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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #455
Monday, May 29, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
EAB
Chair: Ryan Sain (Northwest Autism Center)
13. Does Resurgence Occur When it is Incompatible with the Current Reinforcement Contingency?
Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTOPHER MATTHEW OHEARN (West Virginia University ), Tyler Nighbor (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Resurgence occurs following the complete or partial discontinuation of an alternative source of reinforcement. Of interest is if resurgence will occur when the to be resurged response is incompatible with the current reinforcement contingency. In experiment 1, baseline reinforcement of pigeon’s key-pecking responses on two separate keys, associated with two separate hoppers, was arranged according to concurrent VI 45-s VI 45-s schedules. The alternative reinforcement phase consisted of independent variable-DRO (VDRO) 20-s schedules, which replaced both VI schedules. In the Resurgence I phase, food delivery was discontinued for one of the keys, and the VDRO continued on the other. During the Resurgence II phase, responding was extinguished on both keys. An increase in responding occurred on both keys for 2 of 3 pigeons during the Resurgence I phase. To control for possible extinction induction, another experiment was conducted. In experiment 2, reinforcement was once again provided on concurrent VI 45-s VI 45-s schedules during baseline. The alternative reinforcement phase consisted of reinforcement provided on a concurrent VI 45-s VDRO 20-s schedule. The VI 45-s schedule was discontinued and the VDRO 20-s schedule remained in effect during the Resurgence I phase. Once again, the Resurgence II phase consisted of extinction, in effect for both keys.
 
14. Effects of Treatment-Phase Durations on Subsequent Resurgence
Domain: Basic Research
CLAUDIA C DIAZ-SALVAT (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Resurgence is a robust effect that may be affected by the duration of differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior (DRA). Increasing exposure to alternative reinforcement may decrease resurgence due to increased reinforcer access or increased time since baseline. The current study examined the extent to which resurgence was affected by the duration of the phase associated with reinforcement for the alternative response while controlling for time since baseline. Sixteen undergraduate subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Participants responded by clicking on moving circles on a computer screen to earn points. We used a traditional three-phase resurgence procedure in which clicking the black circle was reinforced in Phase 1, clicking the red circle was reinforced in Phase 2, and no reinforcers were delivered in Phase 3 (extinction). We manipulated the duration of Phase 2 to be either 10 minutes or 20 minutes across groups and replications of DRA. Session time was held constant such that each group experienced extinction at the same time since baseline. Manipulation of Phase 2 duration produced no consistent differences in resurgence.
 
15. Resurgence in the Absence and Presence of Context Change
Domain: Basic Research
ABIGAIL BLACKMAN (Florida Institute of Technology), Regina Nastri (Florida Institute of Technology), Melinda Galbato (Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Relapse of problem behavior following behavioral intervention can occur for many reasons. Reappearance of a previously extinguished behavior due to the extinction of a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is termed resurgence. Laboratory models have demonstrated resurgence by training a target behavior, extinguishing the behavior and training an alternative behavior, and testing for resurgence, when extinguishing alternative responding. The purpose of the current laboratory based translational study was to evaluate 1) whether removing reinforcement contingent upon an alternative response produces a return in a previously reinforced and extinguished target response, and 2) whether returning to a training context versus remaining in an extinction context enhances the increase in target responding following removal of alternative reinforcement. As expected, greater resurgence effects occurred when returning to the original context in which the target response was trained compared to remaining in the treatment context. Further examination of these effects can provide greater understanding of ways to develop treatments to decrease relapse of problem behavior from behavioral interventions.
 
16. A Parametric Examination on Stimulus Condition Lengths in Resurgence
Domain: Basic Research
JAMES E. KING (University of Nevada, Reno; SEEK Education ), Jeanette Verdin (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: University students were presented with a 4-phase resurgence task in which three responses were acquired sequentially across the first three phases. A different contextual stimulus (i.e., background color) was assigned to each of the three phases. In the last phase, all acquired responses were placed on conventional extinction, and the presentation of three contextual stimuli was arranged by multiple schedule. A total of nine groups held various presentation lengths, and they were delineated by geometric progression with common ratio 2 (range, 4-s to 390-s). Pilot data and discussion pertaining to the length of stimulus presentation on resurgence of previously decremented responses and resistance to extinction are discussed.
 
17. Resurgence and Reinstatement after Extinction, Differential-Reinforcement-of-Other-Behavior, and Time Schedules of Reinforcement
Domain: Basic Research
JAMES E. COOK (University of Mississippi Medical Center), James K. Rowlett (University of Mississippi Medical Center; Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Resurgence and reinstatement may contribute to relapse of maladaptive behavior, and interventions that prevent relapse are of considerable clinical value. Differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedules can suppress maladaptive behavior but are intensive to maintain and lead to resurgence when discontinued. Transitioning from DRO to fixed- (FT) or variable-time (VT) schedules can reduce the intervention intensity while maintaining reinforcer delivery and preventing resurgence. In Phase I, responding of 4 groups of rats was reinforced with food and then eliminated in Phase II via DRO (DRO-EXT, DRO-FT, DRO-VT groups) or extinction (EXT-EXT group). In Phase III, groups were placed on EXT (DRO-EXT, EXT-EXT), FT (DRO-FT), or VT (DRO-VT) schedules. In Phase IV, all groups were placed on EXT. Resurgence occurred for most subjects when reinforcers stopped being delivered, not just when the DRO contingency was removed. To evaluate whether DRO or time schedule histories affected the discriminative properties of the reinforcer in Phase V, all groups were placed on a FT schedule. Reinstatement occurred primarily for the EXT-EXT group. These results support a possible strategy for transitioning from more to less intensive interventions without producing resurgence, and indicate that a history of treatment can affect the discriminative properties of reinforcers, perhaps protecting against reinstatement.
 
18. Analysis of Response Reinstatement Using Qualitatively Different Reinforcers
Domain: Basic Research
Olga María Dionisio (National Autonomous University of Mexico), ALICIA ROCA (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Reinstatement occurs when an extinguished response recurs as a function of the delivery of response-independent reinforcers. Typically, studies on reinstatement use a three-phase procedure: A) a response is established; B) the response is extinguished; and C) response- independent reinforcers are delivered. The reinforcers delivered in Phases A and C have typically been of the same type. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of delivering the same reinforcers and different reinforcers in Phases A and C on response reinstatement. During Phase A, lever pressing by rats was reinforced with either pellets or milk according to a 30-s fixed-interval schedule. During Phase B, lever pressing was extinguished. During Phase C, either pellets or milk were delivered according to a 30-s fixed-time schedule. In successive conditions, the reinforcers delivered during Phases A and C were of the same type or different. Reinstatement occurred during both conditions; however the number of reinstated responses was generally higher when the same reinforcer type was used. Scalloped patterns of responding were reinstated only during the condition in which the reinforcers were of the same type. Reinstatement with qualitatively different reinforcers is discussed as a special case of response renewal.
 
20. Resurgence with ABA and ABB Context Changes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in an Automated Touchscreen Computer Task
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARLI SILVERMAN (Florida Institute of Technology), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Toshikazu Kuroda (Aichi Bunkyo University), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Resurgence is the process by which a previously reinforced and extinguished response increases following the extinction of an alternative response, and has been demonstrated in a range of species, from fish to humans. This study compared the resurgence of a target response with ABA and ABB contextual changes in children diagnosed with ASD. We used a touchscreen computer presenting a target and alternative response superimposed on two different contexts. Contexts A and B consisted of different background colors. Target and alternative responses were pressing different colored buttons superimposed on the background. In Phase 1, we reinforced target responses with preferred edibles in Context A. Phase 2 introduced extinction of the target response and reinforcement of the alternative response in Context B. Phase 3 consisted of multiple presentations of both contexts, per either ABBABAAB or BAABABBA designs, counterbalanced across participants. In Phase 3, both responses were available but neither produced reinforcers. All participants demonstrated resurgence of the target response when returning to the training context (ABA) but little to no resurgence occurred when remaining in the extinction context (ABB). These findings provide a platform for examining factors influencing the effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual changes in relapse from behavioral treatments.
 
21. An Analysis of Signaled Periods of Extinction on Resurgence
Area: PCH; Domain: Basic Research
ANTHONY OLIVER (West Virginia University ), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Reductions in reinforcement rate for an alternative response is a reliable condition that evokes resurgence (Lieving & Lattal, 2003, Exp. 4). However, it is not known if this is a necessary condition to produce resurgence. In the current procedure, pigeons key pecking was maintained on a concurrent VI 60-s tandem VT 55-s VI 5-s schedule during the training condition. In the alternative reinforcement condition, key pecking was extinguished on the VI 60-s schedule (target response) and maintained on the tandem VT 55-s VI 5-s schedule (alternative response). During the resurgence test, the tandem schedule was converted to a chain schedule, by incorporating a novel stimulus indicating when the VT component of the schedule was in effect. Although response rates of the alternative response declined, reinforcement rates remained unchanged. Resurgence of the target response was observed with all four of the pigeons used in this experiment. This experiment demonstrates that reductions in reinforcement rate for the alternative response are not necessary for producing a resurgence effect.
 
22. Evaluating ABA Renewal Using an Operant Computer Task
Domain: Basic Research
THEO PAUL ROBINSON (Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Current relapse literature demonstrates the fragility of maintaining reductions of extinguished responses after transitioning into familiar contexts--as well as novel contexts--from contexts associated with extinction. The present study assessed the utility of a procedure for observing operant renewal using a computer-based arrangement which measured renewal effects with undergraduate students. Results initially yielded minimal response reemergence, but after fine-tuning the experimental procedure, clear renewal effects were observed.
 
23. Magnitude Manipulations in Concurrent Differential Reinforcement-of -Low-Rate Schedules
Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL STEELE YENCHA (West Virginia University), Tyler Nighbor (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules reinforce responses that are t seconds apart. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement, such a magnitude of the reinforcer (e.g., 1-s access to food versus 6-s access to food), can change responding on schedules that otherwise have the same response requirement. For example, Doughty and Richards (2001) compared response rates for pigeons on a multiple DRL 20-s DRL 20-s schedule in which responding in one component provided 6-s access to food and responding in the other provided 1-s access to food. Overall, response rates were higher in the component associated with 6-s access to food, even though this corresponded with lower reinforcement rate. The current experiment was a systematic replication of Doughty and Richards. Key-pecking for three pigeons was first reinforced under a concurrent DRL 10-s DRL 10-s schedule (3-s access to food for both responses). Following baseline, 1-s access to food was in effect for 1 response, and 6-s access to food for the other. Results of the concurrent investigation replicated the results of Doughty and Richards in that response rates were higher the key associated with 6-s access to food for 2 of 3 pigeons. Implications of these results are discussed.
 
24. Sources of Reinforcement as Discriminative Stimuli
Domain: Basic Research
BRIAN R. KATZ (West Virginia University), Tyler Nighbor (West Virginia University), Brittany Wood (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Four pigeons initially were trained on a conditional discrimination procedure involving two variable-interval (VI) schedules. Completion of either of the two concurrently available schedules illuminated two different-colored choice keys. Responses to the choice key that corresponded to the completed schedule, either left or right VI, were reinforced. Following this baseline, a 2-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule and a third choice key were added. Baseline accuracy ranged from 85% to 100%. Introduction of the DRO component after baseline decreased accuracy to slightly above-chance levels. Accuracy progressively increased throughout this condition, but did not return to baseline levels. The DRO duration then was increased to 4 s. Improvements in accuracy coincided with, but could not be definitively attributed to, increasing the DRO duration. In addition, probe sessions conducted using different DRO lengths (0.25 s, 2 s, 4 s, 6 s, 7.75 s) revealed no systematic effect of DRO duration on discriminability of the different contingencies. These probe effects may have been due to insufficient exposure to the schedules prior to the delay manipulations.
 
25. Repeated Reversals of Concurrent Olfactory Discriminations in Rats
Domain: Basic Research
MADELEINE MASON (University of North Carolina Wilmington ), Tiffany Phasukkan (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Shandy Nelson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: There is very little existing evidence for equivalence class formation in nonhuman animals. One reason for this might be procedural limitations associated with conditional discrimination (match-to-sample) training in nonhumans. An alternative training method is the repeated simple discrimination reversal procedure developed by Vaughan (1988), in which the contingencies associated with two sets of arbitrary discriminative stimuli, one positive and one negative, are repeatedly reversed. Pigeons and sea lions, but not rats, have demonstrated the ability to shift responding after encountering the newly reversed contingency with only a few set members, showing evidence of functional equivalence. In the present study, rats were trained to nose-poke in the presence of stimuli arbitrarily designated as members of the positive set, while poking in the presence of members of the negative set was not reinforced. When discriminative performance was established, the contingencies associated with each set were reversed and re-reversed each time subjects met a performance criterion. Responding to the first presentation of each stimulus following a reversal was variable and followed three general patterns: responding equally to stimuli from both sets; responding consistent with pre-reversal contingencies; or responding consistent with the newly reversed contingencies, evidence of functional class formation.
 
26. Experimental Assay of Reinforcer-Omission Procedure as a Measure for "Preference Pulse as Artifact"
Domain: Basic Research
YOSUKE HACHIGA (American University/JSPS Overseas Research Fellow)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Preference pulse is a phenomenon under choice situations that preference to the just-reinforced lever increases temporarily and decays as time since reinforcement proceeds. A previous study called attention that it might partially be artifact because pulses were shown in simulations which has no local reinforcer effects, whereas Hachiga, Sakagami, and Silberberg (2014, 2015) proposed an induction account, discharging artifact account by showing the simulation results differ qualitatively from the experimental results in their choice procedure. The poster presentation further examined pulse-as-artifact account. Another simple measure for assessing it may be to compare preference pulses under post-delivered reinforcer with those under post-omitted reinforcer. In this experiment, 7 wistar rats were exposed to a choice situation under mult (concurrent VI EXT), (concurrent VI VI). In the former component, one of two stimulus lights above the levers randomly turned on at the beginning of trial and signaled which lever was current VI lever. In the latter component, both of the lights turned on. In conc. VI VI component, reinforcer deliveries were omitted at p = .5 and got over the trial. Every reinforcer events (either delivery or omission) were followed by 2-s blackout interval and then next trial commenced. The components cycled two conc. VI EXT followed by a conc. VI VI. The results shows, in both post-reinforcer delivered and omitted situations, similar pulses were shown for the current EXT lever, whereas anti-pulses for the current VI lever appeared stronger in post-omitted reinforcer. It implicates temporal avoidance by reinforcer omissions. In addition, what response frequencies were much higher temporarily after reinforcer omissions than reinforcer deliveries, which implicates an extinction burst. The results suggest the reinforcement-omission procedure has unique effects in itself, not neutral on choice and then is not appropriate baseline for measuring any local reinforcer effects.
 
27. The Spatial Distribution of Behavior under Fixed Ratio and Fixed Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
Domain: Basic Research
Emilio Ribes (Universidad Veracruzana), VARSOVIA HERNANDEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Jonathan Castillo-Alfonso (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The effect of food delivery according to Fixed-Ratio (FR) and Fixed-Interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement upon the spatial distribution of behavior was explored. The subjects were two groups of 4 rats. The apparatus was an enlarged experimental chamber of 92 cm x 92 cm with three levers. Responses on any lever produced food according to the current schedule. In the first phase, food was presented according to a FR1-schedule and both groups differed only in the locations of the levers: distributed among three panels or grouped in one panel. In the second phase, the location of levers was reversed between groups. In the third phase, the location of levers was kept constant but the schedule changed to FI 30s. In the last phase, the location of levers was reversed again between groups. The pattern of lever-pressing responses was characteristic of the ones obtained under FR and FI schedules of reinforcement. Distribution of responses in the three levers and location of the rats on the floor of the experimental chamber depended upon the current schedule and the spatial distribution of the levers. The importance of considering the spatial properties of behavior will be discussed.
 
28. Mice as Subjects in Collaborative Research
Domain: Basic Research
Christina M. Peters (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno), TALIA HAMM (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: In recent times the mouse has developed into the premier mammalian model for genetic research (NIH, 2002). Currently genetic mutant or "knock out" mice are used in biomedical research worldwide as a means to study a host of diseases and disorders of social significance ranging from Alzheimer's to Autism (Derenne, Cicha, Flannery & Manley, 2008). While biomedical researchers have developed many ways in which to measure the physiological characteristics of mice, they often lack robust measures of behavior. Behavior Scientists have much to contribute to these endeavors as we are well versed in empirically validated measures of overt behavior. However, there are some idiosyncratic features of mice that must be addressed before effective interdisciplinary collaboration can be realized. This poster will explore some of these features and provide some suggested solutions for overcoming them.
 
29. Comparison of Three Extinction Procedures for Conditioned Avoidance Behavior in Rats
Domain: Basic Research
TAKAYA OGAI (University of Tsukuba), Sadahiko Nakajima (Dep. Psychol., Kwansei Gakuin University)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Although there are several kinds of response extinction procedures for avoidance behavior, their efficiency has not been fully examined. In the present research, we examined the efficiency of two of the three procedures proposed by Baum (1973). In the first phase of Experiment 1, Wistar/Kyoto rats were trained to avoid signaled electric shock by lever pressing (notably, a "press-and-release" sequence, rather than a simple press, was employed as the target response in the present research). In the second phase, half of the rats received the conventional extinction procedure (CEP), in which the target avoidance response stopped the warning signal (i.e., tone) and canceled the forthcoming shock. The remaining half of the rats were treated with the contingency demolish procedure (CDP), in which the warning tone signal remained regardless of the avoidance response. The results showed that the CDP was more efficient than the CEP in response extinction. Experiment 2 compared the CDP with the inaccessible procedure (IP), in which the target response was blocked by a small clear plastic case over the lever. The results showed that the IP facilitated extinction of avoidance behavior, although the effect was transitory.
 
30. Interactions Between Food and Water Motivating Operations in Food- and Water-Reinforced Responding in Mice
Domain: Basic Research
Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno), Christina M. Peters (University of Nevada, Reno), EMILY DANIELLE SPURLOCK (University of Nevada, Reno), Melanie S Stites (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: We examined interactions between food and water motivating operations (MOs) in operant responding for food and water with mice. In Experiment 1, subjects responded for sucrose pellet reinforcement under four different MO conditions: food deprivation only, water deprivation only, both food and water deprivation, or no deprivation. Subjects responded less under concurrent food and water deprivation than they did when deprived of food only for an equivalent period of time. They also responded more under water deprivation than when not deprived. In Experiment 2, subjects responded for water reinforcement under the same four MO conditions. Subjects responded substantially less under concurrent water and food deprivation than they did when deprived of water only, and they responded more under food deprivation relative to no deprivation. In Experiment 3, subjects were deprived of both food and water prior to sessions in which they responded for water reinforcement. Free access to food was provided prior to half of these sessions and we found that pre-session access to food functioned as an establishing operation for water as a reinforcer. The results of these experiments suggest that any given MO may affect the extent to which more than a single reinforcing event functions as such.
 
31. Exploring Behavioral Contrast in Multiple Variable Interval-Progressive Ratio Schedules
Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW E. ANDRZEJEWSKI (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Logan Wild (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Kane Poad (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Michaela Efflandt (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Brandon Cassady (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Catlyn Li Volsi (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Mackenzie Kropidlowski (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Molly Prater (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Changes in rate of responding in one component of a multiple schedule produced by changes in the reinforcement probability of another component are termed “behavioral contrast.” In the present experiment, we explored the possibility that changes in reinforcement in one component might affect “motivation” for the reinforcer in a second component. Seven rats were exposed to a 2 component multiple schedule, where lever presses in one component were reinforced on VI schedule and a PR-5 in the other. The value of the VI (15”, 30”, 60”, 90” and 120”) was manipulated across phases, within-subjects, in a pseudo-random way and changed only after stable performance was obtained. The present experiment, therefore, explored the possibility that changes to the VI schedule might affect measures of responding (rate, breakpoint) in the PR component. Preliminary data indicate a small effect of reinforcement probability in the VI component on PR responding, in the direction predicted. That is, responding on the PR appears to decrease when the VI schedule is made richer.
 
32. Response Effort Does not Affect Resistance to Extinction: Implications for Momentum Theory
Domain: Basic Research
ERICA FOSS (University of North Texas), Jonathan W. Pinkston (Western New England University)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Behavior Momentum Theory (BMT) suggests two processes determine operant behavior. Response-reinforcer relationships determine the rate of responding. Stimulus-reinforcer relationships determine the persistence of behavior. Although BMT is an elegant account of behavioral persistence, our lab has become interested in implied properties of the theory, derived from our research on response effort. Briefly, the formal model of BMT emphasizes only dimensions of the reinforcer. There is no term in the model reflecting response dimensions, such as force or effort—the implication of BMT is that these dimensions are not important. Prior research has shown that increased response effort may hasten extinction, which may suggest a role for effort in BMT. At the same time, we note several problems with prior work, namely, (1) effort was manipulated across groups, not within subjects, and (2) prior measurement strategies made it impossible verify that different effort requirements actually produced differences in behavior along the dimension of effort. We arranged for rats to earn food under a two-component multiple VI 60-s VI 60-s schedule where each component was correlated with either a high (32-64 g) or low (12-24g) force requirement. So, we could ensure that effort was the dimension on which discrimination was based. When food was earned according to equal VI schedules, steady-state response rates did not differ consistently across components, but effort measures were increased in the high-force component. Extinction tests showed relative resistance to change was not affected by response effort, and this was verified in a direct replication. A third condition arranged for a multiple VI 30-s VI 120-s schedule, requiring the low-effort response in both components. The results showed that the distribution of response forces previously maintained by the high-force requirement shifted to lower forces, suggesting rats were sensitive to the high-force requirement. During extinction tests, behavior was more persistent under the VI 30-s component compared to the VI 120-s component, consistent with the predictions of BMT.
 
33. The Matching Law and Differential-Reinforcement-of-Low-Rate (DRL) Schedules
Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTOPHER W IAMES (West Virginia University), Tyler Nighbor (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The relation between reinforcement rates and response rates in concurrent schedules is described by the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974), one of the great unifying principles in behavior analysis. Despite the prominence of the generalized matching law, little is known about matching in the context of differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules (see Shimp, 1968; Staddon, 1968). The purpose of the current experiment was to evaluate the extent to which the generalized matching law described response and reinforcer ratios on concurrent DRL schedules (DRL 5-s, 15-s, and 20-s schedules). Three pigeons served as subjects. The generalized matching law best described data for two of the three pigeons (r2 = .69 and .86). Similar to the findings of Staddon (1968), a bias was observed for the shorter interresponse-time (IRT) values. Therefore, the current data were also best described by the generalized matching law rather than the strict matching law. Implications of the findings are discussed.
 
34. Signal and Schedule Functions when Pausing is the Operant
Domain: Basic Research
TYLER NIGHBOR (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Craig et al. (2014; Exp. 2) demonstrated that pausing can be a discriminated operant through signaling reinforcer availability for pausing in the context of concurrent reinforcement for pecking under variable-interval (VI) schedules. The purpose of the current experiment was to systematically replicate Craig et al. and Schaal and Branch (1988) by comparing antecedent discriminative control of pausing in the absence of discriminative stimuli to a brief-signal condition and a full-signal condition when pecking was concurrently reinforced according to a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule. Pigeons’ time allocation to the pausing contingency in both signal conditions was lower than unsignaled baseline conditions and control conditions, demonstrating discriminative control of pausing and replicating the findings of Craig et al. No systematic difference was observed between the brief-signal and full-signal conditions, replicating the findings of Schaal & Branch (1988) and suggesting the length of the signal may be unimportant in gaining discriminative control of pausing.
 
35. "Executive Control" in Rhesus Macaques and Capuchin Monkeys
Domain: Basic Research
TRAVIS RAY SMITH (Georgia State University), Michael J. Beran (Language Research Center, Georgia State University)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Twelve monkeys (6 capuchins, 6 macaques) completed a two-choice discrimination task where the options consisted of two arrays of clipart icons. Across trials monkeys had to determine whether the array had a high or low numerosity (6 vs 16 clipart icons) or high or low variability (every icon differed vs. every icon was identical). Thus, there were four different trial types that were presented, and the background color of the screen cued the discrimination type being asked (high numerosity, low numerosity, high variability, low variability). On each trial the arrays differed in variability and numerosity, with one dimension operating as the target dimension and the alternative dimension operating as an irrelevant dimension. In the congruent condition, the irrelevant dimension was the same in both arrays (i.e., only the target dimension differed). In the incongruent condition, the irrelevant dimension randomly varied between both arrays. Test trials with novel clipart icons were included to rule out the possible influence of set memorization on performance. Once subjects acquired the congruent discrimination, they transitioned to test sessions and the incongruent condition without a drop in accuracy, suggesting that the irrelevant dimension was not interfering with discrimination performance and the monkeys could effortlessly screen out the irrelevant information.
 
36. Within-session Increases in Operant Responding Predict Binge-eating in Wistar Rats
Domain: Basic Research
AMANDA MICHELLE CANO (University of Alaska Anchorage), Derek Searcy (University of Alaska Anchorage), Victoria Barnes (University of Alaska Anchorage), Casey Kerr (University of Alaska Anchorage), Madlen Penn (University of Alaska Anchorage), Divina Trevethan (University of Alaska Anchorage), Gwen Lupfer-Johnson (University of Alaska Anchorage), Eric S. Murphy (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Multiple measures of impulsivity predict both obesity and binge-eating disorder; however, those who binge-eat represent a behaviorally distinct subset of all overweight individuals. Previous research (Cano, Murphy, & Lupfer, 2016) reported that impulsivity in a discounting task predicted binge-eating in rats. In the current study, we looked at the relationship between within-session changes in operant response rates and binge-eating. 7 male rats completed a binge-eating task and were tested in a steady-state operant conditioning paradigm in which they responded on a VI-7.5 s schedule for liquid sucrose reinforcers. The following equation was used to describe subjects within-session changes in responding: P=b/e^aT - c/(c+T). P is the predicted proportion of total responses that should occur during successive time intervals (T). T is the ordinal number of time interval, and a, b, and c are free parameters. The exponential component describes a decreasing process identified as habituation; the hyperbolic component describes an increasing process identified as sensitization. Thus, a and b govern habituation, and c applies to sensitization. Binge-eating scores were unrelated to a and b but positively correlated with c (rS = .82). These data suggest that individuals degrees of sensitization can be used to predict propensity to binge-eat.
 
37. Cooperative Responding in Rats Under Fixed and Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedules
Domain: Basic Research
LUCAS COUTO DE CARVALHO (Oslo and Akershus University College), Leticia Santos (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Alceu dos Santos (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Thiago Braga (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Rafael da Silva (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Deisy Das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Ingunn Sandaker (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: There has been little interest in comparing the effects of different schedules of reinforcement on cooperative responses. The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of fixed and variable ratio schedules, arranged in a cooperative contingency, on the patterns of individual and cooperative responses in rats. Cooperative responses were defined as either rat responding within 0.5 s from each other. Water was contingent to this response depending on the experimental condition. An ABCA for 3 pairs and an ACBA for 4 pairs designs were employed in which cooperative responses were reinforced according to a fixed-ratio 1 (FR 1) in condition A, FR 10 in condition B, and variable-ratio 10 (VR 10) in condition C. The results show that cooperative index (total cooperative/total responses; see Tan and Hackenberg, 2015) is higher under intermittent schedules. It was also observed break-and-run and constant response patterns for both cooperative and individual responses under FR and VR schedules, respectively. In addition, it was recorded that VR schedule improves the cooperative index compared to both FR 1 and 10. We may conclude that (a) intermittent schedules enhance cooperation (b) VR seems to be more effective on cooperation than FR, and (c) cooperative response patterns under FR and VR are similar to situations when reinforcement is exclusively dependent on individual responses (e.g., Ferster & Skinner).
 
38. The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude on Schedule-Induced Drinking Using a Fixed-Time Four Minute Schedule
Domain: Basic Research
ERIC JAMES FRENCH (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Schedule-induced drinking (SID) occurs when food pellet(s) delivered at regular intervals induce consistent and elevated rates of water consumption. Two factors known to increase SID are reinforcer magnitude and inter-pellet interval (IPI) duration. However, at some point, further increases in the IPI decrease SID. The purpose of the current study was to establish the reliability of the positive relationship between reinforcer magnitude and SID at a long delay. Four Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a 4-min fixed-time schedule where, depending on the condition, one or four pellets were delivered 15 times per session. Three rats developed SID and showed increased rates of drinking in the four pellet condition. The increase in SID was due to drinking occurring in a greater number of IPIs and not a shift in the temporal structure of drinking. Notably, two distinct patterns of drinking were observed across the IPI for two rats. Drinking either occurred at a high rate early in the IPI or at a moderate rate later in the IPI. These results are difficult to explain from an operant account of SID due to the long delays separating drinking and the reinforcer deliveries.
 
39. Good Things Don't Come to Those Who Wait: Effects of Differential DRL Exposure on Timing and Subsequent Ethanol Choice
Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW LELAND ECKARD (West Virginia University), Elizabeth Kyonka (University of New England)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Recent investigations focusing on interventions to improve self-controlled choice have centered upon timing processes. To investigate how these interventions have their effects, timing in mice was assessed using an 18-s peak procedure (18-s FI trials; 54-s peak trials). During an intervention phase, mice in three treatment groups experienced differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules of reinforcement. A control group received continued exposure to the peak procedure. After 38 DRL sessions, timing was reassessed in the peak procedure. In contrast to previous reports, the DRL intervention resulted in less precise timing as indicated by increased peak spread. It also produced later peak-trial start times and later peak-trial stop times. Thus, it would appear that timing processes may have only been improved in previous reports as a result of assessing timing and choice concurrently and not a result of improvement in timing processes specifically. Following this timing assessment, mice were split into two groups based upon degree of timing precision (high precision, n = 8; low precision, n = 8). These mice were exposed to a two-bottle choice procedure in which water and ethanol were freely available. Effects of the high vs. low precision dichotomy on ethanol choice was then assessed. APPROVED
 
40. Spatial Contiguity's Contribution to the Formation of Associations Between Neutral Stimuli
Domain: Basic Research
CHARLOTTE RENAUX (Univ. Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, F-59000 Lille, France), Vinca Riviere (Univ. Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, F-59000 Lille, France), Paul Craddock (University of Lille, France), Ralph R. Miller (State University of New York, Birmingham)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Good spatiotemporal contiguity has long been suggested to be essential for associative learning to occur. But there are only a few demonstrations of this need in the spatial domain, and they all did so with one associate being biologically relevant phase (e.g., Rescorla & Cunningham, 1979). Here we report evidence of the benefit to associative learning of spatial contiguity between two neutral cues. We used a sensory preconditioning preparation with visual CSs in which CS2-CS1 trials during phase 1 were followed by CS1-US trials during phase 2, and then tested on CS2 as well as CS1. The CSs were colored squares and the US was an entertaining video clip. The conditioned response was the participants' looking at the location where the USs appeared. Critically, across groups (ns = 20), in phase 1 we varied the distance between CS2 and CS1. At test, greater conditioned responding to CS2 was observed when CS2 and CS1 were adjacent then when there was a small space between them. Within-subject control conditions assured that responding was due to Pavlovian conditioning of eye gaze direction. Thus, good spatial contiguity appears to enhance the formation of associations between neutral stimuli.
 
41. Relationship Between Attackers` and Targets` Behaviors in the Context of Extinction-induced Attack in Pigeons
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
TAKASHI SAKUMA (Tokiwa university), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between attacker's extinction-induced attack (EIA) and targets' social behavior towards the attacker. Eight pigeons were the subjects. Four pigeons were attackers and the rest were targets and one attacker and one target were paired. Each attacker was introduced into an operant chamber with one key and the target was introduced into a box adjacent to the chamber via transparent panel. When the attacker emitted EIA or the target pigeon pecked the panel towards the attacker, this panel was operated. Each attacker was exposed to no-reinforcement, continuous reinforcement, and extinction schedules. In the no-reinforcement schedule, as the key was covered, the attacker could not peck the key for food. The attackers EIA and the targets pecking behavior were measured during each schedule. The attackers emitted more EIA during the extinction. The targets also pecked more during the extinction. The number of pecking behavior was more than that of EIA. The correlation coefficient between two behaviors was statistically significant. We found that attacker pigeons` EIA and target pigeons` pecking behavior are interrelated. However, whether target pigeon`s behavior could be a discriminative or a reinforcing stimulus for attackers EIA remains to be investigated.
 
42. Effects of Social Coexistence and Social Restriction on Play Behavior in Rats
Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELA BARRETO CHAVATTE ( Methodist University of São Paulo), Adriana Rubio (Universidade Metodista de São Paulo)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The behavior of play and social behavior have been mediators of various social interactions that allow the healthy development of human beings in all its aspects: physical, cognitive and affective. Behaviors and social play in humans have often been objects of study in psychology, either by their relationship with the area of education or healthcare. It is a fact that both behaviors are developed in interaction with the social environment. In addition to humans, other animals also have social and play behaviors. The relationship between the two, however, is poorly understood with regard to the behavior of non-human beings. In this sense, we sought through this study, to investigate the relationship between social behavior and play in rats and willing rats in enriched environments that might, perchance, favor the occurrence of these behaviors. Therefore, they took part in this study 32 mice and rats. behavioral categories were observed which refer to social behavior and play and the animals were kept in four different experimental conditions. In the first condition, the animals were group housed and toys, making the enriched environment. In the second condition, the animals were group housed and maintained in toys depleted environment. The third and fourth condition, the animals were singly housed, with the third condition was enriched environment and the fourth condition, depleted environment toys. The results of this study showed that groups of animals, male and female, submitted to environmental enrichment situation with toy, showed lower frequency of behaviors named as antisocial, such as: aggressive behavior and a higher frequency of operation of behaviors environment. The social restriction, as evidenced in animal groups that remain individualized with toy, proved to be an important variable to be considered. Mice and rats have a greater frequency behavior of play when socialized than animals that also have toys, but are individualized. And for sex, females were more social behavior and play when grouped than males. It was concluded that environmental enrichment with toys and attractive to the animal, and to provide welfare, increases the likelihood of said behaviors as social such coo play, interact and decrease the behaviors named as antisocial such as aggressive. It is argued, similarly, the importance of enriched environment in nurseries and homes for the development of social and emotional skills in children, and emphasizes the importance of play in the full development of human beings.
 
43. Comparison of Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment and Progressive Ratio Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHAWN JANETZKE (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Stimulus preference assessments are used to identify a stimulus hierarchy in which stimuli are ranked according to their relative reinforcing efficacy. Paired stimulus preference assessments (PSPA) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules are commonly used to determine the relative reinforcer efficacy of stimuli. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the correspondence between a PSPA and a PR for the same six edible stimuli, a systematic replication of DeLeon et al. (2009). One adolescent male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, who attended a school for children with developmental disabilities participated in the study. When averaging data from the first three sessions for each assessment, analysis showed correspondence in rank for 6 out of 6 stimuli. After conducting additional sessions, however, the data showed correspondence in rank for 0 out of 6 stimuli. Further, steady-state responding for each stimulus was observed in the PSPA, but not in the PR. These data suggest that initial responding in a PR might not be predictive of final responding and that there might be differential variability in responding under PR schedules. Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 33% of sessions with 100% agreement in the PSPA and 94.5% agreement in the PR.APPROVED
 
44. Response Restriction in the Go/No-Go Procedure With Compound Stimuli in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RAFAEL AUGUSTO SILVA (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; Grupo Método Intervenção Comportamental), Paula Debert (University of Sao Paulo)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: An alternative to the matching-to-sample procedure for the establishment of equivalence classes in typical adults is the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli. In the first study with this procedure with children with autism, participants responded to all the compounds presented and the conditional discriminations were not established. The aim of this study was to verify if the response restriction (cover the space bar) in the go/no-go procedure with compound stimulus would avoid the development of responding in the presence of all the compounds presented, and, therefore, favor the acquisition of the trained conditional relations. Each AB and BC compounds were successively presented in training. After obtaining accurate performances in training, BA and CB symmetry tests and AC and CA equivalence testes were conducted using the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli. All three children with autism learned all the trained conditional relations and presented emergence of symmetric relations. One participant presented emergence of transitivity and equivalence relations. The results demonstrated that the response restriction in the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli is effective for training conditional relations with children with autism and can produce emergent conditional relations.
 
46. The Effect of the Individual-level Positive Behavior Support on Problem Behaviors and Participation in Activities of a Child With Developmental Delay
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SEUNGCHUL KWAK (Kongju National University), Mihye Kim (Kongju ShinGwan Kindergarten), JinAh Noh (Kongju National University), Sunhwa Jung (Kongju National University), Jongnam Baek (Kongju National University), HyukSang Kwon (Kongju National University), Hyojeong Seo (Kongju National University)
Discussant: Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the individual-level positive behavior support on problem behaviors and participation in activities of a child with developmental delay. The participant was a child with developmental delay who received education in the inclusive kindergarten setting. We used a multiple baseline design across settings with an order of baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. The dependent variables (i.e., problem behaviors and activity participation behaviors demonstrated by a child) were observed and measured in three different settings (e.g., reading activities, activities prior to drawing, activities to learn Korean). The study findings indicated that the individual-level positive behavior support decreased the problem behaviors of the child and promoted childs participation in activities; and those desirable results were maintained after the intervention was withdrawn. It is worth to note that the general kindergarten teacher provided the child with individualized positive behavior supports within the inclusive context.
 

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