Lane, 2017). In the present study, we explored the intersection of treatment acceptability and outcome preference for two popular social skills interventions for children with autism. In this study, undergraduate students viewed video vignettes of pre-and post-intervention behavior samples from two social skills teaching conditions –prompting and a narrative (Social Stories™) intervention. Pilot data show that participants rated one intervention with higher treatment acceptability compared to the other, but rated the other treatment’s outcome as higher. We discuss the implications of these findings for the social acceptability of behavior analytic intervention procedures, and we hope that the results of this study will inform clinicians regarding how to enhance the acceptability of their behavior analytic interventions.
 
224.

Defining the Functions of Sarcasm and its Practical Implications for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA GARNER (Hopebridge Pediatrics; Behavioral Education Research Initiative), Tom Wierzbinski (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Adam Peal (Behavioral Education Research Initiative)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

Within this poster, we behavior-analytically defined the functions of sarcasm and provided practical implications for individuals with autism. By understanding the contextual cues contributing to a sarcastic statement individuals with developmental disabilities can contact more reinforcement by interacting with another person or group of people. Additionally, a study was conducted in which individuals with autism were taught to detect the literal meaning of sarcastic comments and their contextual cues. The results of this study supported the assertion of Persicke, Tarbox, Ranick, and St. Clair (2013) that non-literal language deficits can be reconciled using teaching procedures such as the delivery of rules, clear immediate feedback, and multiple exemplar training.

 
225.

Behavioral Assessment and Early Intervention Protocol for Autistic Risk Babies: Increasing the Generality of Previous Results

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAULA GIOIA (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo), Simone Assunção Keiner (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo), Flavia Maria Mascarenhas veras Morais (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract:

This research has been carried out for several years to identify ASD risk in siblings of children diagnosed with ASD and its design is a longitudinal prospective one. We pretend to identify early risk signs in siblings aged 7 to 36 months old. Thirteen tasks were developed to evaluate siblings target behaviors by therapists or parent: turning the body to sounds, following instructions, pointing, making eye contacting, babbling, social smiling, imitating, understanding signs looking to an object pointed by others, pretend play. Evaluations of every infant are taken monthly and each new year new infants are included. This study was developed in 2019 and its aim was to verify if new results obtained by application of the protocol on five infants aged 8 to 36 months old would increase the generality of previous results. Four infants had speech language impairment and referral for speech therapist assessment. Only one of the siblings showed severe impairment in different areas of development and referral to ASD specialists indicated agreement with our evaluation. External specialist evaluations agreed with our assessment showing with new participants protocol´s generality. Additional results were related to protocol improvement.

 
226. An Alternative Model for Traditional Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: A Pilot Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRA AMENT (University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus; Children's Hospital of Colorado), Sarah C Connolly (May Institute), Ashley Showalter (Nationwide Children's Hospital Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Discussant: Oswaldo Ochoa (Bloom Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is identified as best practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is delivered through a variety of treatment models (National Research Council, 2001). Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) produces strong outcomes in skill acquisition and behavior reduction. However, some EIBI models pose barriers to families (e.g., high number of ongoing treatment hours, age restrictions) that result in children not receiving crucial services. This poster presents a pilot behavioral intervention program developed at an outpatient, hospital-based autism center. This short-term, moderately intensive intervention for school-age children resulted in measurable behavioral changes while overcoming barriers presented by traditional EIBI. This program included a strong caregiver training component, allowing direct clinical services to fade while the caregiver continued to implement treatment daily in natural settings. Participants received 10-15 weekly hours of treatment for a total of 9 months. Programming focused on skill acquisition and reduction of problem behaviors using a combination of ABA strategies including Applied Verbal Behavior, Discrete Trial Training, and Natural Environment Teaching. Participant outcome data shows significant change and supports that this model can be an effective alternative to those that do not fit the traditional EIBI service model.
 
 

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