Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

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Poster Session #500
Monday, May 27, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
84. Systematic Prompting of Peer-Related Social Behaviors During Small Group Instruction
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
MARINA VELEZ (Vanderbilt University), Erin E. Barton (Vanderbilt University ), Paul J. Yoder (Vanderbilt University), John Wright (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Social competence in early childhood is predictive of a child’s quality of life in adulthood (Jones, Greenberg, & Crowley, 2015); as well as, the development of emotion and behavior disorders (Bornstein, Hahn, & Haynes, 2010). Educators report feeling overwhelmed to meet the social emotional needs of children (Quesenberry, Hemmeter, Ostrosky, & Hamann, 2014), resulting in alarming rates of young children being suspended and expelled from education settings (Gilliam, 2005). Tiered models of behavior support have demonstrated positive results for supporting young children (e.g., Hemmeter et al., 2006); however, these models do not articulate targeted interventions for teaching social competence. Utilizing a multiple probe single case research design, we established a functional relation between the system-of-least prompts and the frequency of unprompted peer-related social behaviors emitted by target children during small group academic instructional sessions in preschool-aged children with deficits in social competence. Further, we examined the effect of intervention on the untrained peer partner. Results were variable and did not support a functional relation. Our study extends the research in this area by examining the effectiveness of targeted instruction during small group instruction on potentially-context dependent, complex social behaviors (e.g., sharing materials, complimenting a friend, offering to help).
 
85.

Effects of Repeated Probe Procedures on Inducing Bi-Directional Naming in Pre-Kindergarten Students

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
FRANCIS JIHYE HWANG (Teacher College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

I studied the effects of a repeated probe procedure using match-to-sample on the acquisition of Bi-directional Naming (BiN) in 4 female and 1 male pre-kindergarten students. All participants were typically developing. One student received free lunch through the district. Two students were English language learners. Throughout the experiment, we used a novel set for each probe and intervention phase. The stimuli were cartoon characters that the student were not previously exposed to or knew the names of according to pre-intervention tests. We used a multiple probe design across 2 groups. Following the pre-intervention probe, 3 students in the first experimental group entered the intervention. The criterion for intervention was 90% correct response across point-to, tact, and intraverbal tact responses. We conducted a post-intervention probe when the student met intervention criterion. The criterion for the presence of BiN was 80% accuracy across aforementioned 3 topographies. Among 5 participants, 4 students acquired BiN through the repeated probe procedure using match-to-sample. One student did not acquire BiN through the intervention; therefore, entered an intervention with a delayed phonemic response training. Following 2 intervention phases with the delayed phonemic response training, the student acquired BiN.

 
86. The Effects of Mastery and Fluency for Math Facts on the Accuracy and Fluency for Word Problems
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
YIFEI SUN (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We tested the effects of mastery and fluency training of a set of number facts on the emission of correct responses and the rate of correct responses emitted for a set of 20 word-problems with the number facts trained during intervention. The participants of the study were 8 middle school students aged from 11-14 enrolled in a self-contained multi-grade classroom. All participants performed below grade level on numbers and operations related math tasks. The dependent variables of the study were: (1) the number of correct/incorrect responses emitted toward a set of 20 word-problems, (2) rate of correct responding to word-problems, and (3) the number of counting strategies such as finger counting or tally marks used during word problem probe sessions. The independent variables of the study were mastery and fluent responding to math facts with pre-determined fluency goal based on participants' individual writing rate. Among the participants who completed the study, 4 participants had transformation of stimulus function (TSF) across saying and writing in repertoire. All 4 participants with TSF emitted increased number of correct responses with significantly increased rate of correct responding whereas the other 3 participants without TSF in repertoire did not show significant increase in number of correct responses emitted or rate of correct responding, suggesting a potential correlation between the presence of TSF across saying and writing and TSF across math facts and word-problems.
 
87. Exploring the Impact of the Duration of the Relationship on Perspective-Taking Skills
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
FION LY (California State University, Los Angeles), Brittany Merced (California State University, Los Angeles), Sylvie Hoang (California State University, Los Angeles), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Perspective-Taking is an important repertoire for behavior analysts to study. Indeed, the study of perspective-taking involves both conceptual challenges and vast social implications. Research shows that relationships of all sorts are impacted by perspective-taking ability. The present poster presents date from a series of studies which have explored one factor that may impact perspective-taking repertoires, the duration of the relationship with another person. Specifically, using multiple-baseline and alternating treatments designs, undergraduate students were given preference assessments where they were asked to “behave like the other person would”, both before and after observing someone make choices for varying amounts of time. Results showed that participants perspective-taking skills improved, largely in both conditions, irrespective of the duration of the relationship (i.e., how long they observed the other person make choices). Additional studies, correcting for possible procedural issues that may mask potential differences among conditions, are currently being conducted. We anticipate showing representative data from three studies on the present poster. Implications for further research are provided.
 
88.

Mouthing, Pacifier Use, and Pacifier Weaning: Correlations in Pennsylvania Early Intervention

Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
CIDNEY HELLER (Behavior By Design, LLC), Matthew Tyson (Behavior By Design, LLC)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Paediatrics Child Health (2003) encourages pacifier use for infants up to 12 months of age. Mauch et al. (2012) reported that 79% of first-time mothers followed these recommendations and introduced a pacifier to their first-born infants. Cited advantages of pacifier use include the documented decrease in risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the decreased risks of future tooth development issues when compared with thumb sucking, as well as the ability to satisfy an infant’s instinct to suckle (Paediatrics Child Health, 2003). Disadvantages of pacifier use include the decreased breastfeeding, impact on teeth development, and delayed language development, (Sexton & Natale, 2009). Average mouthing behavior frequency, type, and duration is an under-researched area of importance for children under 5 years of age (Tulve et al., 2002). A single research study by Tulve et al. (2002) found that children mouth at similar durations regardless of gender. Research studies cite both advantages and disadvantages to mouthing behavior. Many of the advantages include environment exploration (“Early Milestones”, 2011), while many disadvantages relate to exposure to toxins (Tulve et al., 2002). This study seeks to begin understanding the relationship between mouthing behavior and pacifier use. Initial findings suggest a positive correlation between pacifier use and mouthing occurrence.

 
89.

Can We Be Friends?A Replication and Extension of the Preschool Life Skills’ Friendship Unit

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
CIOBHA ANNE MCKEOWN (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Sara Ann Stodola (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Michael Aragon (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Caitlin Fulton (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institue)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

The development of prosocial skills is considered pivotal to childhood development. Therefore, it is important to identify the most effective procedures to teach these skills. The friendship unit of the preschool life skills program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) addressed four early, prosocial skills that serve as a starting point for facilitating socially desirable behaviors. Given the inconsistent acquisition outcomes with neurotypical children when the prosocial skills were taught classwide, we sought to (a) extend features of the prosocial skills taught in the friendship unit and (b) systematically evaluate procedures necessary to teach all the skills in a one-to-one format. We taught children, three to five years old, with and without disabilities to say “thank you,” acknowledge and compliment others, offer toys, and empathize with distress and joy. We taught the skills using behavioral skills training during unstructured play in which the children engaged with highly preferred toys. That is, children had to momentarily stop playing to engage in a prosocial skill. Through a multiple-probe design, we evaluated the child’s performance with adults and tested the generality of the training with similar-aged peers. We discuss the necessity of supplemental reinforcement and the generality of the outcomes.

 
90.

Using Acceptance Commitment Therapyas Part of a Behavioral Intervention Package to Decrease Aggressive Behavior

Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
TRACY YIP (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong), Tsz Ching Ng (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Acceptance commitment therapy (ACT) is a treatment strategy used to address private events (thoughts and emotions) and it has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing problematic behaviors. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) intervention developed from behavioral principles have long been empirically supported to bring on socially significant change which are measurable and observable. The combination of the two strategies may be effective in reducing problematic behavior for individuals addressing both emotional instability and behavioral change. The current study employed the use of ACT and ABA principles in designing and implementing a comprehensive behavioral intervention package for a 10-yrs old participant in reducing aggressive behaviors in a school setting. Results showed the implementation of the ACT model in combination with behavioral based strategy significantly reduced aggression towards others, property destruction, and negative comments for the participant. The long term effects of this combined model will require further research on this topic.

 
91. Individual Differences in 3-Month-Old Infants' Visual Sensory Habituation and Learning
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
D. WAYNE MITCHELL (Missouri State University), Rachel Monroe (Missouri State University), Autumn Houser (Missouri State University), Amanda Bonnot (Missouri State University), Jordan Rawson (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The purpose of these two experiments was to explore the sensory and behavioral characteristics of 3-month-old infants' visual habituation. In Experiment 1 (N = 34), the test-retest reliability of fixation time and rate of habituation was assessed via an infant-controlled floating-point calculation procedure. Reliability was in concordance of other researchers’ reported finding (r = .53, p = .001 for peak fixation time; r = .50, p = .002 for habituation rate; r = -.15, ns for number of fixations). Individual difference analyses revealed that habituation rate (slope) was slower for those infants who exhibited longer fixations and more fixations during habituation. In Experiment 2, N = 71 infants were habituated to a 3-component (varying in levels of saliency) stimulus and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dishabituation conditions, a control and 3 conditions differing regarding the stimulus component presented. The infants displayed significant dishabituation response only to the less salient component, suggesting they failed to learn that stimulus component although exhibiting habituation. Via secondary analyses, it was found that those infants who displayed long fixation times had a significant dishabituation response. These findings are interpreted theoretically as an interaction between prior environmental visual experience, sensory habituation, and visual scanning behavior.
 
92. The Effects of Repeated Naming Experiences on Bidirectional Naming
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
ABBY LEWIS (Teachers College, Columbia; Bx+), Victoria Hanczyk (Teachers College, Columbia ), Victoria Verdun (Teachers College Columbia University )
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract: The verbal developmental cusp that is a capability of Naming is a crucial component to accelerating learning and learning in new ways. Lo (2016) induced bidirectional Naming (BiN) in students that already had the listener component of Naming, or unidirectional Naming (UniN), in repertoire using repeated experiences. In the present study, the experimenters examined the effects of repeated Naming experiences on the emergence of the speaker half of Naming responses across contrived and non-contrived stimuli. There were 6, third-grade, general education participants, all of which demonstrated UniN, but not BiN. The results demonstrated that two participants acquired BiN for both non-contrived and contrived stimuli. Two other participants acquired BiN for non-contrived stimuli and have demonstrated increased responding to the speaker comp]onents of Naming with contrived stimuli. The final two participants did not meet criterion for BiN with non-contrived stimuli. Multiple exemplar instruction will be used to induce BiN across all participants for both non-contrived and contrived stimuli (Fiorile & Greer, 2007). Future research should continue testing this method as a strategy to induce the speaker component of Naming.
 
93. Promoting Consumption of Solids for an Individual Following Exposure to Escape Extinction Procedures
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY MALUGEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Bethany Hansen (Munroe Meyer Institute ), Christopher W Engler (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract: Escape extinction (EE) is an effective, evidence-based method of reducing inappropriate mealtime behavior (e.g., head turning; Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Servin & Layer, 2003); however, when EE is prematurely terminated, inappropriate mealtime behavior may be reinforced (Kodak & Piazza, 2008). A variety of assessment and additional treatment components may be necessary to overcome the resulting increase in frequency and intensity of inappropriate mealtime behavior. The current study evaluates additional treatment procedures to use when an individual has prior exposure to EE. The participant is a three-year-old female with a complex medical history and a gastrostomy tube. Data include a brief evaluation of EE as an initial treatment, an assessment of both liquid consistency and utensils, and a blending procedure paired with EE (similar to procedures reported in Luiselli, Ricciardi, Gilligan, 2005; Mueller, Piazza, Patel, Kelley & Pruett, 2013). The data demonstrate an effective procedure for an individual with a history of EE in which minimal treatment effects were gained.
 
94. Evaluation of Competing Tasks in Reducing Self-Injury
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE HOWELL (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alyssa Fisher (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Noor Javed (Kennedy Kreiger Institute)
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract: Previous research has shown the utility of competing stimulus assessments (CSA) with additional procedures such as prompting, re-presentation, and response blocking to identify the effects of stimuli on reinforcer competition for self-injurious behavior (SIB; Jennett, Jann, & Hagopian, 2011). The current study extends this research by evaluating specific, discrete tasks that involve interaction with a caregiver, and the utility of the inclusion of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, for a 12-year-old male with autism who engaged in automatically maintained SIB. Using procedures commensurate with a CSA, a competing task assessment (CTA) was conducted to identify tasks associated with low rates of SIB and high levels of on-task behavior.Two phases were evaluated, all severe topographies of SIB (e.g., head-banging, skin-picking, and self-biting) were blocked, and the participant wore a padded helmet and arm splints.The phases included 1.) prompted engagement with the task and 2.) prompted engagement and differential reinforcement on an FR1 schedule (edible delivery) for task completion. Summative results across phases identified that the button pressing task and sort by color task maintained the lowest rates of SIB and the highest level of on-task behavior, specifically within the prompted engagement and reinforcement phase of the CTA. Interobserver agreement for SIB and on-task behavior were 98.72% and 84.83%, respectively. Keywords: competing stimulus assessment, automatic reinforcement, self-injury
 
95. The Effects of Peer Tutoring Using a Reversal Design Across Group and Dyad Instruction on the Acquisition of Novel Spelling Words
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
VICTORIA HANCZYK (Teachers College, Columbia University), Abby Lewis (Teachers College, Columbia; Bx+), Victoria Verdun (Teachers College Columbia University )
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract: We examined the effects of peer tutoring on the acquisition of novel spelling words across dyads and groups. We used a reversal design with pre-post-assessments to examine accuracy, session duration, number of sessions, and learn units to criterion. Participants were 6, third-grade, general education students with no diagnoses. All participants were on or above grade-level in reading and writing. Experimenters trained participants to tutor using learn unit instruction prior to intervention. Criterion to provide a spelling post-assessment and to alternate the type of instruction was 100% accurate responding across 2 sessions. Results support a functional relationship, as there was a significant increase in accurate responding for tutors and tutees from 0% to 100% accuracy from pre- to post-intervention. Although group sessions took 10 min longer on average, the tutor also delivered an average of 1.5 more learn units per minute during group instruction. Instruction in dyads required more sessions, but less overall learn units to meet criterion. Peer tutoring in dyads or groups is an effective tactic for spelling acquisition, and, while research is ongoing, it seems that higher rates of learn units per minute lend to peer tutoring in groups as a preferred tactic in a general education setting.
 
96.

Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior From Childhood to Adolescence

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Marcela Rosas Peña (National Autonomus University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico), SANDRA FERRER (National Autonomous University of Mexico )
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract:

Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence become one of the most frequent reasons in the consultation and psychological, neurological and psychiatric assistance. Investigations have been developed that show that behavioral problems in early childhood increase the probability of presenting antisocial problems in adulthood, unlike when it begins in adolescence. Disruptive behavior has been of great interest to health professionals due to the problems found in the family, school and community and the fact that it is a strong predictor of delinquency, crime and substance use in adolescence and adulthood. In an attempt to understand the beginning of behavioral problems in childhood and its relationship with disruptive behavior in adolescence and antisocial conduct in adulthood, studies have been conducted that integrate the literature that analyzes the report of parents and teachers of children behavior and adolescents with the aim of generating trajectories of disruptive behavior that predict antisocial behavior. Through the analysis of these trajectories, it has been observed that disruptive behavior increased, not only, in the intensity and frequency, but also, the topography and the mechanisms involved in its maintenance and generalization. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with behavioral problems seems to decrease as the age of the children increases, so the objective of this paper is to analyze the evidence regarding the trajectories of behavior and the mechanisms involved in its occurrence and maintenance.

 
97. Psychological Reactance and the Development of Preference in Children
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
KACIE M MCGARRY (Florida Institute of Technology), Basak Topcuoglu (Florida Institute of Technology), Katherine Haggerty (Florida Institute of Technology), Marilynn V. Colato (Florida Institute of Technology), Dana M. Gadaire (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract: Counter Control is human operant behavior that occurs in response to social aversive control. The controller generates aversive conditions, and then controllee, can behave in ways that do not reinforce the controller's behavior and might even punish it. Motivation can be affected by satiation, deprivation, and aversive stimulation. Individual preferences for reinforcers have critical implications for the development of skill acquisition and behavior management programs. Though preferences are idiosyncratic across individuals, environmental variables have been shown to affect preference in a number of different ways. We evaluated the effects of routinely denying access to stimuli on children's future preferences for those items. Preference assessments were conducted to identify similarly preferred stimuli for each participant. Then, access to one item was freely provided on a regular basis. One item was hidden completely. The third item was placed in plain sight but children were routinely denied access to it. Subsequent assessments evaluated shifts in preference across these stimuli.
 
98.

Examining the Effect of Self-Knowledge on Self-Control

Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
AISHA ALHAFEEZ (University of Nevada, Reno), Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Georgette Morgan (Columbia)
Abstract:

Skinner (1953) argued that self-knowledge is acquired socially, and when individuals have enough self-knowledge they are better able to predict and control their own behavior. This study examined the effect of self-knowledge on self-control. Three issues were addressed: First, to determine whether video game (Sudoku) performance improves as a function of feedback on performance adequacy. Second, to examine the extent to which self-knowledge is able to be modified by its consequences. Third, to determine the relation between an increase in self-knowledge and self-control. Trials consisted of participants engaging in the game after which they answered questions about their performance. In condition A, which served as a baseline, participants were able to select a reinforcer without regard to their performance. In condition B, participants were allowed to select a reinforcer on the basis of their self-evaluation of their performance. In condition C, the reinforcer was determined by the experimenter’s evaluation of their performance. In condition D, the reinforcer was determined by the correspondence between the participant’s self-evaluation and the experimenter’s evaluation of the participant’s performance. Preliminary results suggest self-control as demonstrated by selecting a reinforcer commensurate with performance improves as knowledge of performance adequacy increases.

 
 

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