Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

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Symposium #114
CE Offered: BACB
Leveling Up: Research Surrounding Gamification in the Classroom
Saturday, May 23, 2020
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Marriott Marquis, Level M4, Archives
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
CE Instructor: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The first presentation will review the systematic assessment of peer-reviewed single-subject research that included a game-based intervention as the independent variable, identify the elements of gaming that have been employed, assess the scope of use across domains, and examine the efficacy of these interventions. We will discuss areas of strengths and limitations of the extant literature, identify opportunities for future research, and practical implications for the use of game-based interventions. The second presentation evaluated the effects of a gamified package intervention on the accurate data entry of BACB® experience hours. Fifteen behavior analysis graduate students who were enrolled in 3 sections of Practicum at a small private university participated. The gamified intervention (“Practicum Slayer”) included feedback, reinforcement (points) to access putative primary reinforcement, badges, and thematic enhancement. This intervention was compared to a feedback only condition using a multiple baseline design across classes. Weekly data were collected on the percentage of students per class who entered data into the BACB® Fieldwork Tracker with 100% accuracy. The intervention was effective at increasing accurate data entry for all classes and 93.33% (14 of 15) of participants reached 100% accuracy in their data entry by the end of the study. IOA data were collected in 39.44% of sessions for a mean of 99.01% agreement (range, 80% - 100%). Social validity data indicated the gamification package was received with moderate positivity. The final presentation evaluated the isolated effects of group contingencies on student pacing and performance across three separate classes of the same undergraduate online course (n=175 students in each of 3 classes). Two of the three classes received counterbalanced interdependent group contingencies for meeting recommended deadlines to receive simple, no cost rewards. The third class served as the control group and received no group contingencies. Results showed that implementation of group contingencies impacted course pacing for the experimental groups, with improvements in the completion of assignments by the recommended deadlines when under a contingency. We discuss the implications of the use of these simple, effective, no-cost rewards as a contrast to extra credit rewards and improving pacing in asynchronous online courses.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Gamification, Reinforcement, Teaching
Target Audience:

The target audience for these presentations are practitioners interested in the types of single subject design research on gamification and those interested in incorporating gamification within their university classroom (online or on ground).

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will define gamification using a behavior analytic framework. 2. Participants will evaluate the effectiveness of a gamification intervention on data entry. 3. Participants will identify potential social validity limitations regarding gamification for graduate students. 4. Participants will evaluate the effectiveness of isolated effects of group contingencies on student pacing and performance across three separate classes of the same undergraduate online course.
 
Systematic Review of the Application of Games in Single-Subject Research (2010-2020)
DOUGLAS KUPFERMAN (Caldwell University), Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Gamification is the application of gaming mechanics to non-gaming contexts. There has been an increased interest in the use of gaming applications across a variety of disciplines. Gaming often employs behavior analytic principles as mechanisms for behavior change. Questions remain regarding how games have been utilized in single-subject research. The purpose of our literature review was to conduct a systematic assessment of peer-reviewed single-subject research that included a game-based intervention as the independent variable, identify the elements of gaming that have been employed, assess the scope of use across domains, and examine the efficacy of these interventions. We will discuss areas of strengths and limitations of the extant literature, identify opportunities for future research, and practical implications for the use of game-based interventions. Across the past ten years, games-based interventions have increased and have been used successfully across a variety of settings and populations.
 
Evaluating Group Contingencies in an Online Psychology Course
DAMARIS PEREZ (California State University, Northbridge), Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Recently, there has been an increase in online coursework in higher education, leading researchers to evaluate the learning outcomes, student motivation, and course completion rates in online coursework (De Freitas, Morgan, & Gibson, 2015). In a previous evaluation of gamification of an online course, Malmberg, Fahmie, & Solares found preliminary evidence that the addition of group contingencies resulted in statistically significant improvements in student pacing in the course. However, research on group contingencies in online higher education is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the isolated effects of group contingencies on student pacing and performance across three separate classes of the same undergraduate online course (n=175 students in each of 3 classes). Two of the three classes received counterbalanced interdependent group contingencies for meeting recommended deadlines to receive simple, no cost rewards. The third class served as the control group and received no group contingencies. Results showed that implementation of group contingencies impacted course pacing for the experimental groups, with improvements in the completion of assignments by the recommended deadlines when under a contingency. We discuss the implications of the use of these simple, effective, no-cost rewards as a contrast to extra credit rewards and improving pacing in asynchronous online courses.
 
Using Gamification to Promote Accurate Data Entry of Practicum Experience Hours in Graduate Students
DIANA PARRY-CRUWYS (Regis College), Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
Abstract: The current study evaluated the effects of a gamified package intervention on the accurate data entry of BACB® experience hours. Fifteen behavior analysis graduate students who were enrolled in 3 sections of Practicum at a small private university participated. The gamified intervention (“Practicum Slayer”) included feedback, reinforcement (points) to access putative primary reinforcement, badges, and thematic enhancement. This intervention was compared to a feedback only condition using a multiple baseline design across classes. Weekly data were collected on the percentage of students per class who entered data into the BACB® Fieldwork Tracker with 100% accuracy. The intervention was effective at increasing accurate data entry for all classes and 93.33% (14 of 15) of participants reached 100% accuracy in their data entry by the end of the study. IOA data were collected in 39.44% of sessions for a mean of 99.01% agreement (range, 80% - 100%). Social validity data indicated the gamification package was received with moderate positivity. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are discussed.
 

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