Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

Event Details

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Symposium #334
Stimulus Equivalence Formation and Additional Measures
Monday, May 29, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom B
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Steffen Hansen (Western Norway University of Applied Sciences)
Discussant: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)

The first paper presenter by Hansen and Arntzen is about stimulus class formation and eye movement measures. The main aim was to test if eye-movements have predictive value on delayed emergence. Most participants showed longer fixation time and and more fixations to comparison stimuli than to incorrect comparison stimuli. In the second paper by Granerud et al., unrelated stimuli pair and stimuli pair related through equivalence was tested with the Event-related potential (erp) N400. Unrelated stimuli pair produsere a signifikant N400 response in both the group with an autism diagnosis and the group without.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Additional measures, Eeg, Eye tracking, Stimulus equivalence

Eye Movements and Their Predictive Value on Delayed Emergence

STEFFEN HANSEN (Western Norway University of Applied Sciences), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)

Recent laboratory findings on eye-movement measures during matching-to-sample performance suggest that eye-movements have predictive value on delayed emergence. To test our hypothesis, eighteen participants, nine females and nine males, were randomly placed in one of three conditions—each condition trained and tested participants for equivalence class formation with either the many-to-one (MTO), one-to-many (OTM) or linear-series (LS) training structure. In a concurrent training format, each experimental condition trained participants to form five potential 3-member equivalence classes. We measured fixation time and number of fixations to sample and comparison stimuli during conditional discrimination training and tests for equivalence class formation. Participants who did not form equivalence classes, were asked to take the test again immediately following the first test. Nine (MTO=3; OTM=5; and LS=1) and five participants (MTO=2; OTM=1; and LS= 2) formed equivalence classes on the initial or follow-up test (i.e., delayed emergence), respectively. Interestingly, most participants recorded longer fixation times and more fixations to correct comparison stimuli (i.e., S+ stimuli) than to incorrect comparison stimuli (i.e., S- stimuli), regardless of equivalence class formation on the initial test; results for participants with this fixation pattern: Most of those participants who did not form equivalence classes on the first test, would eventually demonstrate delayed emergence on an immediate follow-up test—a finding that demonstrates eye-movements’ predictive value on delayed emergence.

Stimulus Equivalence and N400 in Participants with
GURO GRANERUD (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University), Torbjørn Elvsåshagen (Oslo University hospital), Christoffer Hatlestad-Hall (CHTD research, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital), Eva Malt (Akershus University hospital)
Abstract: Approximately 400 ms after presentation of two incongruent stimuli, compared with congruent stimuli, the event-related potential (ERP) N400 is measured. This also applies when the related stimuli are related through symmetry and transitivity/equivalence. Six conditional discriminations were trained in a matching-to-sample procedure with the goal to form three 3-member classes with C stimuli as meaningful stimuli in a many-to-one training structure in the current experiment. The participants (one group with adults with high function autism and one group without such diagnosis) then were tested in a priming-procedure, with related and unrelated stimuli pair. They also conducted testing with word-pairs. N400 was measured in this phase. The results show a significant N400 response produced in both groups in both priming with images and words.



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