Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #47N
VRB Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
159. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of the Length of the Echoic Responses on Instruction Following: A Joint Control Analysis
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MATT HEININGER (Butterfly Effects, LLC), Mark Stafford (Butterfly Effects, LLC)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Children are often taught to follow instructions of increasing length (Sundberg, 2014), without much consideration for joint control or the existing repertoires necessary to follow such instructions. Lowenkron (1984, 1988, 1989); Gutierrez (2006); and Tu (2006) have demonstrated that echoic and self-echoic behavior (rehearsal) is necessary for joint control. It follows that if a person/child has not displayed a length of echoic utterance (LEU) containing at least as many components (words/syllables) as an instruction, “rehearsal is not possible, and the instruction cannot be followed” (Sundberg, personal communication 5/17/2021). In the present case study, a five-year-old boy with autism was assessed to have a LEU of 3 words. A pre-intervention instruction following probe indicated a pre-existing repertoire across three named objects in an array. An echoic training intervention was utilized to increase responding to criterion across 4-word LEU’s. A post-intervention probe showed an increase in selecting four named objects compared to baseline. Implications for applied practice are discussed as are extensions for future research.

 
160. Tact Emergency After Multiple Exemplar Instruction in Autism Spectrum Disorder Children
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Fernanda de Oliveira Ortigoza (UNESP- Bauru), ANA CLAUDIA MOREIRA ALMEIDA-VERDU (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can demonstrate functional independence between listener and speaker behaviors. Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) can integrate listener and speaker and promote the emergence of tact after listener training. This study verified the MEI effect on the interdependence between listening and speaking and tact emergence in children with ASD. Three children were participants: a 4-year-old girl (P1), a 4-year-old boy (P2), and a 5-year-old boy (P3). All children scored level 1 on tact in the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP protocol). Teaching and testing of listening selection-based, echoic, and tact were performed by a computer, with three sets of stimuli. The steps of the procedure were: listener, tact, and echoic pretest (three sets); listener training and tact/echoic test (set 1); teaching of listener/tact/echoic using MEI (set 2); tact and echoic test (set 1); listener training and tact/echoic test (set 3); listener, tact, and echoic posttests (three sets). The pretests showed variability between listening and speaking operants around 60% correct. Before MEI the percentage of correct tact was 80% of correct, and after MEI was 100% accuracy for the three participants.
 
162. Increasing Vocalizations Across Settings Using a Vocal Imitation Procedure
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLYN CRYSDALE (Endicott College), Irum Zar (Verbal Beginnings, LLC)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The development of preverbal skills is extremely relevant to successful language acquisition later in life. Previous research has shown that vocal imitation of infant vocalizations has been associated with later verbal developments (Pelaez, Ortega & Gewirtz, 2011). The purpose of this study was to use contingently echoed vocalizations and stimulus-stimulus pairing in order to increase the rate of vocalizations across various settings, in a 5-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder. A multiple baseline design was implemented across settings. Vocal imitation was continuously presented during reinforcement conditions, along with a modified form of stimulus-stimulus pairing, similar to the methods used in Esch, Carr, & Grow (2009). These procedures aligned with the introduction of a speech generating device, however this was not the dependent variable in the experimental design. In baseline conditions, the participant displayed a rate in the range of 0-50 vocalizations per hour, and with the addition of the modified stimulus-stimulus pairing and contingent vocalizations, the rate increased to a range of 250-300 vocalizations per hour. The rate of vocalizations increased in both the home and therapy environment. The results indicate that the use of modified stimulus-stimulus pairing and contingent vocalizations had an increasing effect on the rate of vocalizations across multiple settings.
 
163. Intraverbal After Multiple Exemplar Instruction in Children With Verbal Minimal Repertoire
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Aline Vieira (UNESP-BAURU), ANA CLAUDIA MOREIRA ALMEIDA-VERDU (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

This study aimed to verify the intraverbal emergency after teaching listening behavior selection-based, tact, and intraverbal structured in Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) in children with verbal minimal repertoire. Four children, aged between 2-6 years were participants. One typical listener (Joseph), two with ASD (Sam, John), and one with deaf and hard of hearing using a cochlear implant (Victory). Teaching and test steps in discrete trials by computer were: a) pre-test of tact, intraverbal, and listener selection-based with five sets of stimuli; b) listener and tact training and intraverbal test (set 1); c) tact, listener, and intraverbal by MEI (set 2); d) review of listener and tact teaching and intraverbal test (set 1); e) listener and tact training and intraverbal test (set 3). At the pre-test, they showed variability in listener behavior (above 33%) and tact (below 67%); in the intraverbal, results were null for three participants (P2, P3, and P4) showing the functional independence between listener and speaker. After MEI, all participants were accurate (100% correct) in listening behavior and tact; percentages of correct responses in intraverbal increased for all participants (between 67% and 100%), demonstrating the emergence of intraverbal after MEI in children with minimal verbal repertoire.

 
 

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