|Variables Affecting Bidirectional Naming
|Sunday, May 26, 2019
|4:00 PM–4:50 PM
|Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD South
|Area: VRB/EAB; Domain: Translational
|Chair: Torunn Lian (OsloMet)
|Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
|CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
|Abstract: Common bidirectional naming may be defined as the process by which stimuli become members of the same class as they come to evoke common speaker and listener behavior (Miguel, 2016). It is demonstrated, for example, when novel speaker (tact) and listener relations are shown to emerge following exposure to contiguous presentation of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. The studies in this symposium examined the effects of variables that have been hypothesized to affect the emergence of new speaker and listener relations following contiguous stimulus presentation. First, Olaff and Holth examined the effects of multiple-response exemplar instruction on the emergence of both speaker and listener behavior, and additionally assessed the effects of repeated probing. Second, Oliveira et al. examined the effects of blocking echoic response during stimulus exposure on the emergence of the speaker component of bidirectional naming. Implications for the conceptual analysis of bidirectional naming and its sources will be discussed.
|Instruction Level: Advanced
|Keyword(s): Listener behavior, Naming, Tacting, Verbal behavior
|Target Audience: Behavior analysts; graduate students; EAB scientists
|Bidirectional Naming as a Result of Repeated Probing and Multiple-Response Exemplar Training
|HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University ), Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
|Abstract: Bidirectional naming (BiN) as a higher order operant is observed when novel speaker and listener responses emerge from incidental observations of others’ tacts. The current study assessed 1) whether repeated probes affect the acquisition of BiN, 2) the effects of multiple response-exemplar training (MRET) which entailed rotation of stimuli and antecedents within the same session on the acquisition of BiN, and 3) whether BiN maintained one month after final probes. We used a multiple probe design across three novel stimulus sets. For six participants, following two subsequent baseline probes, MRET was conducted with novel stimulus sets, while baseline-probes continued for the remaining participants. The results showed that repeated probes improved BiN for four participants. The present experiment, support MRET as a successful approach to produce BiN. Maintenance of listener behavior was observed for seven participants, while the emission of both speaker and listener behaviors (full BiN) was observed for three participants. The results may have implications for how BiN should be probed, as repeated probing may interfere with the independent variable.
|Effects of Blocking Echoic Responses on Tact Emergence Following Contiguous Stimulus Presentation
|JULIANA SEQUEIRA SEQUEIRA CESAR DE OLIVEIRA (Texas Christian University), Reagan Elaine Cox (Texas Christian University), Alexandra Miller (Texas Christian University), Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University)
|Abstract: Covert echoic responses have been hypothesized to play a role in the emergence of the speaker component of naming, but experimental evidence is weak. This study examined the effects of blocking echoic responses to the verbal stimulus during contiguous stimulus presentation on the emergence of tact control over vocal responses. Preschool-age children were exposed to repeated presentations of national flags and associated country names. In the echoic condition, the participants were instructed to echo the country name presented in each trial. In the interference condition, they were instructed to name the background color on which the flag was presented in each trial, which was presumed to interfere with echoic responding. In the no-response-requirement (NRR) condition, participants were not instructed to make any responses. Tacts were probed under extinction after each session. Preliminary results indicate that exposure to contiguously presented verbal and visual stimuli resulted in some degree of emergent tact control in all conditions for 3 of 4 participants, and that at least after the first few sessions of exposure, there was no reliable differentiation between conditions. We will go on to assess the effects of more extended exposure on the speed with which mastery is achieved.