Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #282
Sunday, May 26, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
75.

Training Individuals to Implement Discrete Trials With Fidelity: A Meta-Analysis

Area: TBA; Domain: Basic Research
JOELLE FINGERHUT (University at Albany, SUNY), Mariola Moeyaert (University at Albany, SUNY)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Discrete trial training is a popular teaching method for individuals with autism. It includes many components, which can make it a difficult teaching method for individuals to learn. This meta-analysis examined the impact of different training techniques on individuals’ ability to implement discrete trials with fidelity. Twenty-five studies and 110 cases were included in the analysis. Only single case designs were included, and discrete trial implementation fidelity needed to be the dependent variable for inclusion eligibility. Training length, participant type, maintenance phases, and training type are among some of the variables that were coded and included for analysis. Hierarchical linear modeling, which has the ability to analyze clustered data, was used to estimate the treatment effect. Results showed that trainings are successful in improving both parents’ and teachers’ implementation fidelity of discrete trials. Furthermore, results demonstrated that behavioral skills training has a statistically significantly effect on discrete trial implementation fidelity. The results showed that the number of sessions in the intervention phase is a positive predictor of discrete trial implementation fidelity. Moreover, the results provide evidence that the effects of the trainings last across time. These results have implications for how individuals should be trained to implement discrete trials and other evidence based practices.

 
76. The Social Validity of a Technological Decision-Making Model for Selecting an Adapted Functional Analysis Procedure
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
ELIAN ALJADEFF-ABERGEL (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee), Shiri Ayvazo (David Yellin Academic College)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Behavior analysts are expected to treat challenging behaviors and to favorably change them. The treatment of challenging behaviors requires precise and effective assessment that could facilitate a function-based intervention. Functional analysis (FA) is considered a gold standard for the evaluation of behavior functions. Nonetheless, many practitioners report a low use of the method, relative to other indirect and direct methods. The literature identifies several explanations for the low application of FA. Among these reasons: time restrictions, limited control in the natural setting and risks involve in conducting FA with dangerous behavior. Therefore, since the establishment of the traditional FA, alternative adapted functional analysis methods had been developed and behavior analysts can now pick and choose which FA adaptation is most suitable for their client. With that said, pending on their expertise, behavior analysts may need assistance in selecting the most appropriate method. A technological decision-making model may help in the process of selecting and implementing an adapted FA procedure. We have created a computer-based version of such decision-making model and made it available to a group of behavior analysts. In this presentation our purpose is to evaluate the social validity and the appropriateness of this model to these behavior analysts
 
77.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Values-Based Approach to Reduce Procrastination Among Online University Students

Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
NELLY DIXON (Purdue University Global), Edward Cumella (Purdue University Global), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

In online higher education environments, students present with diverse contextual factors that decrease students’ abilities to engage in timely coursework. There is limited research on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and procrastination within the online educational setting. This investigation explores whether an ACT values-based approach using Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) will impact procrastination in an online educational environment. Ten students enrolled in a 10-semester online Master of Psychology program were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. Treatment consisted of a short media-based values exploration grounded in ACT and daily EMI prompts delivered to participants’ cell phones. Both groups completed pre-, post-, and follow-up questionnaires, the Academic Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ) and Academic Procrastination Scale-Short Form (APS). Outcome data from the questionnaires, Discussion Boards, and assignment submissions were analyzed across the time periods, contrasting the experimental and control groups via t tests. Results indicate a significant decrease in academic procrastination behaviors in the experimental group between baseline and post-test, which maintained and decreased further by six weeks post-intervention; there were minor and non-significant increases in academic procrastination among control participants. Maintaining an active connection to one’s values appears to result in effective decreases of student procrastination behaviors.

 
78. Using Video-Based Training to Teach Students and Behavior Technicians the Conservative Dual-Criteria Method
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CHANDLER PELFREY (Rollins College), Kara L. Wunderlich (Rollins College), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Practicing behavior analysts and registered behavior technicians (RBTs) are required to base their practices on scientific evidence. Analyzing single-subject data is among the most important behavior-analytic practices because it guides clinical decision-making. Although prior research has shown the conservative dual-criteria (CDC) method is accurate (Fisher, Kelley, & Lomas, 2003) and can be used with real graphs like those used in behavior-analytic practice (Lanovaz, Huxley, & Dufour, 2017; Wolfe, Seaman, Drasgow, & Sherlock, 2018), most empirically supported training procedures involved in-person training. Because in-person training in behavior-analytic practice can be expensive, video-based trainings might be more viable. Using a multiple baseline design, we evaluated the efficacy of a video-based training to teach RBTs and students to implement the CDC method. Subjects received packets of simulated AB graphs and interpret them by answering “yes” or “no” to the question, “Does the graph show a treatment effect?” on their own computers. The video-based training included written instructions, vocal instructions, and modeling. We measured the accuracy of each subject’s interpretations as well as his or her correspondence with the CDC method before and after the video-based training. Limitations of the CDC method and future research directions are discussed.
 
80. Creating an Operant Laboratory Experiment: Color Discrimination in Goldfish
Area: TBA; Domain: Basic Research
KATHRYN M. POTOCZAK (Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania), Morgan Mellott (Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This project sought to create an alternative to teaching basic operant conditioning techniques with rodents by developing a means to illustrate stimulus discrimination for an operant laboratory experiment for use with goldfish. It utilized two comet goldfish, and after food wand training, subjects were trained to swim through a colored hoop in the presence of a light the same color as the hoop using a food reinforcer. Subjects were trained individually with a blue hoop and light, and then with a green set. Both hoops were then presented, but only one light (green or blue). Subjects were required to swim through the colored hoop that corresponded with the light presented in order to earn the food reinforcer, demonstrating color discrimination. Data was recorded and presented graphically on sheets created specifically for use with this procedure. This experiment will teach future students about shaping and stimulus discrimination, foundational concepts in the field of behavior analysis. This process was a part of a larger project that aims to create a complete operant lab manual for use with goldfish, which would allow students the opportunity to participate in an operant lab that is less costly and more manageable than a traditional rat lab.
 
81. Creating an Operant Laboratory Experiment: Fixed-Ratio Responding in Goldfish
Area: TBA; Domain: Basic Research
KATHRYN M. POTOCZAK (Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania), Thomas Fisher (Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania), Grace Ramacciotti (Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This project sought to create an alternative to teaching basic operant conditioning techniques with rodents by developing a means to illustrate fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement for an operant laboratory experiment for use with goldfish. It utilized four comet goldfish, and after food wand training, subjects were trained to nose tap a specific-shaped (star, square, circle, or triangle) plastic stimulus for a food reinforcer. Once the nose tap was acquired, subjects were required to nose tap the training stimulus progressively more times in order to earn the food reinforcer, up to FR8. Data was recorded and presented graphically on sheets created specifically for use with this procedure. This experiment will teach future students about the operant conditioning concepts of shaping (teaching a new behavior using successive approximations, positive reinforcement, and extinction) and intermittent reinforcement (ratio schedules), foundational concepts in the field of behavior analysis. This process was a part of a larger project that aims to create a complete operant lab manual for use with goldfish, which would allow students the opportunity to participate in an operant lab that is less costly and more manageable than a traditional rat lab.
 
84.

Conditional Relationships Analysis in the Scientific Practice of University Students

Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
AGUSTIN DANIEL GOMEZ FUENTES (Universidad Veracruzana), Alejandro Francisco Reyes (Universidad Veracruzana), Luis Olvera (Universidad Veracruzana), Enrique Zepeta (Universidad Veracruzana), Dinorah Escudero (Universidad Veracruzana), Cecilia Magdalena Molina Lopez Lopez (University of Veracruz)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to analyze the contingency relations of scientific work as an individual practice in an introductory course to go in the Master in Research in Applied Psychology to Education of the Institute of Psychology and Education of the University of Veracruz. Former authorization, 29 aspirants of both sexes, graduates of the degree in psychology and related disciplines, developed and defended in the face of the Selection Committee a conceptual and empirical article to support a research problem in psychology applied to education. Procedure: The course was divided into two stages. In the first one, the applicants received information and advice to elaborate the article and in the second the academic conditions and physical spaces for the realization of the corresponding activity were established. The behavior of the applicants was observed and recorded in real time in interaction with teachers, students and learning contents in the educational spaces of the aforementioned Institute based on six performance criteria. The results showed that the analysis of the scientific practice as a psychological dimension contributed to the selection of eighteen candidates who met the admission profile to the master's program of twenty-nine who participated in the introductory course.

 
85.

Conditioned Motivating Operations

Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
MARY E. GREGA (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Abstract: Motivating operations affect the efficacy of reinforcers and the probability of behavior maintained by those reinforcers. Michael (1982) proposed a universal term, establishing operations, to refer to events that either increase or decrease the effectiveness of consequences. Conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) are events that alter the effectiveness of a consequence because of the individual organism’s learning history. Michael (1993) outlined three types of CEOs: surrogate CEOs, which are neutral events that acquire the motivational characteristics of the unconditioned establishing operations (UEO) that they’re paired with; reflexive CEOs, which are those that establish their own termination as a form of reinforcement or punishment; and transitive CEOs, which establish some stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. Since 1982, the establishing operation concept has been modernized with the addition of the motivating operation umbrella term, incorporating both the concepts of establishing and abolishing operations. In this poster, we review the CEO concept and propose updates in line with the current concepts of motivating and abolishing operations.

 
86.

The Use of Noncontingent Reinforcement for the Reduction of Problem Behavior and the Application of Weber's Law to a Fading Procedure

Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
LISA NEITZKE (Oklahoma State University; Munroe-Meyer Institute/UNMC), Gary Duhon (Oklahoma State University), Kortney Rist (Oklahoma State University)
Discussant: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is in evidence based intervention that is easily implemented but is not always sustainable in classrooms. The application of Weber’s Law of Just Noticeable Difference is an efficient method to systematically reduce problem behavior when applied to a fading procedure ensuing a treatment phase. Three participants who were referred to the school’s multidisciplinary data team for behavioral concerns were selected from a rural school district in the South-Central United States. Participants 1 and 2 exhibited a reduction of disruptive behavior from baseline conditions, and experimental control was demonstrated when the same effects were replicated in the second treatment phase. Further, fading the intervention at 25% based on Weber’s Fraction demonstrated to be a sufficient rate to increase the time between each application of NCR and the level of the frequency of disruptive behavior stabilized throughout each fading session. By the final fading session, each participant was receiving teacher attention at the same rate they were at baseline conditions while the frequency of disruptive behavior remained low. NCR did not demonstrate the same effects in Participant 3 as in Participants 1 and 2, likely due to procedural integrity not being maintained by Teacher B throughout the treatment phase.

 
 

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