Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #92
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Diversity submission 86.

The Current Status of African Americans Within the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis

Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAWN CAPELL (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health; Covenant 15:16 LLC )
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract:

Cultural competency and diversity are topics within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis that are actively being built upon due to the current state or lack thereof, in the science. African Americans are by far underrepresented within the ranks of Board Certified Behavior Analysts and to effectively address this problem we must first identify potential causes across all settings of the field. The purpose of this poster will be to extend the conversations started from the author of a recent blog post, who directly spoke to the issues with respect to cultural competency. This poster will present a critical analysis of the current status of African Americans within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis and identify solutions to address areas of concern. This may serve as a foundation for a new approach to handling issues of diversity within the promotion, dissemination and advancement of the science of Applied Behavior Analysis specific to African American populations.

 
87. Social Validity of Community-Based Behavioural Services Provided Through Jordan’s Principle
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHARINE KALINOWSKI (University of Manitoba; Manitoba Association for Behaviour Analysis; St.Amant Research Centre), Toby L. Martin (St.Amant Research Centre, University of Manitoba), Carly Cressman (University of Manitoba, St.Amant Research Centre)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: From a Canadian human rights perspective, all Canadians should have equal qualities and levels of healthcare. This has not always been the case, especially with First Nations Peoples in Canada, as the death of Jordan River Anderson illustrated. In response to this gap in services, the Jordan’s Principle – Child First Initiative was created to provide First Nations Children with increased access to adequate healthcare. The present study assessed the acceptability and social validity of Jordan’s Principle behaviour services by analyzing anonymous survey data collected as a quality assurance measure by a community-based service provider. Three respondent groups were surveyed using three unique questionnaires to measure satisfaction with current Jordan’s Principle services. A total of 48 responses across all respondent groups were analyzed for within-group and between-group differences, and inferential statistics were used to determine the relationship between satisfaction and respondent group. Grounded theory was used to qualitatively analyze open-ended responses. Research findings informed the service provider of the quality of the services, and may ultimately increase the quality of life of individuals served by similar endeavours. Results indicated that the respondent groups were highly satisfied with current services, which is a promising outcome for service providers and service funders.
 
88. Review of Strategies to Teach Safety Skills to Children
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTNEY MATHURA SURESHKUMAR (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: Unintentional injuries are among the most under-recognized health threats to children in both the United States and Canada (Peden et al., 2008). Globally, unintentional child injuries result in approximately 2,000 daily deaths in children under the age of 14 years (Sleet, 2018). The leading causes of injury include drowning, falls, fires, transportation, poisonings, abduction, and gun play (Borse et al., 2008). Given the prevalence of child mortality due to unsafe situations, it is critical that we identify the most effective and efficient procedure(s) to teach children how to perform safety skills in dangerous situations (Miltenberger et al., 2015; Summers et al., 2011). Behavioral skills training and in situ training are the most commonly studied instructional strategies when teaching safety skills. Additional, albeit less studied, strategies include visual cues, comic strip conversations, social stories, role playing, and video-modelling. In this poster, we will review the current literature regarding strategies to teach safety skills to children and offer directions for future research.
 
89. Child Passenger Safety Restraint Installation: A Review
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
AREZU ALAMI (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: Child passenger safety restraints (CPSR) consist of a variety of portable seats that are used to secure infants and children in motor vehicles. Recent statistics in Canada and the United States show that more than 2,000 and 250,000 children between the ages of 1 and 4 years respectively, are injured or killed as a result of motor vehicle collisions (Transport Canada, 2017; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2017). Injuries and fatalities may be reduced by as a much as 71% with the use of a CPSR (Kahane, 2015). Unfortunately, researchers have found that over 70% of CPSRs were installed incorrectly (Elliott, Kallan, Durbin, & Winston, 2006). To date, 6 studies have examined various strategies to teach the correct installation of a CPSR; 5 of these studies used multi-component treatment packages. Because each of these studies incorporated different treatment components, it is impossible to identify the most effective and efficient treatment package to teach correct CPSR installation. In this poster, we will examine the current literature on the installation of CPSR, discuss procedural variations across studies, and provide directions for future research.
 
90. The Possible Effects of Defendant Background Information on Juror Decision Making
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
ELIZABEHT GENNARI CROSBY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: There are many variables which may affect an individual’s decision to rule that a defendant is innocent or guilty beyond the evidence that is provided during a trial. This review will present some of these variables and propose future research ideas which may help to identify some of these variables. For example, by engaging in mock trials, it may possible to affect juror’s decision making by varying the amount and type of background information provided about the defendant. The background information may include facts such as: socioeconomic class, childhood trauma, developmental age, race, affiliations, and diagnoses. It is possible that some of these variables will have stronger effects than others based on similarity to the participant, among other factors such as guilt over perceived self-privilege. It is hypothesized that there will be a significant difference in the decision making of a verdict based on the availability of this information beyond the specific evidence within the trial.
 
91. Members of Graffiti Culture on Social Media: An Evaluative Study Toward Political Issues
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
NAYARA GOIS (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Lucas Couto de Carvalho (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Gunnar Ree (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: Political activists promote or simply engage in certain practices that contributes to the cause for which they are advocating. The practice of graffiti is a youth subculture that has been investigated in the social sciences and may be characterized as one form of activism or resistance movement. This research analyzed posting practices of graffiti pages on Instagram in the months of September, October and November 2018 to evaluate how members of graffiti culture from Brazil act towards political issues using the social media. These months were chosen because of the proximity to the Brazilian Presidential election (October 2018). 46 graffiti profiles were included in the analysis. Posts on those profiles had to be photos and videos depicting written tags or drawings made on walls, cars, bus, trains and buildings (i.e., public spaces). The results reveal that most posts in those months were about graffiti issues and not particularly about politics or politicians. However, data show that mean political posts increased from September to October (the month of the election) and decreased from October to November. Moreover, September and November showed similar averages on political posts. This suggests that posting about politics was under control of political context in that specific moment, i.e., the presidential elections.
 
92.

Disparities in Autism Diagnosis and Early Intervention

Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURA HOWENSTINE (University of Alabama)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract:

Disparities in health care have received much national attention recently, but few studies have focused on disparities among young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Early interventions in children with ASD improve outcomes. Although all young children with ASD are eligible to receive early intervention (EI) services, 51-60% do not. Study goals were to determine which demographic and psychosocial characteristics are associated with early diagnosis and utilization of services. Data was sourced from The National Survey of Children’s Health (2018) and then Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis (2011) and Services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in age at diagnosis and utilization of early intervention services. Significant racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist in the recognition and diagnosis of ASD. The analyses suggest that children of low SES face considerable challenges in receiving early intervention services. Eliminating disparities requires systemic efforts to promote health equity, social planning, and policy change.

 
93. Behavioural Economic Analysis of Demand for Regulation of Behaviour Analysts in Ontario to Inform Public Policy
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ALBERT MALKIN (Brock University; Southern Illinois University), Karl Gunnarsson (Southern Illinois University Carbondale; West Park Healthcare Centre), Kendra Thomson (Brock University )
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: The Ontario, Canada provincial government has announced their intent to regulate the field of behaviour analysis in the province. Regulated health professions require fees to operate a regulatory body, which implies that professionals interested in participating in the field must pay fees to do so. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the price elasticity of potential fees related to participating in a regulated health profession by behaviour analysts in Ontario. Data was gathered using hypothetical purchase task, using an online survey platform (Qualtrics), and analyzed using the exponentiated model of demand. Participants included 91 behavioural practitioners, who indicated that they were residents of Ontario. The findings indicate that participants’ Pmax value was $1106.74 at the aggregate level. However, when the Pmax was calculated for each individual participant, the median Pmax was $500. Implications of the findings indicate that uptake of participation in a future regulatory body is dependent on annual costs incurred by practitioners in Ontario.
 
94. Acquisition of social behavior of school children with child abuse
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ESPERANZA FERRANT-JIMENEZ (University of Veracruz), Liliana YEPEZ OLVERA (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate an Intervention Program in Applied Behavioral Analysis techniques to decrease the aggressive behavior of children with child abuse. The program emphasized the development of social skills and the use of a tokens economy system to increase social behaviors and indirectly decrease aggressive behaviors. Five children of both sexes, between eight and thirteen years of age of an elementary school participated in the study. A baseline design, intervention phase and follow-up phase were used. The intervention program was designed for children to develop empathy, assertiveness and solution of aggressiveness problems. The results suggest that the application of a program that increases skills that promote social interaction can contribute to the decrease of aggressive behaviors
 
95. Application of Behavior Analysis to Address Risk Factors in the Juvenile Justice Population
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
VANESSA BETHEA-MILLER (Bethea-Miller Behavioral Consulting)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: Juvenile delinquency continues to be a socially significant problem for society. Historically, juvenile offenders are punished with residential placement, heavy monitoring, etc. Reliance on these measures results in public monies being spent on detention centers, probation services, etc.; however, there is no research to support these systems. There are also various risk factors associated with juvenile offending behavior that has been documented through the research. Through addressing risk factors, juvenile offending behavior can be prevented and recidivism can be decreased. One approach with substantial research of its effects in other populations is behavior analysis. Behavior analysis can contribute to the juvenile justice population in various ways which align with the dimensions originally described by Baer, Wolf, & Risley (1968).
 
96. Depicting Resident and Staff Time Distribution in a Juvenile Residential Facility
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY NICOLE ANDERSON (Auburn University ), Odessa Luna (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University)
Discussant: Diana J. Walker (Visions LLC)
Abstract: One well-established quantitative model, the ideal free distribution, purposes that the number of individuals aggregated at a particular location will be proportional to the resources available in each location. When we consider the unique settings in which a behavior analyst may have to assess and treat groups of behaving individuals, it may be worthwhile to understand how time is allocated amongst different locations. This is particularly significant in detention dormitories where residents may engage in disruptive behavior if a range of activities are unavailable. The purpose of the current study is to use momentary time-sampling to describe how residents and staff in two dormitories housing adjudicated adolescents allocate their time (i.e., physical location) and what activities are available. We collected data during 30-min leisure periods in which at least 1 staff member and 5 residents were present. Before the session, we recorded the locations and activities of the organically formed groups. Every 60-s, researchers would count how many residents and staff were at any given location in the presence or absence of leisure materials. Generally, there were a limited number of activities that fostered engagement between staff and residents as well as a lack of skill building activities.
 
 

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