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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #250
Sunday, May 28, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
OBM
Chair: Todd A. Ward (bSci21 Media, LLC)
81. Behavioral Momentum in Hierarchical and Non-hierarchical Organization
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
SARTHAK GIRI (Dare Association), Saranya Ramakrishnan (Harvard T.H. Chan School of public health), Kyra Gan (Smith College)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether change and innovation is more easily brought about in non-hierarchical organization than in hierarchical organization. The paper will only focus on how behavioral momentum negatively affects organizational change and innovation. Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. Based on a mathematical formula derived from Behavioral Momentum Theory, the paper explores how new ideas spread within a company. How new ideas spread within an organization is indicative of how easily change occurs and how innovative a company is.
 
82. Effects of Restricted vs Unrestricted Communication on Team Performance Under Various Incentive Arrangements
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW NOVAK (University of Kansas), Amy J. Henley (The University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas), Peter G. Roma (Institutes for Behavior Resources; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of restricted vs unrestricted intra-team communication on performance in a computerized task. Participants scored points by clicking on a resource block and dragging it across a field into a target zone. Hidden barriers were randomly located throughout the field. Participants earned one point for each block scored and lost one point if a block contacted a barrier. Each participant was assigned three barriers that only s/he could see; participants could reveal a barrier to teammates as desired. Thus, participants could allocate time toward scoring points or assisting teammates. Three-person teams were assigned to an unrestricted (communication allowed throughout the experiment) or restricted (no communication allowed during trials) condition. Teams completed the task in 3-min trials for one of three monetary incentives presented in a pseudo-random order: (a) fixed incentive, where each member earns $1.00 independent of performance; (b) individual incentive, where each team member earns $0.10 per point for his/her respective score; and (c) collective incentive, where all members points are summed, multiplied by $0.10, and divided equally amongst the team. Relative to the restricted communication group, participants in the unrestricted communication group scored more points and revealed more barriers across all incentive types.
 
83. The Relative Effects of Different Feedback Contents on Eco-Driving Performance
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
HANGSOO CHO (Chung-Ang University), Kyehoon Lee (Chung-Ang University ), Rudia Na (Chang-Ang University ), GaEun Roh (Chung-Ang University ), Shezeen Oah (Chung-Ang University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effects of different feedback contents (objective and objective plus social comparison) on fuel-efficiency. Three participants who were driving their cars regularly were recruited. As the dependent variable, fuel-efficiency for each participant was measured five days a week, Monday through Friday. After baseline phase (A), objective feedback (B) was introduced, then social comparison feedback was added in the next phase (C). In the objective feedback condition, the fuel-efficiency for each day was measured and the average fuel efficiency for two consecutive days was informed to each participant using text messages. In the objective plus social comparison feedback condition, the average fuel-efficiency for two consecutive days for all participants was ranked, and both the rank score and the average fuel efficiency were provided to each participant using text messages. The results indicated that objective feedback was effective in increasing fuel efficiency. Furthermore, fuel efficiency increased further when both objective and social comparison feedback was introduced.
 
84. Effects of Feedback to Managers on Rate of Safety Related Interactions and Employees' Unsafe Acts: A Replication
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
GARRETT WARRILOW (Western Michigan University), Sarah Byrne (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: Feedback has long remained one of the most common organizational approaches for improving employee performance, fostering learning and development, and enhancing job satisfaction (Andiola, 2014; Baker, Perreault, Reid, & Blanchard, 2013; Mulder & Ellinger, 2013). Using feedback to improve employee safety performance is not a unique application as demonstrated by Zohar and Luria’s (2003) use of feedback as an indirect approach to improve safety behaviors in employees. By giving feedback to supervisors about their rate of safety-related interactions with employees, Zohar and Luria were able to demonstrate consistent decreases in the rate of unsafe behaviors by employees along with increases in interactions about safety. This study will be a conceptual replication of Zohar and Luria (2003). While Zohar and Luria used an AB design in three different sites, this study will employ a multiple baseline design utilizing four different dining units at a large Midwestern university.
 
85. A Comparison of the Effects of Objective, Social Comparison, and Objective Plus Social Comparison Feedback on Work Performance
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KWANGSU MOON (Chung-Ang University), Rudia Na (CHUNG ANG UNIVERSITY, SOUTH KOREA), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of objective, social comparison, and objective plus social comparison feedback on work performance. Ninety participants were recruited and asked to perform a simulated work task for one 15 min pre-session and five 15 min experimental sessions. Based on the pre-session scores, participants were assigned into three groups using the matched samples procedure so that the mean scores of the three groups could be approximately equivalent. For the objective feedback group, the information on the number of correctly completed work tasks was provided. For the social comparison feedback group, the rank information on their performance was provided. For the objective plus social comparison feedback group, both objective and social comparison feedback was provided. The results indicated that objective plus social comparison feedback was most effective and objective and social comparison feedback did not produce differences in performance. Further data analysis indicated that the same results were found for the high performers (i.e., participants whose scores were in the upper 50% in the pre-session) while the three different types of feedback did not produce differences in performance for the low performers (i.e., participants whose scores were in the lower 50% in the pre-session).
 
86. A Comparison of the Effects of Accurate and Inaccurate Feedback on Work Performance
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
DAYOUNG YOON (Chung-Ang University), Kwangsu Moon (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of feedback accuracy on work performance. Fifteen participants were recruited and asked to perform a simulated work task for 30 20-min sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups: (1) accurate feedback, (2) inaccurate feedback, and (3) control. Participants in the accurate feedback group received the accurate information on their performance in each session. Participants in the inaccurate feedback group received the information on the performance of participants in the control group (i.e., yoked the feedback to the control group’s performance) for the first 18 sessions and negatively tripled feedback on their performance increase/decrease for the remaining sessions. Results showed that the accurate feedback condition produced consistently higher level of performance compared to the inaccurate feedback and control conditions throughout all experimental sessions. However, the performance of the inaccurate feedback group decreased substantially after the 19th session from which the negatively tripled feedback was delivered.
 
87. The Interaction Effects of Task Complexity and Feedback Specificity on Work Performance
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Boyoon Choi (Chung-Ang University), JI YEON AHN (Chung-Ang University), Jidong Lee (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: This study examined the interaction effects of task complexity (i.e., simple vs. complex) and feedback specificity (i.e., specific vs. global) on work performance. One hundred participants were recruited and asked to perform a simulated work task. They were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions: (1) complex task and global feedback, (2) complex task and specific feedback, (3) simple task and global feedback, and (4) simple task and specific feedback. That is, a 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted. The dependents variables were the number and percentage of correctly completed work tasks. All participants attended six 15-min sessions. The results showed that specific feedback was more effective than global feedback for participants who performed the complex task, but the two feedback conditions did not produce significant differences in performance for participants who performed the simple task.
 
88. Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback Ratio on Work Performance, Perceived Stress and Feedback Acceptance
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
LIM SUNG JUN (Chung-Ang University), Kwangsu Moon (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different ratios of positive and negative feedback delivery on work performance, perceived stress, and feedback acceptance. Ninety participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups: positive and negative feedback ratio of (1) 4:1, (2) 1:1, and (3) 1:4. Participants were asked to work on a simulated work task. The dependent variables were the number and percentage of correctly completed work task, perceived stress, and feedback acceptance. Perceived stress and feedback acceptance were measured using questionnaires at the end of experiment. All participants performed for 23 7-min sessions. In terms of the number of correctly completed work tasks, the three different ratios did not produce differences in performance. In terms of the percentage of correctly completed work tasks, however, ratio of 1:1 was most effective and the effects of ratios of 1:4 and 4:1 were not significantly different. In addition, the stress level under1:4 ratio group was higher than that under the other two ratio groups.
 
89. OBM: Introducing Behavioral Concepts in an Environmental City Secretariat to Over 120 Employees in Brazil
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CELSO SOCORRO OLIVEIRA (UNESP - Sao Paulo State University)
Discussant: Byron J. Wine (The Faison Center)
Abstract: Behavior Analysis Concepts are cited in academic environments, under lab control, but there is still little information on practical basic concepts in a public environmental government agency, which attends the issues of a 400,000 inhabitants city (with uncontrolled variables). The trigger of the study was when the Environment Secretary asked for help regarding the depressing labor conditions the employees were complaining about: (a) dirty places (since the administrative office overflooded with sewage water); (b) lack of will to attend citizens and workmates; (c) continuous complaints about staff manners; (d) media complaints about services provided. The Secretariat personnel included Zoo, Botanic Garden, citys eco-disposal sites and an administrative building. Two groups of personnel took over 40 hours of course and training each: one class with administrative personnel, the other with the operational personnel including reformed prisoners that work in exchange to a decrease in penalty time. The content was divided into Theory and study cases: (a) about the Behaviorism; (b) on Team Work; (c) about Smiths-men making iron bars and (d) increasing the behavioral repertoire. The training showed new innovative behaviors that produced changes inside the building and in manners as well. They painted the filthy building, built new ecological sidewalks, organized papers and processes, as collateral results.
 

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