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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #63
Saturday, May 27, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
PRA
Chair: John M. Guercio (Benchmark Human Services)
98. An Analysis of the Ethical Infractions Resolved by the BACB
Domain: Service Delivery
Jonathan K Fernand (University of Florida), HYPATIA A BOLIVAR (University of Florida), David J. Cox (University of Florida), Sarah Mathison (Florida Autism Center), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Abstract: It is crucial to study the ethical behavior of practicing behavior analysts, but this is a difficult endeavor for many reasons. However, capitalizing on existing sources of data may be one way to identify areas of both concern and progress. The Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) regularly updates standards of conduct and also collects and reports data on resolved violations of its standards. Despite the fact that data since 2001 are publically available, no descriptive or empirical studies of committed violations have been published. We examined the frequency and types of Disciplinary Standards and Compliance Code violations resolved by the BACB between 2001-2015 by extracting data from the BACB website. These descriptive data indicate misrepresentation and unauthorized use of BACB materials (standard 3) and negligence (standard 6) were the most common violations. Nonetheless, violations of the Code appeared to be infrequent overall relative to the total number of certificants in these years. Limitations and data interpretation issues are presented in addition to suggestions for future research and potential modifications to workplace and educational practices.
 
99. Using Multiple Examplars and Video Modeling to Support Stimulus Generalization of Play Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REGINA M. SYMONS (Beacon Services of CT), Kara Reagon (Beacon Services of Connecticut), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Abstract: Previous studies indicate children with autism are less likely than typically to engage in novel pretend play and often have difficulty generalizing play skills to novel stimuli (Stokes and Baer, 1977; Reagon et. al., 2006; Goldstein and Mousetis, 1989). The purpose of this study was to systematically examine to what degree of generalization occurs, with novel characters in a natural play setting after explicit instruction and to support increased generalization using multiple exemplars. The participant is a seven year old boy diagnosed with Autism. He was taught three play actions and three play comments using one character with a play set. Video modeling, most to least manual guidance and textual prompts were used to teach the play script for this participant. Probes were conducted with novel characters and play sets to determine if increased engagement, novel play action and comments occur. Once independence with the play script was achieved, a probe with a novel character was conducted to test for generalization. The results show the number of examplars taught of characters required to achieve stimulus generalization. A multiple probe design across play sets was used to demonstrate experimental control.
 
100. FCT for Positive Reinforcement versus Negative Reinforcement in a Young Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH JACQUELINE FRANTZ (University of Iowa), Kristy DePalma (University of Iowa), Lexy Rozmus (University of Iowa), Jiaju Wu (University of Iowa), Jessica Emily Graber (The University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Abstract: One of the most common treatments for problem behavior in children with autism is functional communication training (FCT; Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008). In replacing problem behavior with an adaptive communication modality, the function(s) of such behavior determine what the child will mand for. However, when problem behavior functions for both positive and negative reinforcement, it may be difficult to determine which form of reinforcement to target. In this case study, researchers first conducted a functional analysis to evaluate the function of the participant’s problem behavior. The functional analysis yielded two functions maintained problem behavior: escape and tangible. Therefore, FCT could be utilized for either positive or negative reinforcement for the participant. The effects of FCT for positive reinforcement (e.g., edible items, toys, play) and negative reinforcement (e.g., break from work) were compared for a young child with autism. The results showed different treatment effects. The results and implications for future research are discussed.
 
101. Use of Novel Reinforcement for the Treatment of Pica
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXA KALMBACH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Cara L. Phillips (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kathleen McCarthy (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Allen Porter (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Abstract: Pica is a potentially life-threatening problem behavior consisting of individuals ingesting non-edible items. The purpose of this study was to determine a treatment which decreased rates of pica with an 11 year old male. Initially a punishment procedure was conducted during which a mint flavored dry mouth spray was sprayed into the participant’s mouth contingent on pica. However, this resulted in increased rates of pica, indicating the mouth spray might be effective as a reinforcer. Therefore, a non-resetting differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) treatment was introduced, with the spray functioning as the reinforcer. In addition, loss was signaled with a visual stimulus, such that if the participant engaged in pica, the therapist told him that he lost the mouth spray and held up a red card with an “X” on it until the DRO interval was over. This treatment was successful in reducing the participant’s rates of pica across many environments and this was replicated by conducting multiple reversals. With this treatment in place, an 86.23% reduction in rates of pica was observed.
 
102. A Comparison of Results from Three Instruments to Develop Hypothesis Regarding Function of Problematic Behaviors
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA DUNHAM (Beacon ABA Services), Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services), Jennifer Smith (Beacon ABA Services), Sue A. Rapoza-Houle Rapoza (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Abstract: The current research aimed to compare results from three instruments used to develop hypothesis regarding function of problematic behavior: Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST), Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS), and the Beacon Consequence Analysis Form – BCAF. Possible functions were categorized into attention, escape, tangible, and sensory. Data obtained from 18 parents of children under 8 years of age diagnosed with ASD were compared and the data demonstrate inconsistent identification of possible function. Data from 12 children whose function of problematic behaviors were later confirmed by a trial-based or free-operant functional analysis were then compared to those results of the instruments and rates of hits, correct rejection, misses, and false alarms calculated. The results supported the use of the BCAF which had the highest rates of hits (100%) and correct rejections (93.3%) and lowest rates of misses (0%) and false alarms (6.7%) to raise hypothesis regarding potential function. While researchers and clinicians use the FAST and MAS as a simple way to raise hypothesis, such use can be problematic given that (1) the instruments fails to include the actual function as part of the hypothesis (miss) and (2) does not filter enough possibilities (high rates of false alarms).
 
103. Preliminary Analysis of a Survey Evaluating Applied Behavior Analysts' Knowledge and Use of Evidence-Based Practices
Domain: Applied Research
JAMES J. FOX (East Tennessee State University), Mary Annette Little (Lipscomb University), Seth King (Tennessee Technological University)
Discussant: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Abstract: This poster presents development and pilot-testing of an electronic survey evaluating behavior analysts perceptions and use of Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs). Demographic information, ratings of quality indicators (Horner et al 2005) in evaluating and choosing behavior interventions, and resources identifying EBPs were assessed. Fourteen graduate trainees in a behavior analysis certification program were participants. Test-retest intra-rater agreement was assessed approximately 2 weeks apart and varied considerably across survey items. Overall exact agreement was 71 % while agreement within 1 rating point was 91 %. The most highly rated quality indicators were clear descriptions of baseline and intervention conditions, measures of inter-observer agreement, and repeated measures of target behaviors. Lowest rated were group experimental designs, statistical analyses, and numbers of participants. Surprisingly, multiple studies with 20+ participants, integrated intervention packages, and written intervention manuals were not as highly rated. Most frequently reported EBP sources were professional society websites, university courses, practitioner journals, and professional peer-reviewed journals. Least frequently reported were webinars by private entities, non-peer-reviewed journals, and government websites (e.g., What Works Clearing House). Participants identified time constraints, difficulty finding research relevant to their current situation and technical rather than practical nature of research as impediments to keeping current with EBPs.
 
104. The Effects of Electronic Data Collection, Immediate Graphic Feedback, and Automated Scheduled Prompts on Data Collection Adherence
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CODY MORRIS (Western Michigan University ), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: While data are essential to behavior analysis, collecting the type of data that behavior analysts often require can be a labor-intensive and time-consuming task. There have been many attempts to reduce the amount of time and effort required to collect behavioral data; most recently research in this area has been focused on computerized or electronic ways to do this. While electronic data collection seems to be gaining popularity within applied behavior analysis, many obstacles still exist. The purpose of this project was to design a data collection system that was cost-efficient, adaptable, easy to use, and effective at increasing data collection adherence. This study used a customized data spreadsheet with embedded immediate graphic feedback using the Microsoft Excel app and automatic scheduled prompts using a calendar app. This study used an A-B design to examine the effects of an electronic data sheet, immediate graphic feedback, and automated scheduled prompts on data collection adherence.
 
105. A Descriptive Assessment of Behavior in an Assisted Living Facility
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
SARA POSEY (Jacksonville State University), Jennifer Lynne Bruzek (Jacksonville State University), Makenzie Williams Bayles (Jacksonville State University), Megan Ford (Jacksonville State University)
Discussant: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Researchers have reported that, despite the call for more research in one of the fields flagship journals, there is still a dearth of behavioral research addressing issues commonly exhibited by the aging population, especially among those diagnosed with dementia. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive assessment at a local assisted-living facility in an attempt to identify behaviors and probable environmental correlates among this population. To date, 8 participants, diagnosed with dementia, who reside in the assisted-living facility, have participated. We collected data on antecedent events (e.g., low attention), resident behaviors (e.g., bizarre speech, socially appropriate interactions), and consequent events (e.g., delivery of attention). Data were analyzed using conditional and response-independent probabilities in the presence and absence of potential establishing operations (EOs). A second observer scored 34% of sessions (mean interobserver agreement was 98%). Problem behavior occurred less frequently than appropriate behavior and was less likely to be followed by attention or materials. Moreover, when considering potential EOs for problem behavior, we found that the response-independent probability of attention and materials was higher than the conditional probability. These findings will be discussed as a potential model for this population. Limitations regarding lack of demands/instructions and facility policy will also be addressed.
 
106. Analysis of Response Class Hierarchies in Pediatric Food Refusal
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEARA MCMAHON (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Multicomponent treatment packages used to treat pediatric food refusal often consist of multiple procedures that may be cumbersome to implement (e.g., Werle, Murphy, & Budd, 1993). Cooper et al. (1995) conducted a component analysis to identify the necessary variables within pre-established treatment packages. Posttreatment component analyses allowed for removal of non-necessary procedures from treatment packages. While this approach can lead to simplified treatment packages, one advantage to sequential introduction of treatment components may be that more intrusive procedures can be avoided if less intrusive procedures are effective. In the present study, the sequential introduction of treatment components to treat multiple topographies of inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) were evaluated using a multielement design with embedded reversals for 2 children. Additional analyses were conducted to determine if topographies were members of a response class and/or hierarchically related. Response covariation was observed and a response latency analysis demonstrated that IMB and expulsion were more likely to occur first if untreated. Results suggest IMB, expulsion and packing may be members of the same response class and may require additional treatment components to increase food consumption.
 
107. Teaching Appropriate Play routines Through Video Modeling as a Non-aversive Method for the Treatment of Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH ROBITAILLE (Beacon ABA Services), Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services), Jennifer Smith (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Restrictive and repetitive behaviors (e.g., stereotypy) are one component of the diagnostic criteria observed on children with autism as it is widely known to impacts the teaching and development of communication, socialization, play, and adaptive behaviors. Among the most common treatment procedures is the response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure that involves the addition of topographically incompatible response requirement that results in a reduction in rates of those repetitive patterns. The goal of the present research was to develop an alternative to this punishment procedure that focus on the acquisition of appropriate routines that do not include repetitive patterns and that promote generalization. One participant was taught three new 1-min play routines using different play materials using video modeling procedures. Following acquisition of target skills, stereotypy was measured during the 1-min and an additional 9 minutes of access to those activities. Results showed that acquisition of appropriate play skills reduced the rates of stereotypy and that its effects extended beyond the 1-min directly trained. Procedures that teaching appropriate routines and that generalize without the use of punishment should be considered as an alternative to RIRD.
 
108. Using a Visual Structured Criterion for the Analysis of Multielement Designs in Practical Settings
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
MARC J. LANOVAZ (Université de Montréal), Mary Francis (Université de Montréal), Patrick Cardinal (École de Technologie Supérieure)
Discussant: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Multielement designs have been widely adopted by behavior analysts to assess and compare the effects of interventions in practical settings. However, researchers have shown that the lack of agreement between raters remains an issue that may seriously compromise the validity of the visual analysis of these designs. One potential solution is to develop structured aids to support researchers and practitioners in their visual analysis. Thus, the purpose of our study was to develop and examine the properties of a simple structured criterion to supplement the visual analysis of multielement designs. To this end, we generated nearly 8 million simulated datasets with differing effect sizes, autocorrelations and number of points, and then measured type I error rates and power produced by our visual structured criterion (VSC) and permutation analyses. Our results indicated that the properties of the VSC were adequate to supplement the analysis of multielement designs with higher autocorrelations being associated with less type I errors and more power.
 
109. Behavior Analysis in Sport Psychology as it Applies to Swimming Practices
Domain: Theory
MICHELLE FORMAN (University of Nevada, Reno), Vittawat Sriphong-Ngarm (University of Nevada, Reno), Melia Shamblin (University of Nevada, Reno), Neal Falletta-Cowden (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: A review of behavior analysis within the area of sport psychology bares a respectable foothold in past and current-day research. The research has been in practice since the first study into behavioral applications for athletic improvement in 1972. While behavior-based sport psychology research is on the rise in certain sports, there remains a necessity to bring more current behavioral practices to the neglected areas within the field of sport psychology. Both competitive and non-competitive swimming are two such neglected fields in behavioral-based research. While there has been a variety of studies which looked at improving swimming stroke proficiency, few target collegiate-level swimmers. An overview of published articles to-date on behavioral based practices into the field of swimming yielded few results.
 

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