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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #58
Saturday, May 27, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
EDC
Chair: Carolyn Trump (University of Georgia)
42. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Trainingand Peer Modeling on College Students' Pours
Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY HANKLA (University of the Pacific), Meagan Strickland (University of the Pacific), Carolynn S. Kohn (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: College students excessive alcohol consumption often results in negative consequences. Because students who avoid excessive drinking report counting their drinks, campus alcohol education courses are designed to teach students to accurately identify and pour standard servings. However, few studies have evaluated teaching this skill, and none have used BST. Because college students often imitate their peers, it is unclear if skills gained during BST would be lost in the presence of peers modeling inaccurate pouring. We used a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across subjects design to evaluate the (1) use of BST to teach college students (N = 19) to pour standard servings of beer (12 fl oz), and (2) effects of inaccurate peer modeling on skill maintenance. Participants who poured inaccurately at baseline (n = 17), poured accurately after receiving BST. Immediately following BST, all participants engaged in a group training where they observed two confederate peers over-pour, under-pour, or pour accurately; all participants maintained accurate pouring. Results suggest BST can be used to teach accurate pouring and these skills maintain in the presence of inaccurate peer models. Directions for future research include evaluating BST in alcohol education courses with different alcohol types and vessels, along with maintenance in naturalistic settings.
 
43. When and How to Correct Errors: An Investigation Using PORTL
Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA WINNE (University of North Texas), Mary Elizabeth Hunter (The Art and Science of Animal Training), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Tosti (1978) divided feedback into two types, formative andmotivational. Formative feedback is used to correct errors and should begivenimmediately before the next opportunity to respond. If an error does occur, nocorrection is given. Motivational feedback is givenimmediately after a correctresponse and reinforces correct behavior. This study compared Tostis suggestionsfor when to give feedbackas opposed to giving both types immediately after theresponse. College students learned nonsense word names for familiar objectsduringtwo different conditions. In both conditions, reinforcement was provided aftereach correct response. In one condition, theexperimenter began each trial bymodeling the correct response and provided no feedback for any incorrectresponses. In the othercondition, after each incorrect response theexperimenter said no, immediately modeled the correct response, and thenallowed theparticipant to respond again. In the condition where the model wasprovided after the response, participants made more errors, tended torepeat errors,hesitated longer before responding, and reported feeling anxious or upset. Whenthe model was provided before theopportunity to respond, participants made noerrors and reported feeling content and happy. These results support Tostis suggestionsforhow feedback should be delivered.
 
44. Effects of Practice Quizzes on Improving Undergraduate Students’ Studying Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
HELOISA CURSI CAMPOS (Arkansas State University)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Students often procrastinate. This study examined if providing practice quizzes as undergraduate students prepare for weekly quizzes would reduce procrastination and increase grades. Thirty undergraduate students could take optional Practice Quizzes 1-5 that contained respectively 1-5 topics from that week’s quiz. A within-subject design delivered the practice quizzes alternating between a contingent and noncontingent condition across ten weeks. In the contingent condition, practice quizzes became available only if the student submitted a practice quiz the day before. Thus, if students started submitting the first practice quizzes earlier in the week (i.e., did not procrastinate) they would complete all practice quizzes and access all topics from the weekly quiz. In the noncontingent condition one practice quiz was available per day regardless of students’ submission of previous practice quizzes. Some students submitted a few practice quizzes, which did not allow verifying their studying behavior. Other students procrastinated in both conditions and showed no difference in scores across conditions. However, a few students started submitting the practice quizzes earlier in the week in the contingent condition. Although this procedure did not reduce procrastination behavior of all students, it showed that is possible to reduce undergraduate students’ procrastination behavior.
 
47. Exam Scores With and Without Weekly Interteaches in Two Undergraduate Intro to Psychology Classrooms
Domain: Service Delivery
SCOTT A. MILLER (Truckee Meadows Community College; Fit Learning; Bx Plus), Courtney Smith (University of Nevada, Reno; Fit Learning)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Interteach is an instructional method that uses guided reading and in-class group dyads to facilitate contact with curricular material. To date, research has been generally favorable for interteach as a method to improve participation and grades. However, results have been somewhat mixed. Sturmey, Dalfen, and Fienup (2015) noted that studies often lacked descriptive methods, selected inconsistent dependent variables, and failed to report implementation integrity. The purpose of this study was to compare exam scores across two undergraduate Intro to Psychology classrooms that alternated interteach and no-interteach units throughout a semester. A second purpose of this study was to develop a systematic method for implementing, measuring, and tracking interteaches that could be subsequently tested and implemented. Interteach groups performed moderately better on exams than non-interteach groups. In addition, a student preference survey favored the use of interteach
 
48. Ethics Education for Undergraduate Students Pursuing the BC(a)BA Credential
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER JENKINS (University of Central Missouri), Jarrod Vaughan (University of Central Missouri), Duane A. Lundervold ( University of Central Missouri)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: With the increasing demand for graduate level applied behavior analysts, the role and responsibilities of bachelor-level behavior analysts is increasing. This is clearly seen in the recent Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) requirement of more course work in ethics and professional behavior. However, little is known about ethics education, generally, and, especially, at the undergraduate level. 75 educational programs listed as training programs on the BACB website were sent a survey regarding instruction of ethical and professional behavior at the undergraduate level. Approximately 30% of the programs responded, despite follow up post cards. The most consistent finding in terms of instruction was use of the professional code of conduct. Surprisingly, state laws regulating licensed behavior analysts were seldom used. Further research is needed on best practice instruction of ethical behavior for undergraduates pursuing the Board Certified (assistant)Behavior Analyst credential.
 
49. An Evaluation of a Component-Based Online and In-Person Self-Advocacy Skills Training Program Targeting Community College Students Accommodations Negotiation Skills
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Jeffrey Gordon (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Glen W. White (University of Kansas), KELSEY SHINNICK (The University of Kansas), Jean Ann Summers (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of an online and in-person self-advocacy skills training program. The training programs targeted four community college students with disabilities ability to negotiate American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) classroom accommodations. The online tutorial included knowledge and skills components. The knowledge component provided students with information about their rights and responsibilities as a consumer in need of classroom accommodations. The skills tutorial presented students with a task analysis of the accommodations negotiations skill set as well as video examples showing students engaged in the negotiation skills. The students knowledge was assessed using two multiple-choice assessments, while their skills were assessed using four, disability-specific role-play scenarios. The knowledge assessment results showed that the online knowledge tutorial increased the students understanding of their rights and responsibilities as a student with a disability in need of accommodations. The skills assessment findings suggested the skills tutorial was only marginally effective at increasing the students negotiation skills. The students unmastered skills were then trained during an in-person training session. The in-person training replicated White and Vo's (2006) direct instruction methodology, by: operationally defining and task analyzing each negotiation skill component, using role-play scenarios to practice and assess the students negotiation skills, and providing descriptive feedback. Results showed that the in-person training allowed each student to acquire the remaining, unmastered negotiation skills. Furthermore, students knowledge about their rights and responsibilities maintained at the levels observed after they completed the online tutorial. Generalization and maintenance was assessed one and three weeks after the in-person training using student created role-play scenarios based upon their own experiences. The generalization and maintenance assessments showed the students negotiation skills generalized to scenarios based upon their experiences and were maintained at levels slightly below the post-in-person training skills assessment. This evaluation showed that although the online training effectively increased the students knowledge and skills, a more targeted, in-person approach may be needed to help students master the negotiation skills and encourage skill generalization and maintenance.
 
50. Exploring The Relationship Between Procrastination and Committed Action
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID LEGASPI (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Andrea Mazo (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), RuthAnne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Procrastination is a concept that has gained attention. Gagnon, Dionne, & Pychyl, (2016) conducted preliminary research that suggested a relationship between committed action (goal setting) and procrastination by collecting self-report data using a globally validated procrastination scale (Steel, 2010). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) interacts with a person’s psychological flexibility described as the ability to contact the present moment by adapting in response to goals and values (Hayes et al., 2010). Committed action is one of six components of ACT and is concerned with actions taken that bring an individual closer to their values (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2011). It is suggested that we engineer the classroom environment to suit student performance (Bijou 1970). The present analysis is designed to explore the relationship that committed action workshop sessions have on levels of procrastination by evaluating the average time groups take to turn in weekly assignments and their responses across appropriate questionnaires pre/post experiment. Pilot data collected across two classrooms showed slight difference with control turn-in at 8.21 hours before deadline, and experimental turn-in being 6.75 hours. The current study will compare student performance in one classroom who are randomly assigned to a committed action or control group.
 
51. Application of Image Analysis as a Method for Measuring Undergraduates' Note-taking
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
MASAKO YOSHIOKA (Aichi University), Ken'ichi Fuji (Ritsumeikan University)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Although note-taking is as an important skill in learning in higher education, there is a paucity of methods that enable easy measurement of its physical dimensions (e.g., speed and length). To acquire such methods, we applied and examined ImageJ, a freeware for image analysis, as a method for measuring length of written letters. Written data were obtained from Yoshioka and Fuji (2015), which conducted real-time detection of hand-writing response in 11 undergraduates, who wrote 60 letters under different speed conditions with three pens. After scanning the written sheets, each average gray value was calculated with ImageJ. The length of letters was then estimated by fitting a regression equation to each average gray value. We used straight lines from 50 to 200 cm to obtain the equation. To assess the reliability of the method, the estimated lengths were compared with the lengths measured with a scale. The Pearsons r between them was higher than 0.95 and showed strong positive correlation. The relation between the estimated length and the participants writing speed was also analyzed. The results suggested the image analysis software and its techniques can provide a practical method to measure the length of written notes in postsecondary settings.
 
52. An Evaluation Of Bonus Point Contingencies For Homework Submissions In A College Class
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON ROSE BICKELMAN (Autism Behavior Intervention/Endicott College), Henry D. Schlinger (California State University, LA)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: One topic of interest in the field of applied behavior analysis is general education, particularly how to maximize student learning. Pertinent factors in the effectiveness of education are test scores, study habits, homework assignments, and how a course is structured. The college professor faces a more daunting task, as by the time a student has reached college, he or she has a long specific learning history in relation to how he or she studies and performs on tests and assignments. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate effectiveness of the delivery of bonus points on the submission of completed learning objectives. The participants were undergraduate students in 10-week psychology courses at California State University, Los Angeles. The effects of bonus points contingent upon the timely completion and submission of learning objectives were examined. Although results showed that bonus points did not function to increase the submission of learning objectives, these studies will potentially add to the behavior analytic literature on homework submission, study habits and applications to higher education.
 
53. An Examination of Contingencies to Promote Temporally Distributed Studying in College Students
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY N. FRAME (Savannah State Univeristy), Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: This study evaluates students' studying for chapter quizzes (CQs) using a multiple baseline design across individuals in two different undergraduate courses for students who are declared majors or minors in behavior analysis at an HBCU in the southeastern United States. Studying was defined as accessing online practice quizzes (PQs) prior to completing a required CQ, which was administered online in class. The PQs were administered under two different conditions. During the first condition, one new PQ became available per day over five consecutive days, and students could complete each PQ an unlimited number of times until one-half hour before the CQ. The second condition was the same as the first in terms of PQ availability but added a contingency for accessing the PQs. Specifically, students could access the first PQ for each chapter as soon as it became available, but access to each subsequent PQ for the chapter was contingent upon the student completing at least one attempt on each of the previous PQs for that chapter. Data were collected on latency to complete PQs, frequency of PQ completion, and grades on the corresponding CQs.
 
54. Badges, Competency, and Online Courses: How Course Design Contingencies Influence Student Performance
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
VERONICA J. HOWARD (University of Alaska Anchorage), T Endes (University of Alaska)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: The gamification of higher education has become more popular in mainstream pedagogy; badges specifically have been touted as one effective strategy for improving student performance and motivation. However, most research on gamification has been supported using non-objective, self-report measures. Alternatively, personalized systems of instruction require a learner to demonstrate minimum competency before advancing to later course materials and have produced robust improvement in student learning, but this approach has not been widely adopted in higher education. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of badging, required minimum competency, or a standard online course preparation on student performance, satisfaction, and course completion. Results indicate that students who earned badges earned the highest average quiz score for most weeks, submitted practice activities and quizzes earlier, earned higher midterm exam scores, and rated the class most favorably of all three groups. Students who were required to demonstrate competency before moving on earned the next highest scores on practice activities and quizzes. Students who received neither badges nor required minimum competency earned the lowest average practice activity, quiz, and midterm exam scores, and rated the class most unfavorably of all three groups. Implications for course design will be discussed.
 
55. Student Choice of Instructional Methods on Student Outcomes
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
SAM BLANCO (Sage Colleges/Endicott College), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: Several researchers have suggested that web-based instruction offers the opportunity for students to have more choice in instructional content and methods, which may have a larger impact on student outcomes (Jarboe, Raman, Brumm, Martin, & McLeod, 2016; Price, Whitlatch, Maier, Burdi, & Peacock, 2016; Sitzmann, Kraiger, Stewart, & Wisher, 2006;). There is however, little empirical evidence that choice directly affects outcome measures on student performance. As such, this research projects was designed to assess the impact of student choice of instructional methods on student outcomes. Participants included students pursuing their Masters degrees in Special Education who had not been exposed to functional assessment methods. Participants were exposed to different conditions: video lecture, independent reading, or choice in instructional delivery to evaluate student outcomes when choice is provided. Students were also assessed as to their preferred method of learning and results were analyzed compared to their actual performance.
 
56. A Comparison of Interteaching and Lecture-Based Instruction in a Graduate-Level Course
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CAMERON MITTELMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jessica Gamba (Pipio Academy), Jennifer Klapatch Totsch (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: Interteaching is a flexible instructional approach that combines components of effective behavior-analytic teaching methods with many aspects of traditional lecture-style teaching. Key components of interteaching include the completion of student prep guides, paired discussion of the content from required readings, brief clarification lectures, and frequent assessment. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of lecture-based instruction and interteaching on weekly quiz scores without the use of a “quality points” contingency. Participants included 24 Masters-level graduate students across two sections of a 14-week Assessment and Intervention course. Results show that there was little differentiation between scores on interteaching quizzes and scores on lecture quizzes, with almost all participants performing well on the quizzes regardless of instructional format. These findings are consistent with previous research demonstrating the effectiveness of interteaching as an instructional method, though they are contrast the previous findings that participants perform better on assessments of material presented in an interteaching format. Possible variables that may account for these findings are described, as well as implications for future research.
 
57. Using SAFMEDS Instruction Combined With Precision Teaching Measurement As An Alternative Formative Assessment Approach For Building Content Fluency In University Coursework:Three Years of Classwide Data
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (The University of South Dakota), Monica K. Iverson (University of South Dakota), Abigail Wiebers (University of South Dakota), Jennifer Jorgensen (University of South Dakota)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: The perspective of this project was to implement SAFMEDS procedures as a means of teaching college level students to recognize important concepts related to instruction covered in a curriculum-based assessment/Precision Teaching course. This demonstration project evaluated the effectiveness of SAFMEDS on the classwide acquisition and fluency of basic concepts in curriculum-based assessment/Precision Teaching course. SAFMEDS, an acronym for "Say All Fast a Minute Each Day Shuffle," was coined by Lindsley (1983) as a functional flashcard procedure for building large repertoires of sight words in a given content area. Second, the instructor wanted to take advantage of the opportunity to model the importance of frequent and daily measurement of curriculum through the use of the SAFMEDS procedure with the class. Three university classes, across three consecutive years, with 41, 33, and 42 students respectively, participated in this research. Two individual students from the latter class display their individual data and describe the importance of utilizing their data for making instructional changes. The students in the class completed three decks of SAMFEDS across a 10-week period with an instructional aim of 40+ SAFMEDS flashcard correctly identified during a series of one-minute timing. Results from this study replicated the SAFMEDS data paths across three classes and seven decks of SAFMEDS. The monitoring of this procedure, by the instructor on a classwide basis and by the students managing their daily data, was used to determine whether the SAFMEDS procedures was effective for improving the acquisition of key concepts imbedded with in the curriculum of the Precision Teaching and informal assessment course. Additionally, this daily in class probing of students' performance was a means of modeling appropriate implementation, recording, charting, and evaluation of students' learning pictures. The consistent pattern of celerating data seemed to indicate that this was an effective instructional strategy for the class as a whole. Implications and limitations of the current study were also discussed.
 
58. Changing a Paraprofessional's Praise Rate in the Classroom
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA LYNN THORNTON (Western Michigan University), Andrew Bulla (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: A teachers use of praise is beneficial for students as it provides encouragement, helps build self-esteem, builds a close student-teacher relationship, and reduces the amount of disruptive behavior in the classroom (Brophy, 1981; Alber & Heward, 1997). In the current study, praise rates of one paraprofessional who worked primarily in general and special education settings for students with autism spectrum disorder in an elementary school were measured. The teacher approached the researcher due to a concern of low praise rates coming from the paraprofessional in the classroom. A reversal design was used for this study to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Baseline measures indicated that the paraprofessionals praise was occurring at very low rates. During intervention, a MotivAider was used to prompt the paraprofessional to deliver praise to the students for engaging in appropriate behaviors. Results of the intervention, barriers to implementation, and areas of future research will be discussed.
 
59. Urban Model to Facilitate Transition of Typically Developing Children From Preschool to Elementary School
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAL HIRSCHMANN (Kibbutzim College), nitza bublil (Mati PT)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: In the city of Petah Tikva there are 300 kindergarten programs for typically developing children. Decision was made to start behavioral interventions in Kindergarten to improve the transition process to elementary school. The main goal of this proposed model is to train the vast majority of preschool teachers to implement behavioral plans within to reduce problem behavior and teach study habits. The plan provides continuing education courses for preschool teachers in basic principles of Applied Behavior Analysis, and classroom management. It also includes weekly hands on training in implementing provided by a behavior analyst. In addition, peer tutoring is available by Kindergarten teachers who successfully graduated training. The model weaves values and skills such as cooperation with the teacher, adhering to rules and routines, dealing with demand and more. into the kindergarten curriculum using a hierarchy of successive progressions. These goals are achieved by reinforcing target behaviors in planned games, providing opportunities in daily routines, and arbitrary appearance. The intervention includes a structured plan to reinforce the success of the children. Data suggests decrease in problem behavior and increase in target behaviors in preschool.
 
60. Building Capacity for Educators to Complete Comprehensive Functional Behavior Assessments: A Pilot Project
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
LACY KNUTSON (Center for Disabilities; Sanford School of Medicine; University of South Dakota), Pamela G. Osnes (Private practice), Cora Lee Alley (Black Hills Special Services Cooperative), Jennifer Negrette (Black Hills Special Services Cooperative), Connie Tucker (Black Hills Special Services Cooperative), Ronda Feterl (Black Hills Special Services Cooperative), Jill Hibbard (Black Hills Special Services Cooperative)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: To meet the increasing need to address student challenging behaviors displayed in the classroom, a collaborative pilot project was developed to assist in building local capacity to functionally assess and develop individualized support plans. Since the start of the program, a total of 91 educators, representing a variety of disciplines participated in the project. During the first year, 15 multi-disciplinary teams participated in a traditional workshop model training with an embedded application period between workshop dates. Workshop content focused on behavioral principles, data collection, and the process of conducting Functional Behavior Assessments (FBAs) as a team. During the second year, each component of the assessment process and plan development are covered in greater depth using an online module-based format. Following a behavioral skills training model of instruction, each month participants focus on a component of the assessment and planning process through participation in a webinar, related assignments and coaching activities. Pre-post test results from the first year indicate consistent increases in content knowledge and emerging skill generalization. Preliminary results from the second year (currently ongoing), indicate increases in content knowledge and direct application of skill into practice. Responses to the satisfaction questionnaires indicate the social acceptability of the program.
 
61. Incorporating Single-Case Research Design Into a School-Based Response to Intervention System: Literacy Intervention Effects Across Diverse Learners With Varying English Language Proficiency Levels
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JOCELYN KUHN (University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: To support literacy and language skill development for all students, it is critical to develop a body of evidence-based literacy intervention research that more comprehensively considers diverse learner characteristics. In contribution to this body of literature, the present study examined the effectiveness of an early literacy intervention program with culturally and linguistically diverse elementary students in an applied elementary school setting. Within a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework, participants were recruited based on indicators of high academic risk displayed during the participating school's Fall universal literacy screening process. Unlike previous research in this area, which has primarily treated English language learners as a homogeneous group, this study evaluates intervention outcomes across the participants' continuum of English language proficiency (ELP) levels. The student participants were categorized into three cohorts of three to five students with similar ELP levels. Each cohort was introduced to the intervention following a randomized multiple baseline single case research design across participants. The early literacy intervention, Sound Partners, was delivered individually to each participant. Measures of letter sound fluency (LSF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and nonsense word fluency (NWF) were administered weekly to continually monitor the student responses to the intervention across baseline and intervention phases. Overall, the results indicated clinically significant growth for all students. Based on visual analysis and statistical analysis results, the areas and magnitude of growth and responses to the intervention differed between the three ELP-based cohorts. Notably, there were PSF intervention effects in the low ELP cohort and LSF intervention effects in the high ELP cohort. Implications for valid use of RTI with linguistically diverse learners and the need for future single-case research to expand knowledge and improve practices in this area are discussed.
 
62. Programmed Instruction: effects of frequency of feedback on performance in online courses
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
REBECA MATEOS MORFIN MORFÍN (Universidad de Guadalajara, Instituto de Gestión del Conocimiento y del Aprendizaje en Ambientes Virtuales ), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e investigaciones en Comportamiento)
Discussant: Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: Programmed Instruction came out of the work of B. F. Skinner in 1953 whit the creation of teaching machine (Vargas, 2014). Some studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of programmed instruction (e.g., Ninness, Dixon, Barnes-Holmes, Rehfeldt, Rumph, McCuller, et al. 2009; Davis & Bostow, 2007). Feedback is a relevant variable in programmed instruction, some studies have reported that the effect on learning depends on the frequency of feedback (immediate or delayed) (e.g., Butler, Karpicke & Roediger, 2007; Villanueva, Mateos & Flores, 2008). The present study evaluated the effects of the continuous vs partial feedback on perfomance in posgraduate students during a online course.The perfomance was higher for continuous feedback group than the partial feedback group. The results are discussed in relation to the contribution of programmed instruction to online education and future directions for research.
 

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