Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

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Poster Session #81
Saturday, May 25, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Claudia Drossel (Eastern Michigan University)
112. Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives Among Opioid-Maintained Women
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CATALINA REY (University of Vermont; Vermont Center on Behavior and Health), Heidi Melbostad (University of Vermont; Vermont Center on Behavior and Health), Stacey C. Sigmon (University of Vermont; Vermont Center on Behavior and Health), Lauren Macafee (University of Vermont), Anne Dougherty (University of Vermont), Sarah Heil (University of Vermont; Vermont Center on Behavior and Health)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Introduction: Nearly 80% of pregnancies among women with opioid use disorder (OUD) are unintended while rates of effective contraceptive use are estimated at <10%. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), namely intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants, are the most effective reversible forms of contraception because they are user-independent. Nevertheless, few women in opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for OUD report they are likely to use an IUD or implant (41% and 27%, respectively). The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential barriers to LARC use among women in OAT. Methods: 200 women in OAT for OUD completed a survey that included questions assessing reasons that may have prevented LARC initiation. Results: In the subset of 121 women who have never used an IUD, and 169 women who have never used an implant, 45 (37%) and 45 (27%), respectively, reported that they have thought about using the IUD or implant but decided not to. The most common reasons for deciding against an IUD and an implant were concerns about side effects and preferring a “controllable” method. Conclusion: Results suggest there may be similar barriers associated with IUD and implant use for women in OAT.
 
113.

Children's Postinfectious Autoimmune Encephalopathy (PANS/PANDAS/CPAE) and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Bio-Behavioral Analysis of Challenging Behavior

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA CARR (The University of Arizona), Kaitlyn Ahlers (The University of Arizona, College of Medicine; University of Montana), Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry), Sydney Rice (The University of Arizona, College of Medicine - Pediatrics)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

Children's Postinfectious Autoimmune Encephalopathy (CPAE) is a condition where an infection triggers an autoimmune reaction which can affect neurological function, mood, and behavior. It has been suggested that behavioral interventions may decrease the frequency of disruptive, aggressive, or oppositional behaviors in children diagnosed with CPAE disorders, despite the onset of symptoms relating to bio-behavioral influence (Thienemann et al., 2017). The current study was threefold: 1.) The Function of Behavior - Medical Screening Tool (FOB-MED) was utilized in a clinic setting to determine a hypothesized function of a child’s behavior diagnosed with CPAE and Autism Spectrum Disorder. 2.) A brief functional analysis (BFA) of challenging behavior was conducted to confirm the function identified by the FOB-MED, and 3.) function-based treatment was provided in the home setting with care providers. Data demonstrated the frequency of challenging behaviors pre and post interventions. The current study examines the impact of both biological and behavioral interventions for a child dually diagnosed with CPAE and ASD, adding to the limited available research for this population.

 
114.

A Summary of Behavioral Function for Children With and Without PANS/PANDAS/CPAE Using the Function of Behavior: Medical Setting Screening Tool

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW W. GARDNER (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry and Pediatrics), Sydney Iverson (The University of Arizona Department of Psychiatry), Kaitlyn Ahlers (The University of Arizona Department of Psychiatry), Rebecca Hartzell (University of Arizona College of Education), Chelsea E. Carr (University of Arizona College of Education)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

The Children's Postinfectious Autoimmune Encephalopathy (CPAE) Center of Excellence at The University of Arizona assesses children for Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). Although medical treatments can be crucial in alleviating symptoms, research has suggested that psychological and behavioral interventions are also beneficial both in the acute and chronic stages of illness, due to the bio-behavioral influences that arise (Thienemann et al., 2017). A total of 62 children are summarized, with 48 children (ages 4 to 17) receiving a diagnosis of PANS/PANDAS/CPAE. The Function of Behavior – Medical Screening Tool (FOB-MED), a brief screener for medical settings, was utilized to determine the function of patients’ behaviors for efficiency. Data indicated comparable functions of behavior (i.e. attention, tangible/preferred activities, escape, and automatic) across groups (see table) with some variations. The current data indicates that children with a PANS/PANDAS diagnosis may benefit from comparable, function-based interventions as other children. Treatment acceptability data were also collected via the TARF-R. Thus, the FOB-MED can assist practitioners with screening and identifying functions of challenging behavior, and more effectively provide brief treatment recommendations to families in primary care settings.

 
115.

Efficacy of Using the Function of Behavior--Medical Screening Tool to Hypothesize Function of Behavior in Clinical Setting

Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
ANDREW W. GARDNER (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry), Rebecca Hartzell (University of Arizona), Alyssa Mitchell (University of Arizona)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

The Function of Behavior – MEDICAL Screening Tool (FOB-MED) was developed to streamline a functional behavior assessment administered by medical professionals. A functional analysis can take approximately two hours for a professional to conduct (Roane, Ringdahl, & Falcomata, 2015), but the FOB-MED only takes fifteen minutes to complete and can identify hypothesized function of behavior (i.e. escape, automatic, tangible, attention). It is administered by a medical professional (i.e. nurse, nurse practitioner, pediatrician) in interview format and consists of eight questions. In the current study, after the FOB-MED was administered, a functional analysis was conducted to establish comparative validity between the results (FOB-MED results to an in-vivo Functional Analysis of challenging behavior). The results for children in diverse medical settings were compared. These initial results indicate matched functions (validity) between the hypothesized function from the FOB-MED and the confirmed function through an in-vivo functional analysis. As validity data for the FOB-MED tool is established over time, the tool can be used in medical settings by primary care professionals to help focus efforts on function-based intervention.

 
116.

Executive Functions and Delay Discounting in Substance-Related Disorders

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
DIANA MEJÍA CRUZ (Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora ), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

Several studies have related neuropsychological impairments with behavioral, cognitive, emotional and personality disorders derived from chronic drug-use. Research on executive functions has contributed to the neuropsychological understanding of the frontal lobe. The damage of this area implies problems in the control and regulation of behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare performance patterns in three cognitive tasks (Shifting, Updating and Inhibition) and six tasks of delay discounting of monetary gains and losses considering three magnitudes (3000, 6000, 9000) for each condition in adolescents and adults with moderate and severe dependence and their contrast with control group. We worked with 20 adolescents and 20 adults (20 drug-users and 20 controls), the control subjects were in school environments, while the clinical sample was in treatment centers for problems of drug use and behavior. A positive correlation was found among delay discounting gains, shifting and updating tasks, whereas inhibition task and delay discounting of losses were correlated. A magnitude effect was found for the delay discounting gains and not for the losses in both groups. Low performance was observed in the shifting, updating tasks, and steeply delay discounting in drug users. These findings suggest that discounting tasks could be associated with the same executive function process as shifting and updating tasks, which converts the discount into an objective indicator that could suggests alterations of the frontal lobe.

 
117.

Tinnitus Treatment: A Positive Reinforcement Learning-Based Neuro-Operant Experiment

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Amrita Pal (UNT), Joshua Caldwell (University of North Texas), Kamakshi Gopal (University of North Texas), DANIELE ORTU (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

Tinnitus affects approximately 1 in 10 Americans. However, traditional treatment approaches have shown limited efficacy. This study combines the concepts of lateral inhibition and positive reinforcement learning in an innovative way to alleviate tinnitus. Lateral inhibition is a phenomenon where neurons activated by their characteristic frequency will not only exhibit enhanced excitatory response to that frequency, but will also have an inhibitory influence on surrounding neurons. Lateral inhibition-based mechanisms have been targeted for modulating tinnitus perception and N1m response to the tinnitus frequency.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of providing positive reinforcement to tinnitus subjects when they respond to sound stimuli centered 1/8th octave away from their tinnitus frequency. We hypothesize that this training will reinforce neuroplasticity and provide relief from tinnitus. Preliminary behavioral and neural data are presented.

 
118. Using Self-Monitoring and Goal Setting to Reduce Caloric Intake
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
EDWARD JUSTIN PAGE (Duquesne University), Eliseo D. Jimenez (Georgia State University)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: ccording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017, obesity affects about 93.3 million adults in the United States alone. Obesity can be caused by environmental factors, disease, drugs, socioeconomic status, genetics, and behavior. The CDC talks about reduction and prevention of obesity needing to be multifaceted. Applying behavioral strategies to this problem could lead to significant impact on an organism's behavior that lead to obesity. The purpose of this case study was to implement a self-monitoring and goal setting intervention paired with a high protein diet in order to reduce daily caloric intake and reduce weight. A changing criterion design was used to demonstrate that the intervention was successful in both lowering caloric intake and reducing weight.
 
119. An Assessment of Three Strategies to Teach College Students to Pour Standard Serving Sizes of Beer, Wine, and Liquor
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MAKENZIE HEATHERLY (University of Alaska Anchorage), Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage), Bethany Munden (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Students’ stated knowledge of standard serving sizes may not correspond to their actual pours of standard serving sizes. Free pour assessments have been shown to effectively improve student’s ability to pour a standard serving size of beer, but whether these effects can be extended to wine and liquor is unknown. The current study sought to replicate and extend previous work in this area by evaluating three free-pour training methods (i.e., stimulus fading, verbal feedback, and superimposition training) on college students’ skill acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of accurate pours of a standard serving size of beer (12 oz), wine (5 oz), and liquor (1.5 oz). We recruited 12 students who failed to pour within 10% of a standard serving size of beer, wine, and liquor. Four participants were assigned to each of our training methods and were assessed immediately following training, and at a 1-week and 30-day follow-up. Data on self-reported volume poured was also obtained throughout the study. Results suggest that (a) all three training methods produced effective outcomes, (b) self-reported pour volumes different greatly from actual pour volumes, and (c) stimulus fading produced the best results with respect to maintenance and generalization following training.
 
120. Comparing the Efficacy of a Functional Interview to a Structured Descriptive Assessment in Identifying Hypothesized Functions of Problem Behavior for Two Doctoral Trainee’s Caseloads
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
KAITLIN M GOULD (University of Massachusetts Boston), Rachel Bradley (Louisiana State University), Alicia Sullivan (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Susan K. Perkins-Parks (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Both direct and indirect assessments are routinely used to identify functions of behavior across a variety of settings. However, comparisons between these two types of assessments yield varying results with regard to identified function. Further research is warranted to determine the efficacy and validity of different methods for identifying behavior functions. This is particularly important in outpatient clinical settings, where time and resources are limited. , In this study outpatient behavior therapists will use a checklist following each appointment to record hypothesized function, source of this hypothesis, change in hypothesis, and treatment recommendations. All patients will be selected for participation. If warranted, statistical analyses will be run, in addition to descriptive statistics. Our research questions are as follows: 1. When comparing results of the functional interview conducted at intakes to analogue assessment findings, how often do the results indicate the same function? 2. When these assessment methods indicate differing functions, which result informs treatment? 3. If the behavior function selected for treatment is changed at a later date, when did that change occur? Initial results indicate that the hypothesized behavior function developed at the functional interview changed following the direct assessment analogue about 40% of the time.
 
 

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