Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #370G
EAB Monday Poster Session
Monday, May 29, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Ramon Marin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil)
92. Purchasing College Scholarships With Dedicated Time: Cost-Demand Analysis for Studying and Athletic Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University), Kayla Rinna (Eastern Michigan University), Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Stephanie P. da Silva (Columbus State University)
Abstract:

Decision about how much time to dedicate to certain behaviors can depend on both the cost for engaging in the behavior and its associated benefits. Past research has demonstrated the feasibility of hypothetical purchase tasks in measuring the relative demand for reinforcers such as alcohol and prescription drugs. However, the application of hypothetical purchase tasks to understand behavior related to scholarships has not been previously explored. In this study, hypothetical purchase tasks were used to examine the relative reinforcing efficacy of scholarships of varying amounts anchored to either academics or athletics. Specifically, students indicated how much time they would study/train per day if they were offered 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%,...0% academic/athletic scholarships. We received 86 valid academic scholarship responses and 43 valid athletic scholarship responses. All indices of demand were higher for academic scholarships than athletic scholarships. The specific fit of demand indices with this dataset and whether purchases in terms of time dedicated toward specific activities can be usefully incorporated into standard behavioral economic models are discussed.

 
93. Improving Specification of Delay Discounting Models Using Beta Regression
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MINGANG KIM (Virginia Tech), Christopher T. Franck (Virginia Tech)
Discussant: Ramon Marin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil)
Abstract:

While many established delay discounting models fit observed indifference point data closely, more attention is needed to assess whether models are sufficiently specified such that data generated from these models closely resembles human data. Nonlinear least squares (NLS) is the most widely used approach to fit indifference points to models because it adheres closely to observed data. The common strategy of considering data with normally distributed residuals is flawed here, because such models can produce invalid indifference points above the larger later amount or below zero. This indicates that the models we rely on are not fully specified in an adequate manner so as to describe human-like patterns of behavior. Thus, the class of Monte Carlo simulation techniques (useful for everything from sample size calculations to comparative assessment of completing analytical techniques) is not fully reliable since data produced via simulations do not resemble human data adequately. We introduce a class of nonlinear beta regression models that provide excellent fit to discounting data and also improve simulation based approaches due to their ability to honor bounds on indifference point data.

 
94. Effect of Gradual Thinning of Programmed Consequences Before Test for Stimulus Equivalence
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TORUNN LIAN (OsloMet), Carina Andresen (OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Stephanie P. da Silva (Columbus State University)
Abstract:

Basic studies within the field of stimulus equivalence often arrange training phases with gradual thinning of programmed consequences before test for emerged relations. One reason for this is to prepare the participant for responding in extinction during test. At the same time, a gradual training procedure increases the minimum number of trials and time spent in conditional discrimination training. Sidman (1994) suggested that procedures in the applied setting need not be as austere as in the laboratory. 30 adult participants, 17 women and 13 men, were randomly assigned to (a) gradual thinning of programmed consequences, (b) no thinning phases before test, and (c) overtraining. Overtraining was arranged to control for differences in minimum trials required in the two other conditions. Results showed that most participants formed equivalence classes in gradual thinning and overtraining, but no significant results were obtained. Furthermore, baseline relations were marginally better maintained in overtraining than in gradual thinning indicating that number of trials in baseline training was a core variable for class formation in these participants. Further research on the role of gradual thinning of consequences and number of trials is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

 
95. The Effect of Choice Bundling on Intertemporal Choice Among Individuals in Recovery From Substance Use Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERTA FREITAS-LEMOS (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion), Fatima Quddos (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion and Graduate Program in Translational Biology, Medicine, and Health, Virginia Tech), Allison Tegge (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion), Yu-Hua Yeh (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion), Liqa Athamneh (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion), Jeffrey S. Stein (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion), Warren K. Bickel (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion)
Discussant: Ramon Marin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil)
Abstract:

Choice bundling (when a single choice produces repeating consequences over time) has been shown to increase valuation of larger later (LL) rewards in cigarette smokers. However, no prior work has investigated the effects of choice bundling in individuals in recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). In this replication of Stein et al (2022), 194 participants from the International Quit & Recovery Registry, were randomized to complete delay discounting tasks for either monetary gains or losses. Participants completed a six-trial task to establish Effective Delay 50 (ED50; the delay required for an outcome to lose half of its value) and three adjusting-amount tasks with bundle sizes of 1, 3, and 9 rewards per choice (order counterbalanced). Differences in discounting gains and losses were controlled using ED50 individual values to set the LL amount. ED50 values were not significantly different between losses and gains (p=0.526). Choice bundling significantly increased valuation of LL gains and losses (p<0.001), with significantly greater effects in ascending losses (p<0.01) and descending gains (p<0.05) compared to ascending gains. Future research examining the role of remission status on choices may elucidate the potential clinical utility of choice bundling in SUD treatment.

 
96. Parametric Analysis of Observing Response Requirements During Matching-to-Sample Tasks
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LUCILLE GATES (University of North Carolina Wilmington ), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Paige Rountree (University of North Carolina Wilmington )
Discussant: Stephanie P. da Silva (Columbus State University)
Abstract:

An observing response (OR) is a response that produces access to discriminative conditions. In typical matching-to-sample arrangements, ORs are made to the sample stimulus, which then produce the comparison array. Previous research suggests that ORs may facilitate or be necessary to produce or maintain matching performances. The current study sought to extend prior research on ORs in a gamified human operant arrangement hosted in Minecraft Education Edition. In this study, undergraduate students completed identity matching-to-sample trials in which the 12-stimulus comparison array was immediately visible. An OR was possible, but not required, which produced the sample. The OR requirement varied across sessions (FR 1, FR 5, or FR 10), as well as the number of duplicate comparison stimuli. Given the sample, the probability of selecting the target comparison changed from 1.0 to .08 across trials as the number of unique comparison stimuli decreased. Participant’s total number of ORs per trial was measured. The OR requirement and number of unique comparison stimuli were shown to be functionally related to the participant’s emission of the OR. Implications for ORs in matching-to-sample arrangements in applied settings will be discussed.

 
98. Note-Taking as on Overt Mediational Response During Equivalence Training and Testing
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DANIEL OLSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center; University of Nebraska Omaha), Sarah Frampton (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Stephanie P. da Silva (Columbus State University)
Abstract:

Effective note-taking is a critical skill that may enhance learning outcomes for students across age and disability status. Note-taking is also a form of mediation which may be directly observed. Frampton et al. (in press) found that the inclusion of a stimulus fading package to teach note-taking in the form of a graphic organizer (GO) resulted in moderately high equivalence yields with young adults. The present study utilized a pre-training treatment package to teach young adults to construct a GO during matching-to-sample baseline relations training (MTS-BRT). The package included video illustration, voice-over instructions, and feedback when practiced with familiar stimuli. Following pre-training, a non-concurrent multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of MTS-BRT with arbitrary stimuli in three five-member classes. The participants engaged in GO construction during MTS-BRT and efficiently acquired the trained relations. Both participants passed the posttest on the first attempt, though neither drew a GO with integrity during the posttest. These results extend prior findings suggesting that effective note-taking may facilitate learning of the baseline relations and result in high yields. The voluntary demonstration of notetaking by both participants during MTS-BRT suggests this may be a beneficial addition to equivalence-based instruction.

 
99. Effects of Manipulations to Reinforcer Magnitude on the Resurgence of Arbitrary Responses
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
EMMA AUTEN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Emily L. Baxter (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Elizabeth Paige Thuman (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract: Applied research tends to focus on how to mitigate resurgence in the context of working with individuals with challenging behavior; however, resurgence may be desirable in some contexts. Both basic and applied literature has evaluated manipulations to dimensions of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, rate, response effort) for an alternative response and its effect on resurgence of a target response during an extinction test. The current study manipulated the magnitude of reinforcement (i.e., small and large) for an alternative response and evaluated the effects on resurgence of a target response during an extinction test. Resurgence of the target response was observed across both conditions, but the level of resurgence is not systematic across participants thus far.
 
100. Gambling Comparison Across the Laboratory and Venue Settings
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MACK S. COSTELLO (Rider University), Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Stephanie P. da Silva (Columbus State University)
Abstract:

Laboratory research has a long history of contributing to applied psychology. Behavior analytic gambling research has been largely experimental and translational, informing applied work. Previous data from the Rider Gambling Laboratory has shown that venue and laboratory data are comparable in behavioral factors of number of bets and time spent gambling. The data suggested that, generally, people gamble more and longer at the venue than in the laboratory. The previous data were collected from people already at the venue and people who participated in research form a university population. In this study, to further examine the setting effect, leisure gamblers gambled in the laboratory setting and in the venue setting in different sessions in a single case experimental design ABAB fashion. Consistent with the observational data, generally participants gambled more and longer at the venue than the laboratory. Participants also were given a self-directed gambling intervention, after which gambling generally reduced across the settings, though gambling reduction in the laboratory was less pronounced.

 
101. An Animal Model of Positive Practice Overcorrection: A Translational Approach to Understanding Its Effectiveness
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIZABETH PAIGE THUMAN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Chris Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Ramon Marin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil)
Abstract:

Positive practice overcorrection (PPOC) is a commonly used punishment procedure within a variety of settings. Early research on PPOC was conducted within academic, clinical, and home settings (e.g., Doleys et al., 1976; Carey & Bucher, 1983; Cole et al., 2000); however, it seems necessary and important to make the connection between applied and basic realms to fully understand the mechanisms underlying PPOC’s effectiveness. This study is designed to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of PPOC procedures using an animal model (e.g., subjects are pigeons). First, it is unclear if the work requirement or timeout (TO) from positive reinforcement is responsible for behavior suppression. Second, the baseline through which we compare punishment effects is a crucial consideration when designing an experiment that not only is in line with previous basic punishment research, but also has translational outcomes. In Experiment 1 (single reinforcement key), there is only one source of reinforcement; the same response produces reinforcement and PPOC/TO. In Experiment 2 (concurrent), there is an alternative source of reinforcement without PPOC/TO. In Experiments 1 and 2, the average duration to complete the terminal PPOC ratio is yoked to a TO to disentangle the confounded components of PPOC.

 
103. Insight in Rats in Aversive Contingencies of Reinforcement: Escape and Problem-Solving
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DANIELA GALVIS QUINTANA (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Ramon Marin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil)
Abstract: Experiments with rats (Rattus norvegicus) showed repertoire interconnection (insight) by training pre-requisite abilities by positive reinforcement. Borges (2019) argued for repertoire interconnection in aversive contingencies of reinforcement by training pre-requisite abilities in a forced-swimming situation. However, the environmental configuration of the test allows for alternative explanations to insightful solutions. The aim of the present study was replicating Borges (2019) by implementing a different equipment and variations from the original procedure in order to overcome those alternative explanations. In Experiment 1, two rats learned diving and string-pulling, and two rats did not learn any of the abilities. Insight was observed in one of the rats that learned the abilities, and in none of the subjects without a training history. In Experiment 2, modifications were made in the diving training and test in order to facilitate the interconnection for all of the subjects. Two rats learned the abilities, but neither of them solved the problem. Rats on both experiments showed more pro-solution responses during test sessions after training the abilities than on test sessions before training. Possible procedural variables that hindered insightful solution responses and necessary adjustments to guarantee the interconnection during the final test were considered.
 
104. Study of Risk Behaviors in Affective Relationships From a Behavioral and Gender Perspective
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Alicia Martínez-Cano (Universidad Europea de Madrid), Jorge Meléndez (Universidad Europea de Madrid), CONCEPCION SERRADOR DIEZ (Universidad Europea de Madrid), Rebeca Pardo Cebrián (Universidad Europea de Madrid), Óscar García-Leal (Universidad Europea de Madrid)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Gender role refers the set of behaviors and expectations that should govern the way women and men are, feel and act (González, 1999). In this way, the goal of this study is to assess if gender roles influence the Pavlovian conditioning of behaviors that occur in situations of street harassment. Forty participants (18-30 years old) completed the Gender Attitude Scale (GRAS), and were later exposed to a Pavlovian experimental task. In the Training Phase (30 trials), vignettes of neutral interaction between a man and a woman, and street harassment with a geometric figure were presented, each of these paired with appetitive or aversive stimuli. In the following phase (Test Phase, 3 trials), participants were asked about the association of the previously-presented vignettes. Our results showed some evidence that people with lower scores on the GRAS tended to have greater difficulty in appetitive conditioning street harassment and greater ease in aversive conditioning; whereas, people with high scores tended to have the opposite results. Altogether, gender roles might play an important function in people's ability to identify risky behaviors for themselves.

 
105. Self Monitoring Time-On-Task for Graduate Work
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE WASSERLEBEN (Behavior By Design, LLC), Matthew Tyson (Behavior By Design, LLC)
Discussant: Carson Yahrmarkt (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract:

There have been numerous studies that have assessed the effectiveness of self-management strategies for on-task behaviors. However, many of these studies focus on increasing on-task behaviors in younger populations. This current study was conducted to increase on-task behaviors in an applied behavior analysis graduate intern (myself), while completing internship assignments in a shared office space. A changing criteria design was used to increase time spent on-task and momentary sampling was used to assess if on-task behaviors occurred during each interval. The criteria for on-task behavior increased, until the final goal time of 25 minutes was met. Based on the results, it was concluded that this intervention effectively increased on-task behaviors. Additionally, during the maintenance trials, on-task behavior remained consistent with the final goal criteria. This shows that the effects of the treatment remained consistent 3 months after conclusion of the intervention.

 
106. Chasing Ghosts: Increasing Awareness of Concurrent Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA J. SPEAR (South Dakota State University)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Sensitivity to schedule parameters is not always demonstrated with human participants, perhaps because humans establish rules. Behavior is consistent with these rules rather than the schedule parameters. Previously, participants showed insensitivity to the concurrent nature of a multiple concurrent schedule. This study attempted to make it more pronounced by including a probe in early sessions. On both the left and right sides of the screen, the computer game occasionally halted and displayed an ‘error’ message that prompted participants to repeat the last response. This prompt should force contact with both sides. The results suggested that previous history (Hist; fixed ratio, fixed interval, or mixed schedule exposure) significantly altered the number of responses and reinforcers on the left side of the computer screen (F(2)=4.4, p=.02); F(2)=3.83, p=.03), and responses on the right side of the screen (F(2)=3.09, p=.05), but not reinforcers on the right side of the screen. There was also a main effect on responding and reinforcers with respect to multiple schedule component (Comp) for responses and reinforcers on the right side of the screen (F(2)=35.7, p<.001; F(2)=58.1, p<.001), but not the left. Sensitivity to the concurrent nature of the schedules increased, compared to previous research, although not significantly.
 
107. Immediate and Delayed Reinforcer Congruence Influences Human Temporal Discounting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
STEPHEN PROVOST (Southern Cross University), Syeada Hossain (Southern Cross University)
Discussant: Carson Yahrmarkt (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Temporal discounting is an important measure of impulsivity associated with a variety of behavioural problems. Sosa and Santos (2018) proposed that impulsivity demonstrated in a temporal discounting task may reflect the overlap between the primary and secondary reinforcers for the immediate and delayed choice. If so, they argued that less discounting should be observed if the immediate and delayed reinforcers were different to each other. University students (n = 320) completed an online discounting task in which the immediate and delayed reinforcers were either the same or different to each other in a 2x2 fully randomised between-groups design. The two reinforcers employed were a subscription for varying lengths of time to either a music streaming (music) or food-delivery service (meal). When the delayed reinforcer was a meal, shallower discounting was obtained when music was the immediate reinforcer as predicted by Sosa and Santos. However, there was no difference between the two conditions in which music was the delayed reinforcer. These results provide some support for Sosa and Santos, but a more detailed consideration of cues associated with reinforcement in humans may be required before this account can be fully evaluated.

 
108. Development of a Reliable and Objective Rating System Assessing Cue Quality in Studies on Episodic Future Thinking
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARY JANE KING (Virginia Tech (FBRI)), Jeffrey S. Stein (Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, VA; Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Episodic future thinking (EFT) interventions involve participants vividly imagining personal, future events, and have been shown to reduce delay discounting (DD) and positively affect various health behaviors. Many EFT studies are administered using crowdsourcing survey platforms (e.g. Amazon Mechanical Turk, or AMT) and require participants to follow specific instructions to generate detailed event descriptions for later use in decision-making tasks prompting EFT. However, online data collection frequently yields non-adherent, poor-quality cues that raise challenges for analysis and research conclusions, and quality evaluation is often subjective and therefore unreliable. The present study seeks to develop and test a reliable method for identifying non-adherent cues. First, N=440 individuals who smoke cigarettes were recruited from AMT to generate episodic cues and complete behavioral tasks. Next, using the cue generation task instructions (e.g., to describe a positive event), we developed a system for obtaining reliable, objective ratings of adherence to instructions. In this latter ongoing study, N=880 participants are being recruited (n=47 thus far) to provide binary ratings of adherence (Y/N) for each component. Inter-rater reliability will be presented, alongside analyses exploring the potential moderating role of adherence in EFT’s effects on DD and cigarette demand. These results may improve the feasibility of recruiting crowdsourced samples in EFT research and improve confidence in future findings.
 
109. Changes in Visual Scanning Behavior During Stimulus Equivalence Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Katelyn Rachelle Jones (Missouri State University), D. WAYNE MITCHELL (Missouri State University), Chandler Zimmerman (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Carson Yahrmarkt (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess changes in visual scanning behavior as a function of stimulus equivalence training. Four adult participants completed three stimulus-association training sessions and a follow-up stimulus equivalence test. Eight stimuli were employed. Each stimulus contained a Girl Face, a Boy Face, a Man Face, or a Woman Face paired with three fish shapes differing in color. Participants were trained to correctly match the color of the fish with a given face. Each training session consisted of 12 trials. After the training sessions a 6-trial equivalence test was given. Across training trials, there was a significant decrease in the number of fixations and fixation duration to the stimulus components; and visual response latencies became faster to the correct stimulus association. Participants’ attending behavior became more selective, suggesting greater volitional control, and less influenced by stimulus salience features that guide perception. In summary, visual scanning measures should provide a superior direct assessment of an individual’s attending behavior to stimulus features (over-selectivity or under-selectivity) and the rate of stimulus comparisons, which should better serve the behavior analyst in the designing and implementation of appropriate intervention schemes for higher order learning in at-risk and non-verbal populations.

 
110. The Combined Effects of Reinforcer Rate and Magnitude on Responding in a Response-Class Hierarchy
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ZOE MARIE SMITH (West Virginia University), Haleh Amanieh (West Virginia University ), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: A response class is a group of responses maintained by similar consequences. A response-class hierarchy is formed when responses occur in a relatively predictable temporal order and their probabilities can be ranked. Factors that lead to the formation of response-class hierarchies have been investigated in translational settings. Variables such as reinforcer rate, delay, magnitude, and response effort have been individually manipulated to observe their effects on the structure of response-class hierarchies (e.g., Beavers et al. 2014). The purpose of the current study was to manipulate reinforcer rate and magnitude to determine their combined effects on the formation and structure of a hierarchy. College students performed a computer task where they clicked on any of three moving circles on a screen for points. There were two segments, the first involved the creation of a hierarchy based on differing fixed-ratio values where completing the fixed-ratio earned one point. The second segment involved changing the magnitude of the reinforcer for each response option while keeping the fixed-ratio value the same. Changes in the rank ordering of responses within the hierarchy were examined. The rank order of responses changed by the end of the final condition for five of six participants.
 
111. Within Session Tolerance in a Gambling Game
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ISAAC PIFER (Northern Michigan University), Sarah Dartt (Northern Michigan), Jacob H. Daar (Northern Michigan University)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate whether within-session exposure to high-probability of winning during a gambling game produces tolerance-like behaviors, e.g. progressively increased bet size, and if such behavior is maintained when exposed to low-probability win conditions. Participants were assigned to either an experimental or control group. Each group played 10 practice hands of blackjack. The experimental group played 25 hands of blackjack where winning outcomes occurred on 80% of hands, followed by 25 hands in which the winning outcomes occurred on 20% of hands. The control group played 25 hands consisting of only the 20% winning condition and each participant was started with a bankroll equal to an experimental participant bankroll prior to the low-winning condition. To evaluate tolerance development, a dependent T-Test was used to compare the experimental group's average bet size in the high-winning condition with the low-winning condition. A one-way ANOVA compared the experimental group's average bet size to the control group’s in the low-winning condition, i.e. establishing whether or not decreases in bet size are a function of the prior winning history. Results of these analysis provide implications for the establishment of within-session tolerance and the development of potential exposure treatment exercises.

 
112. Complexity Levels in Collaborative Tasks With University Students
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ROSALINDA ARROYO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Isaac Camacho (UNAM)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract:

The COVID pandemic forced an abrupt transition to distance learning, but the initial diagnoses show that strategy was not very successful. In Mexico, the Human Capital Project identifies that not only hundreds of students abandoned their studies, but those who stayed lost knowledge equivalent to two years of schooling. Despite these discouraging results, we cannot abandon distance learning as it may still a useful tool in today's world. One way distance learning can be improved is by using collaborative tasks because in them students engage more quickly in effective social networks. In this context, we tested a remote and synchronized collaborative task in which complexity level served as independent variable. Six teams of 5 members of fourth-semester Psychology students participated. Each member worked remotely, but simultaneously on two shared documents (google docs and google slides, respectively). The task consisted of five exercises, each one developed on a different complexity (i.e repetition vs inference). The dependent variables, frequency and duration of completed trials, showed differences by complexity level. The possibilities for structuring remote tasks that allow complex and structured learning that go beyond memorization and repetition tasks are discussed.

 
113. Outcomes From an Augmented Competing Stimulus Assessment for Subtype 2 Automatically Reinforced Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
TYLER ROSADO (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Drew E. Piersma (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Evan Loadholtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Angel Williams (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Carson Yahrmarkt (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract:

For individuals with automatically maintained self-injurious behavior (SIB), it is best practice to conduct a competing stimulus assessment to identify stimuli associated with reductions in SIB. Notably, individuals with Subtype 2 and 3 SIB are more likely to be treatment resistant to common interventions established as effective for individuals with Subtype 1 SIB, and thus often require additional tactics to reduce SIB. Hagopian et al. (2020) found that augmenting the CSA (A-CSA) by incorporating response promotion and disruption tactics can assist with identifying high competition stimuli (HCS) to reduce SIB. In this study, we replicated procedures from Hagopian et al. for an 8-year-old male diagnosed with autism who engaged in head-directed SIB (H-SIB) classified as Subtype 2. Various stimuli were assessed across Free Access (FA) and Response Promotion and Response Disruption (RP+RD) conditions until multiple HCS were identified. The largest number of HCS for reducing SIB, 8, were only identified after RP+RD tactics were included; 6 of these 8 HCS were associated with greater than 50% engagement. During the Repeated Free Access condition, when disruption tactics were removed, only 1 stimulus met the criteria to be a HCS. Clinical recommendations for practitioners and implications for future research will be discussed.

 
114. Training Multiple Alternative Responses on Resurgence: Assessing the Effects of Primacy and Recency
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CINTHIA HERNANDEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara (CEIC)), Elizabeth Urias (Universidad de Sonora), Kenneth D. Madrigal (Universidad de Sonora)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract:

For most studies, assessing the recurrence of socially-compatible or -incompatible behavior requires the training of a target, and an alternative response while the former is under extinction. Once both behaviors are under extinction conditions, target responding increases (i.e., resurgence is observed). Training more than one alternative response could reduce the probability of resurgence once all responding is placed in extinction. Furthermore, alternative-response recurrence could be observed as a result training primacy or recency. Using PORTL, undergrad students were exposed to a modified-resurgence procedure. Spinning a toy was established as target responding for all students. During the second phase, students had to shake, slide, pile and turn-over different toys; spinning was not reinforced. During the third phase, target and all alternative responses were under extinction. For most of the students, as alternative responses were trained, target and previously-trained alternative responding decreased to near-zero responses. During the third phase, target and all previously-trained alternative responding increased. However, target responding was never greater than any of the alternative responses. These results suggest that resurgence can be prevented by training more than a single alternative response.

 
116. Measuring Effects of Self-Stimulation in an Online Task
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JAMIIKA THOMAS (University of Nevada, Reno), Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Multiple control refers to how stimulation from different sources control behavior. For example, auditory and visual verbal discriminative stimuli are often participating variables among verbal interactions. Another source of control that is often present and difficult to measure apart from other sources, however, is that of self-stimulation. Although this topic has been studied in the context of rule-governance, different procedures are needed to further examine the participation of self-stimulation in verbal events with respect to other sources. The present online experiment conceptualizes self-stimulation as responding to one’s own response products and aimed to measure its participation in the multiple of control of functional relations with respect to visual and auditory verbal discriminative stimuli. Seventy-six undergraduates were assigned to either a Visual or Auditory group and completed a task consisting of twenty trials. Each trial consisted of three phases: (1) an initial response phase consisting of 7-digit sequences (2) a distractor phase (3) a recall phase. Response products were either masked or unmasked in half of the initial response phases. Points were contingent upon accurate responding during all phases. Results suggest that unmasked self-stimulation is related to higher degrees of recall with respect to both visual and auditory verbal discriminative stimuli.
 
 

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