Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #206H
EDC Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
119. Evaluation of a Hypothetical Texting Demand Task in the Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DEVON BIGELOW (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Justin T Van Heukelom (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Megan Redmile (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Wendy Donlin Washington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The behavioral economic framework can be used to examine problematic behaviors. Specifically, suboptimal cell phone use in classrooms can be examined using a hypothetical texting demand task (HTDT), a subtype of a hypothetical purchase task (HPT). College students completed an HTDT, in which a vignette describes they just received a text message in class and asks how likely they are to respond now versus waiting until the end of class if there is a high likelihood of getting caught by the professor. Within subject manipulations were made with time until the end of class (5 min and 30 min), and points deducted by the professor (spanning 0.1-60) from the current grade of 100. The HTDT provided demand indices including demand intensity (Q0) indicating likelihood to text at the lowest point loss value, Pmax representing the point loss value where demand becomes elastic, and breakpoint representing the highest point loss tolerated. A texting questionnaire further characterized cell phone use. The overall purpose of this study was to examine how sensitive students are to losing points from their grade in order to gain access to their cell phones after various delays of no access. This is useful such that it can inform classroom policies and characterize suboptimal cellphone use.
 
120. Look Who Gets to Write... Everyone!
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
THAI RAY WILLIAMS (University of North Carolina- Charlotte), Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Pamela Mims (East Tennessee State University)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Writing is used to express one's knowledge and opinions, organize and plan, and engage in social exchanges. For many individuals, representative of diverse intersecting identities, it is means of expression and in some cases advocacy. Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have often been excluded from writing instruction due to low expectations and a lack of knowledge of how to teach writing to students with extensive support needs. This lack of writing instruction has resulted in a population that, in a digital age, has been denied access to what for many are primary modes of communication and social engagement because they are missing the foundational skills needed for such engagement. In this engaging poster presentation, the researcher will discuss a recent study conducted in a rural community on the effectiveness of time delay and sentence frames to teach students with IDD to generate sentences in response to text. Data indicated the intervention package was effective in teaching sentence construction of two sentence types with a large effect size per Tau-U. Additionally, the presenter will describe how this study extends the current literature and its implications for designing more effective literacy packages and increasing meaningful access to inclusive educational communities.
 
121. Overcoming the Picture Interference Effect
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR KENNEDY (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alexandria Brown (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Paige Ellington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The presentation of a compound stimulus that includes picture and textual elements characteristically results in exclusive control by the picture, known as the picture interference effect. Previous research has manipulated the text size or faded the brightness of the picture to produce control by the textual element; nevertheless, presenting the word alone has consistently resulted in more rapid acquisition. To date, no previous research on the picture interference effect has required that the learner differentially respond to the textual stimulus in the compound. In the current study, elementary-aged children at risk for reading failure and attending a high-poverty school were presented with sight words and compound stimulus prompts that included unknown textual and known picture elements. On prompted trials, the participant needed to match the identical textual stimulus from the compound, which allowed for the picture to be used to prompt the target response. Performance increased rapidly following training, generalized to handwritten and tablet-based stimulus modalities, and maintained during one-week probes. The current findings suggest that arrangements that require differential responding to the textual element may mitigate interference by the picture in compound stimulus arrangements.
 
122. Functional Analysis of Peer Aggression
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Danielle E Butler (May Institute), Emily Sullivan (Western New England University), TAYLOR LACHANCE (May Institute), Yannick Andrew Schenk (May Institute)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Students with autism may engage in a variety of challenging behaviors. Perhaps one of the most concerning is aggression towards peers within the school setting. Not only is this topography of problem behavior dangerous for students within the classroom, but since the functional reinforcer for this behavior may be mediated by peer, it may be difficult to capture in an assessment and subsequently control during treatment. Therefore, a confederate peer may be used within the analysis context to ensure safety and establish control, without subjecting other students to peer aggression (Kuhn et al. 2009). The present project implemented a pairwise functional analysis of peer aggression using a confederate peer, with a peer tantrum as the functional reinforcer, for one student with autism. Information from the analysis was used to inform additional assessments and intervention procedures.
 
123. Effects of a Coaching Package on Teacher Delivery of Supported Opportunities to Respond
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA TAPP (Catawba College; University of North Carolina- Charlotte), Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Andrea Bowen Masud (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: During this poster session, we will share our research on the effects of a coaching package on the rate of teacher implemented supported OTRs (i.e., opportunity to respond, communication support, response prompt) to increase student engagement across three teachers and three students with extensive support needs during small group reading instruction.
 
Diversity submission 124. Always Consider Culture: Incorporating Cultural Responsiveness Into Functional Communication Training
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
GUOFENG SHEN (University of Northern Colorado; Seven Dimensions Behavioral Health), Tracy Gershwin (University of Northern Colorado)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) involves introducing reinforcements for appropriate or desired communicative responses in lieu of existing challenging behavior(s). Identified as an evidence-based practice, FCT can be applied across multiple populations of students (e.g., autism, intellectual disabilities). Despite the laudable successes and extensive research support, FCT can be impractical or ineffective in schools, clinics or home settings if utilized with students who are from culturally, linguistically, or economically diverse backgrounds, and these cultural considerations are not included through all intervention stages. There is an identified need to develop an awareness and provide culturally responsive practices across the field of education. Participants will learn the impact of culture on behaviors in the home, school, and clinical settings, including implications for the BACB Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. We present ethical obligations for culturally responsive practices, as well as framework, strategies and four detailed steps for implementing culturally responsive functional communication training when addressing challenging behaviors.

 
125. Self-Monitoring to Increase On-Task Study Time at the University Level
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLA CEFALO (Data Driven ABA)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract:

Students often complain about the amount of time it takes to do all the assigned tasks in different academic areas, both in high school and college. Increasing the amount of time spent studying, what is usually called "concentration," could help students make studying more efficient and effective. Self-management has been shown to be a useful approach to improving on-task behavior and, consequently, academic engagement of students with disabilities. This procedure involves teaching the individual various behaviors, such as self-assessment, self-correction, goal-setting, self-registration, and self-monitoring. There is a gap in the literature investigating the usefulness of self-monitoring for adolescents and adults in the typical population. In this study, a self-management procedure is applied to help a college student increase on-task behavior while studying. A changing criteria design was used to assess internal validity. The total study time increased from an average of 10 minutes to 190 minutes.

 
127. The Effects of Matrix Training on the Reading Comprehension of 2nd Grade Students With and Without Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ILIANA TREVINO CONTLA (Teachers College Columbia University), Hannah Walker (Teachers College, Columbia University), Xiaoyuan Liu (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The current study aims to analyze the effects of matrix training production or selection topography responses for fiction reading comprehension on the generalization to nonfiction reading comprehension production and selection responses. Three dyads were selected as participants in a 2nd-grade public school classroom following the CABAS AIL model because of their high reading level placement but low reading comprehension. The researchers probed the participant's selection and production responses to nonfiction reading comprehension. The researchers selected one participant in each dyad for the selection topography response training group and the other participant in the dyad for the production topography response training group on fiction reading comprehension. After training on either reading comprehension response in fiction genre texts, the participants improved both types of reading comprehension responses in nonfiction texts. This demonstrates the generalizable effects of matrix training. However, most participants did not meet the performance criteria in the post-intervention probes. Therefore, the researchers followed training them on the other type of reading comprehension response to meet the performance criteria.
 
128. Using Self-Instruction via Video Activity Schedules to Decrease Reliance on Adult Prompts for Students With an Intellectual Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Kai O'Neill (University of Kentucky), Kennedy Neltner (University of Kentucky), AMY SPRIGGS (University of Kentucky), Sally Bereznak Shepley (The University of Kentucky)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of mobile assistive technology (AT) loaded with visual activity schedules (VAS; pictures alone) compared to video activity schedules (VidAS; pictures linked to video models) to promote vocational independence and decreased reliance on adult supports for adolescents and adults with intellectual disability, with and without autism. Seven single-case multitreatment designs were used to assess differential effects between the two interventions when participants completed various vocational tasks. All participants were able to perform some of the task steps independently with both VAS and VidAS but demonstrated a greater increase in independence with self-instruction using VidAS than when only given VAS. Results suggest that incorporating VidAS into mobile AT can increase independence while decreasing reliance on additional adult support, suggesting that this could be a reasonable accommodation in school, work, and community settings.

 
129. Feasibility of Teacher Implementation of an Intensive Behavior Protocol in a Public School Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CAMILLA YONETTE WOODARD (Emory University; Marcus Autism Center ), Keller Oliver Street (Marcus Autism Center), Deva Carrion-McGee (School Consultation Program at Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: Conceptual understanding and active implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) through Behavior Skills Training (BST) in a special education school setting is an understudied area in the literature. The purpose of this current case study is to evaluate the feasibility for teachers and paraprofessionals in implementing a BIP with multiple components with a student engaging in severe problem behavior. The BIP was designed through collaboration between the school team and a School Consultation team comprised of Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs). This study is aimed at addressing the following research question: What are the effects of using Behavior Skills Training on Teacher Fidelity Ratings in implementing an intensive behavior protocol as part of a Behavior Intervention Plan? The participants included 1 special education teacher and 3 paraprofessionals without a history of training in applied behavior analysis. Results from this study will show the feasibility of teachers learning and implementing an intensive behavior protocol within a BIP and the effects on student outcomes.
 
130. Embedding Quiz Questions in Asynchronous Lectures: A Comparison of Multiple-Choice vs. Fill-in-the-Blank Items on Exam Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento), Amanda N Jones (California State University, Sacramento), EMILY STELLHORN (CSU Sacramento)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that response cards (i.e., a "low-tech" active student response technique) improve student participation and exam scores for in-person college classes. Heinicke et al. (2019) also demonstrated that exam scores were significantly higher when students were presented with fill-in-the-blank questions on response cards compared with multiple-choice items. Given the rapid increase of online course offerings in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic, we extended Heinicke et al. by embedding multiple-choice vs. fill-in-the-blank quiz questions in asynchronous lectures in an upper-division psychology course using an alternating treatments design blocked by exam schedule. We also measured students’ self-report of preference for embedded quiz questions using a satisfaction survey. We found higher exam scores, learning gains and retention scores for modules with embedded fill-in-the-blank over multiple-choice questions. However, students did not watch a greater percentage of lecture videos across conditions. Overall, our results support that embedded fill-in-the-blank quiz questions may be a preferred strategy to improve students’ exam performance in asynchronous lecture-based courses.
 
131. A Behavioral Intervention to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in Elementary School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RAMON MARIN (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil), Letícia Pereira (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil ), Ana Tarifa (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Bárbara Gouveia (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Giulia Mengatto (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

This poster presents the result of a behavioral intervention aimed at improving reading and writing skills in students at a public school in Brazil. Thirty elementary school students (3rd to 5th grade) were exposed to the teaching procedures. The intervention used two of the four programmed units of a computerized teaching program previously developed by de Souza et al. (2009). These two units taught 27 of the 51 stimulus-stimulus relations from the complete program. The main tasks were conditional discrimination trials aimed to establish conditional relations between dictated words, pictures, and printed words. Furthermore, some trials were designed to establish conditional relations between written and dictated syllables. Two tasks, not directly taught, were used to assess the students’ repertoire, using a pre-test x post-test format: a) textual behavior and b) writing under dictation (Constructed Response Matching-to-Sample). The tests presented the words used in training plus a sample of novel words (to assess recombinative generalization). The comparison of the average percentage of correct responses in pre and post-test for each grade indicates an improvement in the reading and writing skills. Applications on a larger scale are recommended.

 
133. Functional Communication Training in Inclusive School Settings for Students With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ANDREA MASUD (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Alexandra Reilly (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is a well-established, evidence-based practice used to address challenging behavior among individuals across settings, ages, and disability categories. However, the research is limited on the implementation of FCT in inclusive school settings for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this review was to summarize FCT intervention studies implemented in inclusive K-12 school settings for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. We synthesized studies to summarize study characteristics, quality, and intervention effectiveness. Our findings suggest that FCT was most often implemented as part of a multi-component intervention package and delivered by educational team members. Further, the quality of most studies was either acceptable or strong. The overall effect size estimate for primary dependent measures as measured by Tau-U ranged from moderate to strong. We present implications for practice specific to educational teams that support the behavioral needs of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities in inclusive settings and offer avenues for future research.

 
134. Video Gamification of Behavioral Interventions an Emerging Paradigm
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
EDWARD JUSTIN PAGE (StepOne Neurodiversity Services)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Gamification of education continues to experience a growth in applications and use. In the field of Behavior Analysis, gamification, specifically video gamification, of behavior analytic interventions remains an understudied but auspicious area of growth. Morford et al. (2014) outlined the intersection between behavior analysis and game design, noting the use of behavior analytic principles that appear in game design and operationally defining characteristics of game-playing. In addition, they provided a call to action wherein behavior analysts should study and pursue avenues of integrating behavior analysis into game design. The purpose of this poster is to demonstrate early stages of introducing simple behavioral interventions to change behavior into video games. Creation of games has come from a partnership of a service providing agency, StepOne Neurodiversity Services, and an established transformational game production company, Simcoach Games. This poster describes the efforts of the behavior analyst to disseminate applied behavior analysis to the Simcoach Games team and working with game design experts to produce prototype video games to be deployed as tools in a clinic and special education setting. In addition, future research on these video games in vivo settings is described.

 
135. Differential Effects of Criteria for Increasing Delay Intervals in Progressive Time Delay
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAI O'NEILL (University of Kentucky)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The criteria used to determine when to increase to the next delay interval in the progressive time delay (PTD) instructional procedure is not consistently implemented by researchers and practitioners. This study used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the differential effects of response-independent criteria (RIC; increasing the delay interval after a set number of sessions) and response-dependent criteria (RDC; increasing the delay interval after participants achieve a certain accuracy criterion) when teaching expressive word identification to elementary-aged children with moderate/severe disabilities (e.g., autism, Down syndrome, intellectual disability), language impairments, and reading deficits in order to determine whether one PTD variation required fewer sessions to reach mastery, produced fewer errors, or required less instructional time. Efficiency data were mixed; for participants who required minimal or extensive prompting, there were not noteworthy differences in error rates between variations. However, for participants who required rates of prompting typically associated with students with moderate/severe disabilities, the RIC variation resulted in considerably higher error rates (1.7-16.5 times greater). These results suggest that the RDC variation is likely to be either equally efficient or more efficient than the RIC variation, which can help facilitate educators’ decisions to choose which of these effective variations to implement.
 
136. Generalized Outcome of Self-Questioning Instruction: A Systematic Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
TOLULOPE OLAYEMI SULAIMON (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Generalization outcome of any intervention determines the measure of the effectiveness or strength of any intervention. Likewise, the main goal of any intervention is for the students to generalize and maintain what was learned beyond the intervention setting or situations. The current review aimed to investigate the generalization outcomes and measures of self-questioning strategies and the instructional strategies that induce generalization of self-questioning instruction. A total of 14 self-questioning experimental studies that measured one form of generalization were reviewed. Findings reviewed generalization probes of self-questioning instruction successful. Also, findings reviewed those instructional strategies that induced generalization of self-questioning included the following components: sequential steps, description of the strategy, modeling, guided practice with feedback, student practice, self-regulation, and prompt fading.
 
 

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