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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #255
Sunday, May 28, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
Chair: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry)
132. Use of Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding
Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE KUNKEL (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa Luke Gonzalez (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alison Kozlowski (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Escape extinction is an empirically-derived treatment for increasing food consumption in children with feeding disorders; however, it may not be effective for increasing other appropriate mealtime behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated the use of negative reinforcement (e.g., avoidance of a nonpreferred food or multiple bites) in the treatment of feeding disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of negative reinforcement (i.e., the avoidance of a nonpreferred food) on levels of self-feeding for a 5-year-old male admitted to an intensive feeding program. Following implementation of escape extinction, physical prompts, and positive reinforcement, food consumption increased, yet levels of self-feeding remained low. Therefore, negative reinforcement for self-feeding was incorporated into the child’s treatment, which resulted in an immediate increase in self-feeding. With the inclusion of chasers to promote mouth cleans, levels of self-feeding further increased to clinically acceptable levels (≥ 80%). Subsequently, the chaser was discontinued and high levels of self-feeding remained with negative reinforcement for both self-feeding and mouth cleans. The results suggest that negative reinforcement can be effective at increasing levels of appropriate mealtime behavior, particularly when other interventions are ineffective.
133. Using Pictures Depicting App Icons to Conduct an MSWO Preference Assessment on a Tablet Device
Domain: Applied Research
Audrey N. Hoffmann (Utah State University), RYAN PASKINS (Utah State University), Anna Brady (Utah State University), Tyra P. Sellers (Utah State University)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: High-tech items such as tablet devices are increasingly being used for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)s receiving applied behavior analytic services. One unique aspect of high-tech items such as tablets is that they provide users with access to multiple stimuli (applications) within one device. It may be important to ensure that high-tech devices contain preferred applications (apps). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of using pictures depicting app icons within a Multiple Stimulus Without Replacement (MSWO) preference assessment on a tablet device. A secondary purpose was to determine if the highly preferred apps selected in the preference assessment functioned as reinforcers. Participants included 5 adults with IDDs in a sheltered workshop setting. We identified a hierarchy of preferred apps on the tablet device for all participants using app icons depicting apps within an MSWO arrangement. We then conducted a concurrent chains reinforcer assessment and results demonstrated that the high-preferred app functioned as a reinforcer for all participants. The results provide evidence that using app icons to depict apps on a tablet device may be a useful procedure for caregivers and behavior analysts to identify preferred content on tablet devices.
134. Analysis of Injury Production across Functional Classes of Self-Injurious Behavior in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA FISHER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute, University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: A subset of individuals with intellectual and developmental disorders engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB); behavior that produces injuries by definition. Previous research has examined using injuries as a metric of SIB severity, how injury production and location may be related to biological mechanism responsible for the occurrence of SIB, and the risk for injuries secondary to SIB within particular populations. However, limited research has examined how the function of SIB relates to injury production. The purpose of this study was to examine form and function of SIB that produced injuries within a clinical population receiving treatment for SIB. A consecutive controlled case series was conducted from 64 individuals who had a physical examination at admission to a hospital unit. Results indicate that individuals with automatically reinforced SIB were more likely to engage in a single form of SIB and in head-directed SIB. Furthermore, individuals with automatically reinforced SIB (either solely automatically reinforced or reinforced by both social and nonsocial consequences) were more likely to have more severe head injuries. These results suggest that particular functions and subtypes of SIB may be risk factors for certain types of injuries.
135. Comparison of Two Behavioral Skills Training Packages to Increase Conversation Skills
Domain: Applied Research
Francesca Randle (Briar Cliff University ), Stephanie A. Hood (Briar Cliff University ), KRISTINA LANE (Briar Cliff University)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities often require explicit teaching for conversation skills. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST), which includes: (a) providing a rationale, (b) modeling skills, (c) role-playing, and (d) receiving feedback (Bornstein & Hersen, 1977; Leaf et al., 2009; Leaf et al., 2016; Hood, Luczynski, & Mitteer, in press; Beaulieu, Hanley, & Santiago, 2014). When individuals have skill deficits in constructing appropriate sentences it may also be effective to use scripts and script fading (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993). The current study compared two different BST procedures, referred to as BST 1 (Beaulieu et al., 2014) and BST 2 (Hood et al., in press), the use of textual prompts, differential reinforcement, and script fading to teach two individuals how to initiate conversations. In addition, we assessed generalization to a novel adult not associated with teaching throughout treatment for one participant. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to demonstrate experimental control over the effects of BST. For both participants, BST 2 and textual prompts were necessary to increase responding to appropriate levels. Ann required additional procedures including differential reinforcement and conversation scripts to increase responding to appropriate levels.
136. Assessment of Avoidant Behaviors in the Presence of Noise to Identify an Establishing Operation for Problem Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
Ashley Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland Baltimore County), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), PAIGE TALHELM (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: McCord, Iwata, Galensky, Ellingson, and Thomson (2001) stated that various types of noise may function as an establishing operation for problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. In the current study, an individual admitted to an inpatient hospital for severe problem was reported to engage in aggressive and disruptive behavior when demands were presented and in the presence of loud environments. The results from the initial functional analysis were inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a stimulus avoidance assessment with a variety of noises to identify which evoked the highest rates of avoidant and target problem behaviors. The participant engaged in the highest rate of avoidant behavior during the group conversation condition (i.e., more than three individuals talking near the participant). This stimulus was included in a subsequent evaluation to determine if problem behavior is maintained by escape from noise, demands, or both. The escape conditions were compared to a control condition, during which no demands were presented and there was limited noise. Results of this study were inconclusive, but this assessment extended the procedures of previous research by further evaluating the participants avoidant behaviors in the presence of noise to identify an establishing operation for problem behavior.
137. Evaluating Choice for Accumulated vs. Distributed Token-Exchange Ratios Under Varying Schedules of Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN FALLIGANT (Auburn University), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Organisms tend to allocate behavior to simultaneously available schedules of reinforcement as a function of the magnitude, frequency, and quality of reinforcement associated with each schedule (DeLeon et al., 2014). Delays (or lack of delays) to reinforcement are also important schedule features, as individuals with IDD are more likely to show preferences for smaller, sooner reinforcers than for larger, delayed reinforcers (e.g., Dixon et al., 1998). Results from DeLeon et al. (2014) suggest that accumulated exchange-production schedules promote increased work completion and are higher preferred than distributed exchange-production schedules despite associated delays to reinforcement. The present study sought to identify whether other variables, such as the schedules of reinforcement associated with token delivery, influence preferences for exchange-production schedules using a concurrent-operant design. Accumulated exchange-production schedules are preferred to distributed exchange-production schedules when the schedules of reinforcement are relatively dense (e.g., FR 1, VR 2), but not under leaner schedules of reinforcement (e.g., VR 5, VR 10). Applied implications and areas for future research will be discussed.
138. A Review of Error-Correction Strategies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATELYN HOFFERT (University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire), Kevin P. Klatt (University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire), Megan Skrbec (University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire), Adrienne Marie Reyerson (University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: A rich literature exists of procedures to effectively teach a variety of skills to people with typical and atypical development. Teaching skills using effective procedures, however, still sometimes results in learner errors. How a teacher should respond when an error occurs is not always clear. Four strategies exist to correct errors including: verbal feedback, modeling, delay, and remedial trials. These strategies have been used both in isolation and in a variety of combinations. To this point, no review has been conducted on the strategies. Given the importance of teaching skills to persons with intellectual disabilities, and the lack of a cohesive research review, the purpose of this study was to review and evaluate research pertaining to correcting errors when teaching skills. Past studies pertaining to error correction were investigated according to whether error correction strategies were used in isolation or in combination. Other variables recorded included participant characteristics, research designs, and how effectiveness and efficiency were measured. Overall conclusions and recommendations for future research are provided.
139. A Systematic Review of the Interventions used to Treat Elopement in Children and Adults with Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN O'GUINN (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: A systematic review of the existing literature on the use of behavioral approaches to lessen instances of elopement was conducted. The articles identified were analyzed to determine the intervention method used and the effectiveness of each to decrease elopement. Fourteen studies were found. The existing literature indicates a variety of interventions have been implemented to treat elopement, including differential reinforcement of other behavior, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, blocking, functional communication training, non-contingent reinforcement, time-out, non-contingent exercise, token economy, delay fading, and some combinations of those listed. More research is needed in this area to determine which interventions are the most effective for decreasing elopement.
140. An Evaluation of Delay and Denial Tolerance to Reduce Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY K BEDNAR (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Anlara McKenzie (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Noor Javed (Kennedy Kreiger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: Children with developmental disabilities may engage in severe problem behavior when a tangible item has been denied or taken away. In treatment, the use of a delay schedule can be beneficial as it more effectively emulates a natural environment. Additionally, incorporating alternative activities may be effective in eliminating severe problem behavior during the delay. The purpose of the current study was to extend the procedures of Hanley et al. (2014) to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a tolerance response to decrease self-injury and aggression when access to preferred tangible items is denied or delayed. Participants included two males (ages 7 & 9) admitted to an inpatient unit for severe problem behavior. Functional analyses indicated that self-injury and aggression were maintained by access to tangible items. Treatment included five phases; 1) Simple FCR, 2) Tolerance response training, 3) Fixed reinforcer delivery contingent upon tolerance response, 4) Variable delay or denial, 5) Activities during delay interval. Results suggested that blocked access to preferred tangible items without the tolerance response resulted in high rates of problem behavior. In treatment, the addition of the tolerance response in delay and denial contexts reduced rates of self-injury and aggression while functional communication and tolerance responses persisted.
141. Leave Me Alone: Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Attention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECA TORRES (Bancroft), Jennifer Bailey (Bancroft)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: Functional analyses are used to identify a functional relationship between problem behavior and its reinforcing consequences. While thorough, one disadvantage of functional analysis is the length of time it takes to complete. Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) identified an effective alternative to the standard methodology. Their synthesized analysis consisted of a test condition that provided access to hypothesized reinforcers contingent on problem behavior and a control condition where those reinforcers were available noncontingently. Current research on functional analysis and its application for reducing problem behaviors within an adult population is limited. In the present study, a synthesized analysis was conducted in a van with an adult male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who exhibited high rates of aggression and disruption in vehicles. Higher rates of problem behavior were observed during the test condition suggesting these behaviors were maintained by escape from attention. A treatment consisting of functional communication training and extinction was then evaluated using a reversal design. Rates of problem behavior were high during baseline phases and decreased to near zero when escape from attention was provided contingent on a functional communication response. Additional probes were later conducted to demonstrate generalization of the alternative response to additional therapists.
142. Effects of Guided Notes as a Classroom Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disability
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA ERIN DALY (University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)), Jolene R. Sy (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Guided notes have proven to be an effective intervention for children with intellectual disability; however, there is not a large body of research demonstrating their efficacy in classrooms with adults with similar diagnoses. Guided notes provide specific prompts to evoke the desired behavior of recording pertinent lecture information and reduce the response effort of taking notes. The current study evaluated the effects of guided notes on lecture comprehension using a reversal design. Participants were eight adults, aged 18-25, who were enrolled in a 15-week course that was part of a post-secondary education program for college-aged students with intellectual disability Results of this study reveal mixed effects, with percent increase of comprehension scores ranging from 6.8% to 87.5% (M = 36%) across participants. Mean comprehension scores varied during both baseline (M = 49.8%; range: 28.3-87.5) and treatment (M = 65.4%; range: 31.3-93.8), with mean differences ranging from 3.0 to 27.8 percentage points (M = 15.60). Five out of eight participants improved their compression scores by an average of 10 percentage points or greater when using guided notes. These findings suggest that, while guided notes increase comprehension, effect size varies across students with intellectual disability, indicating the need to adjust instructional supports on an individual basis.
143. Effects of Consecutive Sessions on Functional Analysis Outcomes
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
PEI HUANG (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Suryamin Liman (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: Wallace and Iwata (1999) showed that the duration of functional analysis (FA) sessions had little impact on the interpretation of results, except when response rates increased following extended exposure to the FA test condition. The current study compared the interpretation of FA results when the test sessions were graphed as two consecutive 5 minute sessions to when the same sessions were graphed as single 10 minute sessions. Functional analysis test conditions were conducted as two consecutive 5 minute sessions for six individuals with developmental disorders who engaged in aggressive and self-injurious behaviors. All FA sessions were conducted in a behavioral outpatient clinic. The FA results for both graphs were interpreted using the criteria described in Roane, Fisher, Kelley, Mevers, and Bousein (2013) and using visual inspection. The results for Roane’s criteria identified the same function(s) for problem behavior regardless of session length. However, visual inspection of the graphs showed differences in stability of responding and trends across consecutive 5 minute sessions that were informative for clinical judgement, but not revealed in the single session graphs.
144. Increasing Independent Work Task Completion for Alternate Activities to Increase Tolerance While Thinning the Reinforcement Schedule
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
NOOR JAVED (Kennedy Krieger Institute and University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ryan Scherr (Kennedy Krieger Institute and University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Usai Bah (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Dennis Park (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: There is a substantial literature base supporting the use of functional communication training for reducing problem behavior; however, there is a dire need for strategies that can be used to increase the individuals tolerance during times when the reinforcement schedule is thinned. Although some research has shown that providing access to a competing item or alternative reinforcers during the times when the desired reinforcer is unavailable to maintain low rates of problem behavior is an effective strategy, these studies only demonstrated effects for short duration (e.g., 5-10 minutes) or provided alternative activities which required high levels of caregiver supervision, and thus may not be feasible in the natural environment (Hagopian, Construcci Kuhnn, Long, and Rush, 2005; Austin and Tiger, 2015). The purpose of the current study was to extend previous research by teaching Norman, a 16-year-old male admitted to an inpatient unit for the treatment of aggression, to independently engage with competing activities for an extended period of time when he would not be allowed access to functional reinforcers. Results of a functional analysis indicated Normans aggression was maintained by access to food. During treatment, after demonstrating the effects of FCT, Norman was taught to independently complete an extensive number of competing activities prior to accessing food. Ultimately, after completing schedule thinning, the final treatment involved Norman independently completing 30 activities for approximately 45 minutes before food delivery; treatment was generalized to novel locations, staff, and parents.
145. A Comparison of the Assessment of Putative Behavioral Functions for a Student With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ZHICHUN ZHOU (University of Rochester), Deborah A. Napolitano (University of Rochester), David McAdam (University of Rochester)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: Research studies have demonstrated the preferred stimuli identified in the concurrent-operant preference assessment shared the same reinforcing value as the reinforcer identified in the analogue functional analysis for students with developmental disabilities who display challenging behaviors. However, little is known empirically 1) whether the potential reinforcers identified through the concurrent operant preference assessment will demonstrate the same reinforcing value for the challenging behavior assessed in functional behavior assessment, and 2) whether the concurrent operant procedure will hold promise for the identification of the reinforcers for choice behavior in other populations, such as individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders, for whom conducting a functional analysis might be difficult. To ensure that the assessment of preference is conducted in a less demanding situation, we modified the traditional concurrent operant preference assessment by including social functions as choices using pictorial stimuli. The purpose of the study is to 1) compare the outcome obtained from the pictorial concurrent operant preference assessment with the results from the functional behavior assessment for a student with emotional and behavioral disorders, and 2) determine whether the highly preferred stimuli identified through the pictorial concurrent operant preference assessment will match the potential functions identified through the indirect functional behavioral assessment (e.g., QABF-MI and Functional Behavior Interview) and the direct functional behavioral assessment (e.g., ABC recording).
146. An Application of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy plus Shaping to Improve Upper Extremity Motor Control in a 4-year-old With Traumatic Brain Injury
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Theresa Johnson (Perkins School for the Blind), ZACHARY C. BIRD (Perkins School for the Blind)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) has been shown to be effective in producing large improvements in limb use in individuals affected by Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI). This therapy typically involves constraining movements of the less-affected arm for a majority of waking hours for several weeks, while intensively training use of the affected arm. Reinforcement for concentrated, repetitive practice using the affected limb appears to be the effective component involved in treatment. This study used a modified version of the traditional CIMT arrangement for school use that constrained movements of a blind 4-year-old with TBI for 20 minutes 6 times per day. It also included four 30-minute discrete trial training sessions per week to focus on shaping specific skill sets with the affected limb. Results suggest that the treatment was effective in increasing motor movements with the affected arm across a variety of functional skills including reaching, grasping, lifting, and dropping.
147. The Effects of Parent Implemented Direct Instruction on Literacy Skills of Children With Down Syndrome
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BLAKE HANSEN (Brigham Young University), Jamie Wadsworth (Brigham Young University; University of Utah)
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Recent studies on reading show that children with Down syndrome benefit from direct instruction that focuses on early literacy skills (i.e., phonics and phonemic awareness). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of direct instruction on early literacy skills. Five children between the ages of 8 and 12 and their parents participated in the study. The primary measure in this study was nonsense word reading because it has been shown to be a reliable predictor of decoding ability. We also measured progress on oral reading fluency and on a curriculum-based assessment with items derived from the reading curricula involved in the study. Parents implemented two types of direct instruction. The first was utilizing the approach described in Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons (Engelmann, 1983). Once stable progress was noted, an instructional program that involved rhyming, blending, and segmenting words was embedded in children's books was implemented. In addition to the direct instruction interventions parents were instructed on how to deliver contingent praise and error correction. This study will be completed in February 2017. This study is an extension of prior research from this research group that demonstrated that age was a significant predictor of the effectiveness of this program.
149. Education to Employment: A Summary of the PROMOTES Employment Project After Year One
Domain: Service Delivery
KAYLA JENSSEN (Western Michigan University), Kimberly Peck (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Individuals with disabilities often struggle with social and other job-related skills, which may impact their marketability when applying for employment positions (Tomblin & Haring, 2000). In collaboration with a local intermediate school district, a Midwestern university developed the PROMOTES (Providing Realistic Opportunities to Mentor On-site Training for Employment Skills) Employment Project to service these needs. The PROMOTES program is based in Applied Behavior Analysis and supports the development of vocational and job-related social skills relevant to success in the workforce. This year, eight young adults diagnosed with autism participated in the program and received job-related, best-practice training and instruction. On-going training was rooted in the Behavioral Skills Training (BST) framework, and included instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Additional instructional strategies were utilized on an individualized basis, and included fluency drills for specific job-related tasks, video modeling, and self-monitoring techniques. Employment data for PROMOTES participants (i.e. number of applications filed, call backs, interviews, and job offers) and social acceptability measures for participants and staff members were collected. Discussion will focus on strengths of the program and areas for future development.
150. Treatment Use Among Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: An Internet Survey
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLE M. NEIL (University of Western Ontario), Theresa Fiani (City University of New York - The Graduate Center), Arlene Mannion (National University of Ireland,Galway), Meagan Lynch (National University of Ireland, Galway), Geraldine Leader (National University of Ireland)
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Down syndrome is associated with a range of developmental strengths and challenges. The treatment use of individuals with Down syndrome along with associated factors have not yet been determined. An online survey was completed by 135 caregivers of children and youth with Down syndrome. Caregivers reported the types of treatments children were currently receiving and had received in the past, along with the overall satisfaction with services. Associations with other child variables (e.g., age, gender, and race) and family characteristics were also examined. Findings indicate that children were currently receiving 6.93 (SD = 3.57) different types of therapy services; the most common services were speechlanguage therapy and physical therapy. Only 2.4% of children were currently receiving applied behavior analytic services. The majority of individuals who accessed applied behavior analysis agreed that it was effective and contributed to their childs growth. Parents reported using a large number of treatments without empirical support. Future research should focus on understanding the process of treatment selection by parents of children with Down syndrome.
151. Utilizing Functional Communication Training to Decrease Challenging Behaviors in Children Diagnosed with Down Syndrome
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH ELYSE MCCAFFERTY-NURNBERGER (Partners in Excellence), Jenna K. Averbeck (Partners in Excellence), Stephany K. Stordahl (Partner's in Excellence), Lindsay Kelly (Partners in Excellence)
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) as an intervention to decrease problematic behavior was evaluated with 3 clients diagnosed with Down syndrome in a clinic setting. Functional behavioral assessments suggested target behaviors were maintained by escape from aversive demands, access to tangibles, and access to social attention. The intervention included training each client alternative responses on their augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices which allowed each client to gain access to the same class of reinforcement identified as maintaining their problematic behavior. A multiple baseline design was utilized and indicated that FCT significantly reduced problematic behavior. Results support the effectiveness of FCT in significantly reducing problematic behaviors and also highlight the impact of non-restrictive procedures that provide alternative and appropriate ways to access reinforcement.
152. Using Positive Practice to Reduce Challenging Behaviors in Children with Disabilities: A Literature Review
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AMY NICOLE FEIND (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A systematic review was conducted to identify and synthesize the existing literature on the use of positive practice to reduce challenging behaviors in children with disabilities. A total of 30 experiments were identified for inclusion in the present review. Data from each of the experiments were extracted based on participant characteristics, topography and function of challenging behavior, intervention characteristics, and outcome. Overall, 51 participants were identified in the experiments. Schools comprised the setting for 26 out of the 30 experiments. Teachers were listed as the implementers of interventions in 14 of those experiments. Approximately 93% of experiments found positive results when using positive practice to reduce challenging behavior, but only one experiment used a functional analysis in order to determine the function of challenging behavior. Results indicate a need for further research on the use of positive practice versus the use of a function-based intervention to reduce challenging behaviors.
153. An Evaluation of a Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) Component to Decrease High-Intensity Aggressive & Destructive Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
HALEY FORD (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sarah Lichtenberger (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Daniel Gordon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Roy Justin Boyd (Kennedy Krieger Institute (NBU-OP))
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) is a positive reductive procedure wherein a response that is physically incompatible with a second response (i.e., mutually exclusive) is reinforced (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). In the design of function-based treatments, DRI procedures may be particularly valuable when extinction is indicated, but physically dangerous; that is, to attenuate anticipated extinction bursts while providing an opportunity for reinforcement. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a DRI procedure to decrease the frequency and duration of behavioral outbursts in a child with multiply maintained problem behavior. Implementation of the DRI procedure included presenting the SD (i.e., a picture of the child engaging in the calm posture with verbal prompt to “calm down”) and providing verbal praise for compliance with remaining calm for at least 5 s. If compliance was not immediately observed, extinction was implemented except that the SD continued to be presented every 30s until compliance was observed. The effectiveness of the DRI procedure was evaluated using a multiple baseline design across three topographies of destructive behavior (i.e., aggressive behavior, disruptive behavior, and property destruction). Data were collected on child compliance with DRI prompts, in addition to levels of destructive behavior.
154. Understanding the Application of Dimensions of Reinforcement for Individuals With Disabilities: A Systematic Review
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
MEAGHAN LATIFI (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Reinforcement is defined as an environmental consequence applied contingent on behavior, which increases the future frequency of behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Howard, 2007). This literature review explored 74 articles of dimensions of reinforcement to report the effects of dimensions of reinforcement used singularly (independently), dual (two dimensions) or multiple (3 or more dimensions) to affect maladaptive, adaptive, or academic behaviors. Articles were coded separately if they used cues for the dimensions of reinforcement or implemented an intervention systematically with the parameters (e.g., magnitude, rate). Furthermore, the definitions of the dimensions were discussed due to articles not specifying the manipulated dimensions accurately, nor stating the carryover effect of the dimensions on behavior. As such, it was important to conduct a literature review to more fully explore and to report how the application of the parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality, rate, delay, effort) impacts both decreasing maladaptive and increasing adaptive behaviors in applied settings. The purpose of this synthesis is to: (a) summarize the research on dimensions of reinforcement used with individuals with disabilities, (b) evaluate the specific effects of each dimension on academic, maladaptive, and adaptive outcomes for individuals with disabilities, (c) offer strategies on the use of dimensions of reinforcement in applied settings. In sum, it is expected that the results of this review will contribute to the existing literature in two ways. First, it will generally increase the knowledge based on the application of the dimensions of reinforcement to enhance behavioral outcomes for individuals with disabilities in applied settings. Second, it is hoped, with increased awareness and information about the proper application and definition of these specific reinforcement procedures, professionals will choose to implement these procedures with individuals with disabilities to promote the development of academic skill and adaptive behaviors that are more socially acceptable. Keywords: dimensions of reinforcement, developmental disability, magnitude, quality, effort of reinforcement, delay of reinforcement, rate of reinforcement


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