Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #206E
DDA Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
77. Evaluation of Interactions Between Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders and First Responders
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
KELLYN JESSICA DORSEY (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine ), Alexis Constantin Pavlov (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine ), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Summer Bottini (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine ), Nadrat Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine )
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders (ASD/NDD) are prone to challenging behavior that can escalate into behavioral crises potentially requiring the involvement of first responders to deescalate the situation. Research indicates that 20% of individuals with ASD/DD have an encounter with police officers by their late 20s as compared to 10.8% of similarly aged neurotypical individuals. Families of individuals with ASD/DD who engage in challenging behavior already experience numerous burdens, consequently these families need to be able to rely on emergency services when needed. In study 1, we examined whether caregivers reported differential use of first responder services based on their child’s demographic characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, etc.). In study 2, we conducted a thematic analysis of outputs from focus groups conducted with caregivers who sought assistance with managing their child’s behaviors during a crisis and also conducted interviews with first responders whom had a history of responding to a family with a child with ASD/DD. We will present study findings, discuss clinical implications, and present areas of future research.

 
78. The Effects of Compound Stimuli on Stimulus Control During Match to Sample Procedures
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH CHRISTINE GREY (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University), Jacob P. Oliveira (Salve Regina University; Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jesse Perrin (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Using compound stimuli in match-to-sample training arrangements might help establish equivalence classes (Groskreutz et al., 2010). However, utilizing compound stimuli in training arrangements comes with the risk that a client’s responding might come under the restrictive control of one of the individual components of the compound stimulus (Braaten & Arntzen, 2020). As a result, training with a compound stimulus may not produce the desired equivalent responding. There is limited research on the effect of training targets as compound stimuli on the resulting stimulus control exerted by the individual components in applied settings. The purpose of this study was to expand the research in this area by examining the effect of training compound stimuli targets during a match-to-sample procedure in a school setting. The participants were between the ages of 10 and 16 years old enrolled in a special education day program. This study implemented an overlayed multiple baseline across six participant's design. The results demonstrated that training on compound stimuli was not effective at establishing equivalent responding to the individual components of the stimuli for these participants. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) was collected for 46.87% of trials with a mean trial-by-trial agreement of 100%.
 
79. Teaching Co-Regulation Skills to Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE MIHM (Melmark Pennsylvania), Michael Roesch (Melmark)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Children with intellectual disabilities can display deficits in intellectual functioning (e.g., academics, problem solving), adaptive functioning (e.g., social skills, communication), and emotional regulation (Ting & Weiss, 2017). Although displayed differently across children, those with intellectual disabilities may communicate by engaging in challenging behavior or may display behaviors more indicative of a mental health diagnosis (e.g., anxiety, depression) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These deficits can significantly affect both the child and family’s quality of life and overall well-being (Gadow, DeVincent, & Scheider, 2008). To support the child and their family, developing co-regulation skills is imperative. The purpose of this case study was to compare the use of extinction with differential reinforcement to the teaching strategy known as “Cool Versus Not Cool” to see its effects on the frequency of aggression. The results of this study showed aggression decreased in intensity and remained decreased across increased number of days with the addition of the “Cool Versus Not Cool” procedure compared to the use of extinction with differential reinforcement. This study demonstrated the need to take an interdisciplinary approach when developing or implementing behavior support plans.

 
80. Treatment Effects Informed by Competing Stimulus Assessment for Automatically Maintained Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH FREIBURGER (University of Iowa ), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Alex Pauls (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: As many as one quarter of cases of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the research literature are identified as being maintained by automatic reinforcement (Hagopian et al., 2015). Behavior analysts commonly prescribe a treatment package consisting of competing stimuli, based on the results of a competing stimulus assessment (CSA), and response blocking (RB). In this case study, we evaluated a treatment of automatically maintained handwringing and hand mouthing, resulting in dermatitis with fissures for a young girl with Koolen-de Vreis syndrome. The treatment functional communication training (FCT) was developed based on the outcomes of a CSA with procedures developed by Jennett and Hagopian (2011). Treatment using FCT alone with ineffective in suppressing SIB to acceptable levels. Using a reversal design, we then compared the effects of FCT with FCT plus RB and response cost (FCT+RB+RC) and observed substantial reductions in rates of SIB when the FCT+RB+RC was implemented. We discuss the clinical applications for using CSAs for the development of treatments for automatically maintained SIB and areas for future research.
 
81. Evaluating Behaviour Support Plans: Measuring Quality and Providing a Multielement Framework to Benefit Consumers
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
GEOFF POTTER (The Centre for Positive Behaviour Support), Rebecca Beights (The Centre for Positive Behaviour Support)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Behaviour support plans (BSPs) provide intervention details within an objective structure. The rationale for a BSP may be well understood; however, quality evaluation is less established and limited in terms of standardized or validated measures. The Behaviour Intervention Plan Quality Evaluation, Version II (BIP-QEII; Browning et al., 2013) is one measure used within the Australian context. The BIP-QEII offers a broad determination of BSP quality according to requirements of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) but omits some features of a nonlinear, multielement framework. The current study presents an evaluation of BSPs (n = 265) using the BIP-QEII from a NDIS-registered positive behaviour support organisation. As an organisational practice, BSPs are submitted for scoring; then feedback is provided for required edits. Results show an average score of 17/24, with a majority of BSPs meeting criertia for “good” or “superior” plans (n = 145). Additionally, results suggest improvements in measure domains that better support multielement, progressive and contextual behavioural intervention. Results of the BIP-QEII evaluation and proposed edits for a BSP measure will be discussed. Enhanced evaluation of BSPs using a multielement framework could improve service delivery of behaviour support across settings and contexts with universal, best practice consumer considerations.

 
82. A Competing Stimuli and Clean-Up Response Treatment With Schedule Thinning in a Mouthing Treatment Evaluation
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YEFRY D QUINONES (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Margaret Cavanaugh (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julia Gilloran (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Children with developmental disabilities often mouth nonedible items; this is problematic as it can increase risk for illness or ingestion. Function-based assessments and intervention are considered to be the gold standard method to treat this type of problem behavior (Dunlap & Fox, 2011); this includes the implementation of a functional analysis to identify the maintaining consequences of problem behavior and then developing an effective intervention based on those results (Ledford et al., 2018). Differential reinforcement of discarding nonedible items has proven effective in decreasing pica (Schmidt et al., 2017); however, it is unknown whether this intervention would be similarly effective for decreasing mouthing. Therefore, the current study sought to extend research on discarding of unsafe items with a child with a history of severe mouthing that had resulted in ingestion of cloth material. A functional analysis was conducted to identify the variables maintaining mouthing, results of which suggested it was maintained by automatic reinforcement. He was then taught a clean-up response to appropriately put away unsafe mouthing items when he was alone, and competing stimuli were available to compete with mouthing. Results showed these procedures to be an effective intervention in reducing mouthing.

 
83. A Systematic Review of Clinical Applications of Punishment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SOFIA `ELIZABETH ABUIN (Salve Regina University), Stephanie Hope Jones (Salve Regina University)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Punishment, the contingent addition or removal of a stimulus which decelerates a target behavior(s), is pervasive within society. Although punishment is pervasive, limited research has been conducted on how it is used within clinical applications of behavior analysis. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic literature review of punishment. We searched ERIC and PSYCINFO using the search terms “punisher” and “punishment”. We then narrowed down the sample to articles that were published in behavior-analytic friendly journals. For our final analysis, we included articles which demonstrated applications of punishment with human participants targeting socially significant behaviors. We analyzed data on multiple variables such as participant demographics, specific punishment procedures, the information surrounding their usage, and their findings. Additionally, we collected data focused on ethical and best practice considerations related to punishment, such as concurrent implementation of extinction and reinforcement interventions. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

 
85. Behavioral Interventions for Children Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA ROCA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Rebeca Garrido (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of motor impairment in children. Problem behaviors, including disruption, aggression and stereotypy are commonly observed in children diagnosed with CP. Applied research aimed to reduce or eliminate problem behaviors in this population is scarce. This study describes the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors for three children with CP. For one participant, the targeted behaviors were scratching and biting, which were maintained by access to tangibles and escape from physical contact. A functional communication training (FCT) procedure was effective to eliminate problem behaviors and to establish an alternate response. For the second participant, a FCT procedure was effective to eliminate spitting, which was maintained by peer and teacher attention. For the third participant, the targeted behavior was hand mouthing, which was maintained by automatic reinforcement. A response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure resulted in low levels of hand mouthing when compared to baseline. Results show the generality of the FCT and RIRD procedures to decrease problem behaviors in children with CP. The results will be discussed in terms of the positive impact that behavioral interventions had for the children, their families and care providers.

 
86. The Use of Virtual Reality to Increase Engagement in Yoga
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
JEFF SCHRAM (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

For adults with diagnoses that require attendance in a day program (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, brain injury), participation in physical activity can have several benefits including increasing social skills, on-task behavior, and reducing maladaptive behaviors (e.g., Elliot et al., 1994; Kunzi, 2015). There are several studies evaluating procedures for increasing engagement in physical activities for children; however, few studies have assessed these procedures with adults (Eun-Young et al., 2021). Strategies for increasing engagement in physical activity for this population are warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare engagement during video-based yoga, a physical activity involving several body movements, across two different presentation modalities (i.e., virtual reality (VR) and television screen). Participants included four adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder or brain injury. Utilizing an alternating treatment design, we measured engagement in yoga across both presentation modalities. Results indicate that all participants consistently engaged in the yoga activity during more intervals when yoga was presented using VR compared to a television screen.

 
87. When Saying “Nice job!” Doesn’t Do the Job: Using a Concurrent Operant Arrangement to Assess Forms of Attention
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELODY LYNN CULBERTSON (UNMC), Sarah Elizabeth Martinez Rowe (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Caitlin Fulton (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cynthia P. Livingston (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Javid Rahaman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessie Kaye Weber (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Samantha Bryan (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Preference assessments are often used by clinicians to identify potential reinforcers for behavioral interventions. However, some stimuli may be particularly difficult to assess due to their unique properties. For example, clinicians may find it difficult to assess forms of attention as they cannot be easily arranged into common preference assessment modalities, such as paired stimulus or multiple stimulus assessments. We used a concurrent operant arrangement to evaluate various forms of attention that could function as a reinforcer for an autistic child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who exhibited severe aggression. Eight forms of attention were assessed based on anecdotal reports and direct observations. The forms of attention assessed were reprimands, praise, ignore, item removal, immediate physical guidance, two-step prompting, physical attention, and play. The session room was divided into three sections. Theses sections included a neutral zone where no attention was delivered and two zones where different forms of attention were assessed. Through the concurrent operant arrangement, we found the most preferred forms of attention were item removal, play, and immediate physical guidance. We observed the lowest levels of aggression with item removal, play, and praise. Our findings support the use of concurrent operant arrangements to assess preferred forms of attention.

 
Diversity submission 88. Evaluating the Impact of Challenging Behavior Based on Racial and Ethnic Demographics
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
MATEO GOMEZ (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Fabiola Vargas Londono (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Brittany Naugle (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center ), Angelia Walker (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Challenging behavior negatively impacts patients and their families. Given the importance of professionals accounting for cultural diversity in practice, potential differences in the impact of challenging behavior are important to assess across different racial or ethnic groups. Unfortunately, there is little research identifying tools for assessing the severity, and subsequent impact, of challenging behavior and a dearth of studies evaluating this variable across different groups. We assessed the severity of challenging behavior based on the impact the behavior has on the individual, family, and environment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities referred to a clinic for the treatment of severe challenging behavior (n=254, mean age = 7.99 years). Assessment included a structured interview with caregivers and a subsequent rating system. We compared outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that white, non-Hispanic participants report more physical harm and more reactive measures such as calling crisis lines, or first responders compared to other groups. Other categorizations like property damage, structural modifications, and situational avoidance of challenge behavior show no significant difference between racial and ethnic groups. These observations highlight the importance of considering differences in the impact of challenging behavior across different races and ethnicities.
 
89. Staff Training and Support for Kindergarten Teachers Using Telehealth: Behavioral Consultation for Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TAKUYA ENOMOTO (Tokushima University)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a effect of behavioral consultation aimed at staff training and behavioral support was conducted with kindergarten teachers at six private kindergartens. Eleven teachers were included in the study (aged 27-53 years, mean length of service 11.2 years). A total of 24 children with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND-Child) were in the teachers' charge. Consultations were provided via telehealth technology. The frequency was once every three months for four hours. The independent variable, consultation, consisted of three parts: 1) analysis of the ND-Child's behavior, 2) evaluation of the teachers' support skills, and 3) advice on how to behavioral support to the ND-Child. The dependent variables were A) the content of the functional analysis in the interviews about child-teacher contingency, II) Kindergarten teacher stress index and III) the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition(Vineland-II) scores of each ND-Child. Results showed that the teachers' functional analysis improved after three consultations using tele-health. In addition, the scores of Kindergarten Teacher Stress Index improved. Furthermore, each ND-Child's score on the Vineland-II (Communication domain and Socialization domain) improved significantly. These results suggest that tele-health consultations may improve teachers' support skills.

 
 

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