Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

Previous Page

 

Poster Session #281
Sunday, May 26, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
58.

Effects of High-Preference Pre-Writing Organizers on Students’ With EBD Writing Production

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BROOKS VOSTAL (Bowling Green State University), Alicia Mrachko (Bowling Green State University)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) present a range of academic, behavioral, and social needs (Ennis et al., 2017). In particular, students with EBD struggle to become effective writers (Ennis, 2016). One possible explanation for this underachievement is that writing requires skills in self-monitoring and self-regulation that are characteristically weak in this population (Gage et al., 2014). Moreover, students with EBD often demonstrate low levels of academic engagement (Wagner & Cameto, 2004). The current study examined the effects of an antecedent intervention to support students with EBD during writing instruction. Participants included four males in grades 5 and 6 served in a separate school for students with EBD, all of who had specific writing goals in their Individualized Educational Programs. Using a multielement design, researchers compared the effects of high-preference pre-writing organizers to traditional organizers on total words written. Data indicated that each student produced more wiring when using the preferred organizer versus the less preferred one. Results are discussed in terms of the adaptability of low-intensity antecedent interventions for use by behavior analysts and educators who teach students EBD.

 
59.

Effects of GO 4 IT…NOW! Strategy Instruction on Writing Skills of Students With Behavior Disorder: A Maintenance Study

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLIN CRISS (Ohio State University), Moira Konrad (The Ohio State University), Terri Hessler (The Ohio State University at Newark), Corinne Gist (The Ohio State University), Alana Telesman (The Ohio State University ), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) consistently underperform in writing compared to their peers without disabilities. Most interventions for students with EBD focus on social behavior, and academic interventions are not prioritized. There is limited research on effective academic interventions, specifically in the areas of written expression, for students with EBD. In this study students with EBD received intervention—GO 4 IT...NOW! strategy instruction—to improve writing skills. Using effective techniques, such as feedback, self-editing, and self-correcting, students with EBD improved their writing and learned to write paragraphs about their goals as well as basic expository paragraphs. This study occurred over two school years in an urban alternative setting with middle school students. During intervention, instruction was provided in small group and one-on-one sessions over a 19-lesson sequence. By the end of these lessons, each student met mastery criteria based on a quality writing rubric. During the following school year, data were collected to measure maintenance, and booster sessions were delivered to students as needed. Results indicated a functional relation between the GO 4 IT…NOW! strategy instruction and improved paragraph writing. Students generally maintained some of the gains they made during the previous year but required booster sessions to return to levels comparable to their post-instruction scores.

 
60.

Effects of Handwriting Intervention on Letter Formation Fluency for Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN PANOS (Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Iowa)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Elementary students need proficiency in transcription skills (i.e., spelling and handwriting) to develop more advanced writing skills. Unfortunately, students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have difficulty with several areas of written expression, including handwritten letter formation. A small number of prior studies have addressed letter formation for students with ASD through intervention which has targeted limited letter sets (i.e., within 3 or fewer words). Given the need for research addressing a broader range of letters (i.e., the entire alphabet), the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the CASL (Center for Advancing Student Learning) Handwriting Program on the fluency of handwritten letter formation of three elementary students with ASD. Eighteen, 20-min lessons taught formation of the entire lowercase alphabet using explicit instruction and timed practice. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, all students experienced immediate increases in letter formation accuracy as measured by correct letter points and error letter points on a 1.5-min sentence copy task. Throughout intervention, all three students gradually improved their overall letter formation accuracy, and 2 of 3 students showed increased rates of letter formation. However, the observed gains fell short of levels expected from fluency as a learning outcome. Results extend prior research which has demonstrated the positive effects of CASL Handwriting for students with learning disabilities.

 
61.

The Effects of an Autonomous Technology-Based Writing Package for Students With Autism Intellectual Disability

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT C. PENNINGTON (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract:

In this investigation, researchers used a concurrent multiple probe design to evaluate to effects of an autonomous technology-based writing package in teaching sentence construction to 8 students with ASD and ID. The package integrated innovative technological features and transfer of stimulus control procedures. Data suggest the package was effective but provide insight in to the need for future iterative research

 
62. Comparing the Effects of Protagonist Race on Preschoolers’ Engagement in Book Reading
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT C. PENNINGTON (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract: In the current study, an alternating treatments design was used to examine whether preschool children’s engagement in book reading activities was greater when the protagonist in the book was of the same or different race as the child participant. Initiations, accurate responses to questions, passive engagement, teacher redirections, and child preference were measured. There was no functional relation demonstrating children’s engagement was greater when read books with protagonists of a corresponding race to the child. However, the non-experimental measure of preference demonstrated that children, when given an opportunity, typically chose books with a protagonist of the same race. Findings are discussed relative to the common recommendation in early childhood education to use diverse children’s books.
 
63. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction on Reading Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA THOMAS SMITH (Francis Marion University), Mary Carter (Francis Marion University), Gregory Pilot (Francis Marion University), Nidhi Patel (Francis Marion University), Mary Sawyer (Fit Learning Atlanta), Traci Taber (School Psychology)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a precision teaching treatment package on the reading fluency of elementary-aged students. The Fit Lite Model represented a truncated version of the Fit Learning ModelTM, utilizing a personalized system of instruction paradigm to allow each learner to progress through the curriculum at his/her own pace. Progression through targeted skills was determined by the achievement of particular measures of reading competency. Designed for learners to acquire an emerging, foundational literacy repertoire, elements of the treatment package included direct instruction, behavior management techniques founded in applied behavior analysis, and data-based decision making. Visual analysis of graphed data demonstrated increased fluency for early literacy components that generalized to improved reading fluency determined by curriculum-based measures. Intervention was delivered in 20-minute sessions conducted 4 times a week with participants engaging in 20 sessions on average. Average words per minute (WPM) increase was 11.9 WPM, and average percentile ranking increase was 16 points.
 
64.

Reading Skills in First and Second Language Among Children With Specific Reading Disorder

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GEORGIA ANDREOU (University of Thessaly), Vassiliki Tsela (University of Thessaly)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Research in foreign language learning by students with specific reading disorder is based on the hypothesis that there is a close relation between the students’ skills in their first language and those in their second/foreign language. The aim of the present study is to investigate reading skills in primary and secondary school students with specific reading disorder and their equivalents with good reading skills, in Greek as a first language (L1) and in French as a foreign language (L2). Furthermore, a basic objective of the study is to examine whether reading skills in Greek could predict reading skills in French for both groups. The sample of the study consists of one hundred and eight (N=108) students with good reading skills and one hundred and eight (N=108) students with specific reading disorder, who are assessed for their decoding and comprehension reading skills in both languages. The results of the study revealed that students with specific reading disorder had a statistically significant lower performance than those with good reading skills, in all tasks in both languages. Furthermore, the results revealed that the deficits appeared in a specific task in one language were transferred analogically to the same task in the other language.

 
65. An Evaluation of Two Supplemental SAFMEDS Procedures
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MEAGHAN CHIRINOS (Temple University; Melmark), Donald A. Hantula (Temple University), Shawn P. Quigley (Melmark)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract: SAFMEDS, a fluency based intervention that often uses flashcards, stands for “say-all-fast-minute-every-day-shuffled.” It is typically used in rate building and as a knowledge based assessment across numerous settings. A review of the fluency and SAFMEDS literature shows a lack of empirical research with this commonly used intervention (Quigley et al., 2017). Many differences in SAFMEDS implementations exist, including numerous variations to the procedure itself. The literature indicates not only a lack of common procedures, but also a lack of experimental control. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the basic SAFMEDS procedure for learning Chinese characters when compared to two supplemental practice procedures. The basic SAFMEDS procedure did not appear to be effective in significantly increasing the rate of correct responding in participants learning Chinese characters. Rates of correct responding were greater with additional practice added to the basic SAFMEDS procedure; specifically, higher levels of responding were evident in conditions using the whole deck review supplemental practice procedure.
 
66. Ask Yourself: A Comprehension Self-Questioning Strategy at the Elementary Level
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA MCQUESTON (University of Wisconsin - Madison), Andrea Ruppar (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
Abstract: Previous research indicates that the "Ask Yourself" strategy has a positive academic and social impact on high school students with significant disabilities. The current study replicates this earlier work with one elementary aged student. A multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to determine the effectiveness of teaching the Ask Yourself strategy to one second grade student with a significant disability. The student was included in a general education classroom for literacy instruction and had complex communication needs. An individualized set of materials and adaptation of the Ask Yourself strategy was developed in collaboration between the researcher and the participant’s special education teacher. While limitations in study design prevent the current study from demonstrating a functional relationship between use of the Ask Yourself strategy and the participant correctly answering comprehension questions, the participant’s academic and social improvement was recognized by his teachers and parents. Implications for future research and practice are included.
 
67.

Targeting Pronouns and Verbs in Communication Instruction for Adolescents With Significant Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KATE DOYLE (Mount St Joseph University ), Christina R. Carnahan (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract:

Teaching individuals with complex communication needs to communicate beyond basic requests is an essential outcome of our schools. Approaches for teaching language often rely heavily on modeling without direct teaching of specific concepts or vocabulary. These approaches often lack the systematization necessary to meet the unique instructional needs of learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and complex communication challenges. Approximately 30% of individuals with ASD experience significant challenges in the area of communication and are considered to be minimally verbal into adulthood (DiStefano, Shih, Kalser, Landa, & Kasari, 2016; Finke et al., 2017). While some individuals labeled as minimally verbal are able to make basic requests across settings, they do not have functional communication systems that support meaningful social communication interactions at school or work, at home. In this multiple baseline study across participants, a structured protocol was created to teach adolescents with significant ASD to comment using specific vocabulary (i.e., pronouns plus verbs) in both one on one and small group instruction using age appropriate activities. Data collected included a) pronoun use, b) verb use, and c)the the length of the utterances. All students demonstrated communication gains with pronouns post intervention. One student demonstrated gains in the use of verbs.

 
68. Increasing Speed and Accuracy of Academic Responding in Detained Adolescent Males: Vocabulary Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM TIREY DAVIS (Auburn University), Sally A Hamrick (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Cassidy McDougale (Auburn University), Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kelli Thompson (Auburn University), Barry Burkhart (Auburn.edu)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract: Poor academic performance can result from deficits in both recall of academic facts and speed of responding on academic tasks. Behavior analysts have primarily used fluency training to increase speed and accuracy of responding to academic tasks in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous research on fluency with individuals with ASD and ADHD has proven effective, there is a limited literature base to show the generality of the teaching technique to more diverse populations without diagnoses. In the present study, researchers utilized a three-tiered concurrent multiple-baseline design across sets to evaluate the effects of antecedent exposure, feedback and response repetition on vocabulary fluency for two detained adolescent males with no diagnoses. Results indicate that antecedent exposure, feedback, and response repetition increased the speed and accuracy of correct academic responding for both participants. We discuss the implications of fluency training using antecedent exposure, feedback, and response repetition for academic responding of diverse populations.
 
69. Repeated Reading Intervention for English Language Learners and Native Speakers in an After School Program
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA L. YURICK (Cleveland State University), Anthony Menendez (Cleveland State University)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract: Oral reading fluency is an important prerequisite skill when intermediate elementary-aged students move from "learning to read" to "reading to learn". Oral reading fluency as a behavioral cusp becomes even more imperative for English Language Learners (ELL). In order to access educational opportunities, ELLs must not only be fluent with spoken language, but also written English. This study evaluated a peer-mediated repeated reading intervention for five ELLs paired with native speakers in first, second, and third grade. Students were paired with readers of similar levels and engaged in fifteen minutes of peer-mediated repeated readings twice weekly in an after school program for refugee students across three months of instruction. A reversal design was used to examine the level and trend of correct words per minute read within a peer-mediated intervention in contrast to independent reading practice. All students demonstrated steeper trends of oral reading fluency improvement with the peer-mediated practice. ELLs showed accelerated trends compared to native speakers. Implications for practice including error correction techniques and the use of additional prompts and supports for ELLs will be discussed.
 
70. Using Classwide Peer Tutoring for English Language Vocabulary Development for Native and Non-Native Speakers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA L. YURICK (Cleveland State University)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract: Students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) are increasingly represented in classrooms across the country. English language and vocabulary development is a crucial skill to master in order to maximize the benefit of general education instruction. Students who are native speakers may be able to support that development by serving as models of language use and helping to support accurate language skills for ELLs. In this study, a Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) intervention model was used with ELLs and native speakers to teach vocabulary definitions and contextual use within a multiple-baseline across subjects design with a nested reversal. ELL students were taught definitions and then provided models of contextual use within spoken English sentences. Target students vocabulary development was measured for both definition accuracy as well as number of words in sentence using the word correctly. All target students showed improvement in both definition and contextual use within the CWPT intervention. Directions for future research and implications for practice will be discussed.
 
71.

Reading Instruction Using Direct Instruction and Fluency Building in a Typical Icelandic Classrom in First and Second Grade

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HARPA ÓSKARSDÓTTIR (University of Iceland), Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract:

Direct Instruction (DI) is an evidence-based and empirically tested teaching method that has been found to be very effective in English-speaking countries. DI has been especially effective when combined with fluency building methods. These methods are not generally in use in Iceland although dozens of single-case experiments have indicated that they are very effective when psychology students have used the methods with special ed students. In this project, a group comparison was undertaken to study the effects of reading instruction with DI and fluency building in Icelandic by trained teachers on reading performance of students in 1st and 2nd grade in a traditional classroom. Participants were in total 72 students in 1st grade and 75 students in 2nd grade in two comparable elementary schools in Iceland, one had the experimental group, the other school had the comparison group. Performance in reading was evaluated and comparisons were made within the experimental and comparison groups at the beginning and end of each school year and between the experimental and comparison groups. Results show that students in the experimental groups showed more progress than students in the comparison groups and scored higher on 10 of the 11 variables tested at the end of the study.

 
72.

The Use of Phonetic Hand Cues as an Intermediate Response to Gain Stimulus Control in Phonetic Reading

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LILIANA DIETSCH-VAZQUEZ (Integrative Methods), Angela Alcantara (Nova Southeastern University)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract:

The slower rate of learning for students with intellectual disabilities prompted the design of a reading package effective in accelerating decoding skills. Centered on the behavioral analysis of memory (Palmer, 1991), the design incorporated phonetic hand cues as an intermediate behavior, salience of the stimuli (letters) enhanced, competing responses controlled (errorless teaching and short intertrial intervals), and constant stimulus conditions maintained (systematic instructional sequence). The subject was taught to imitate a hand signal associated with the phonetic sound of a letter. Instruction systematically moved from isolated letters to whole word presentation for consonant-vowel-consonant words. Study 1 followed a 6-step instructional sequence across 4 participants (ages 9-10, Down Syndrome and Autism). Study 2 replicated only 3 of the 6 steps across the same 4 participants plus 1 new participant (age 14, Down Syndrome), evaluating the effectiveness of a shorter instructional sequence. A multiple baseline design across participants demonstrated discriminative control of responding by multielement stimuli for printed words in both study 1 and 2 for all participants. A steady increase in decoding words is observed from baseline to intervention. This supports stimulus control procedures as an effective way to enhance phonetic reading in students with intellectual disabilities.

 
74. Use of the Abrakedabra Game To Teach Portuguese Words With Consonant Clusters
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SILVIA REGINA DE SOUZA ARRABAL GIL (Londrina State University), Beatriz Suzuki (State University of Londrina)
Discussant: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc.)
Abstract: The network of relationships model has important contributions for teaching reading and writing. Games have been used as a tool when teaching these behaviors. This study assessed the effects of an educational game on the behavior of reading and writing Portuguese language words with consonant clusters. Three six-year-old children took part. First the relationships between the printed word and the word spoken by the participant; a figure and the printed word; a figure and the word written by the participant; and between the spoken word and a set of letters were evaluated. The game was used in the intervention as a means of teaching the relationships between printed words, syllables and words spoken, written and spelt by the participant, and between groups of letters and figures. Tests were done during the intervention and at the end of the study. The percentage of correct answers for all the relationships taught increased. This would appear to indicate that the game can be used for teaching words containing consonant clusters. Considering that reading and writing difficulties result in learning difficulties on diverse levels, there is an evident need to develop effective technologies that engage learners in the teaching of these behaviors.
 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
SABA DONATE