Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #83
Saturday, May 25, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
121.

The Effects of Intensive Tact Instruction on the Social Interaction of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Jinhyeok Choi (Pusan National University), BYEOL HAE SHIN (Pusan National University), Sangah Lee (Pusan National University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the Intensive Tact Instruction (ITI) on the ability related to social interactions. The participants of the study were three 5-year-old males with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Busan, South Korea. For this study, a multiple probe design across participants was used to identify a potential functional relationship between independent and dependent variables. As an independent variable, the Intensive Tact Instruction (ITI) was implemented in which 100 additional tact Learn Units were presented in addition to the mean number of daily Learn Units received by the participants. The social interaction was measured as a primary dependent variable which consisted of initiative and responsive social behaviors (e.g., joint attention/activity, tacts, mands, etc.). The dependent variable was measured in two non-instructional settings: hallway and play. The result indicated that the dependent variable significantly increased during the post-intervention probes comparing to the pre-intervention probes. These results suggest that the Intensive Tact Instruction (ITI) is effective to improve the social interaction of the participants with ASD.

 
122.

A Comparative Analysis of Specific Versus Non-Specific Praise on Rate of Acquisition of Tacts

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MARY-GENEVIEVE WHITE (Teachers College, Columbia University), Ginger Harms (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Independent tacting is an essential repertoire of verbal behavior that many students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder are missing. There is ample research on teaching tacts to students with ASD, but far fewer on examining effective tactics for increasing the rate of acquisition of tacts therefore, we conducted an experiment using an A-B-A-B reversal design with counterbalanced conditions to compare the effects of specific versus non-specific praise on the rate of tact acquisition. Specific praise, where the name of the stimulus was repeated, and non-specific praise, general praise, was delivered as a consequence when participants correctly tacted. Researchers also used the specific name of the tact during the correction procedure. The experiment is still underway, but the data indicate there are no differences between the use of specific and non-specific praise on the acquisition of tacts. Participant attendance and setting events were a limitation of this study. Future research should be conducted to determine whether the level of verbal behavior or having BiDirectional Naming influences the rate of acquisition of tacts.

 
123.

Effects of Different Vocal Patterns Over Vocalizations Induced by Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing on Children With Autism

Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
LUIZ ALEXANDRE BARBOSA DE FREITAS (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso; Universidade Federal do Pará; Florida Institute of Technology), Francois Tonneau (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Stimulus-stimulus pairing is a procedure intended to produce vocalizations in children with language delays, especially those for whom standard echoic training failed. The procedure was effective in some studies, partially effective in others and ineffective in some. Two groups of variables might explain such mixed results, characteristics of participants and procedural variables. This study aimed to investigate the effects of vocal pattern during pairings over frequency of novel vocalizations. Participated 3 girls and 6 boys with autism, 2 to 8 yo. Procedure included a pre-assessment screening for existing vocalizations, a baseline session and 10 treatment sessions. In baseline session, 2 vocal sounds were presented in a 1-minute VI schedule without pairing, 5 times each. In treatment, the same sounds were paired with preferred items or social stimulation. Procedure was ineffective for 5 participants (AG, DV, LA, MA, RA) and partially effective for 4 (DA, JV, LN and LP). For those whom the procedure was partially effective, differential results on the vocal pattern during pairings were not consistent. Previous studies used motherese pattern relying on the premise this pattern would have conditioned value due to pairings in early childhood. These results does not support this assumption for children with autism.

 
124.

Evaluating the Effects of Varied Numbers of Presentations of Vocalizations During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA MORTON (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jennifer Weber (CABAS )
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Previous research has proven that stimulus-stimulus pairing is an effective form of intervention for increasing vocalizations. However, few research studies replicate variables used during stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) in order to create a systematic and technological method of implementation for SSP. This research study evaluated the effects of varying the number of presentations of target sounds presented during stimulus-stimulus pairing to bring echoics under echoic control, replicating similar variables of Miliotis et al. (2014). Two conditions, three presentations of a target sound and one presentation of a target sound, were compared using multiple baseline across two participants. The results of the study concluded that 1 presentation sound produced higher rates of producing echoics brought under echoic control.

 
125. Functional Analysis and Response Contingent Pairing of Early Vocal Behavior
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ASTRID LA CRUZ MONTILLA (University of North Carolina Wilmington; Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington; Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health), Sydney Ball (University of North Carolina Wilimington; Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Behavior analysts may frequently be tasked with addressing profound language delays in clinical populations. Recent applications of functional analysis methodology to verbal behavior have been informative, yet applications to early vocal repertoires (e.g., babbling) have not been described. A recent review described six behavior-analytic articles which conducted functional analyses of verbal behavior. The authors of this review urged researchers to continue to pursue the identification of maintaining contingencies of verbal behavior, particularly noting the need for additional methodologies. The purpose of this study was to extend the application of functional analysis for use in identifying the conditions under which early vocalizations occurred for a two-year old boy with cerebral palsy. Five conditions were assessed in alternating treatments and pairwise designs. Results of the functional analysis indicated that vocalizations were maintained by access to physical and vocal attention. We then compared two methods of response contingent pairing on the rate of vocalizations. Vocalizations occurred more frequently when the reinforcer was delivered contingent upon a vocalization, relative to the delivery of the reinforcer on an arbitrary response (i.e., touching a toy). Considerations for functional analyses and interventions targeting early vocal repertoires are discussed.
 
126. Repeated Probe Procedure on Enhancing Speech Intelligibility in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University), YANRU CHEN (Teachers College, Columbia University), Katherine Garcia (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: We tested the effectiveness of a repeated probe procedure on the clarity of preschool students’ articulation using a combined multiple probe and simultaneous treatment design. Seven preschoolers who were diagnosed with ASD aged from 3 to 5 participated in the study. We measured the number of syllables the student could echo precisely with point-to point-correspondence from a list of 100 English words. During the repeated probe intervention procedure, there was no contingent reinforcement for the correct echoics nor were there corrections for the incorrect echoics. Results showed that five out of seven participants’ articulation demonstrated moderate to significant improvement following the intervention while the other two did not. Our finding was in line with what was reported in previous research (Lo, 2016; Kleinert, 2018). Results showed that a repeated probe procedure could effectively establish the conditioned reinforcement for observing responses (i.e., auditory stimuli). In addition, our study provided empirical evidence that the correspondence between hear and say is the foundation for joining the child’s observing and production responses.
 
127.

Evaluating the Efficacy of Procedures for Improving Mand Articulation

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
XI'AN MAYA WILLIAMS (Marquette University), Samantha Klasek (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University), Marisa E. McKee (Marquette University), Mary Halbur (Marquette University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

A mand is a key component of verbal behavior training for individuals with language deficits. Mand training provides these individuals with an opportunity to access a variety of reinforcers when a relevant establishing operation (EO) is in place. However, poor articulation of these mands may hinder the individual’s ability to access these reinforcers. Despite the importance of clear articulation when emitting mands, there is limited research evaluating the efficacy of various procedures for teaching this skill. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate nondifferential reinforcement (NDR), shaping, and echoics as procedures for improving articulation of mands. Current results show the mixed echoic mand training condition was the most efficient. This procedure was then added to both other conditions, formerly depicted as shaping, and NDR. Results are currently ongoing for these conditions; however, there has been greater acquisition for the target mand in both conditions. Potential training difficulties (i.e., co-articulation skill deficits) and other implications will be discussed, and future research ideas will be provided.

 
128. Emergence of Generalized Sound Blending Repertoires of Different Languages in School Age Children as a Function of Direct Blending Training
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
XUETING QI (Beijing Guangming Primary School), Yu Cao (Gotham Children), Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University), Mengjia Zhu (Smart ABA), Wensheng Liao (Beijing Guangming Primary School)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: We tested the effects of a direct CVC structure English words sound blending training procedure on three school-age children’s Chinese phonetic alphabet sound blending responses. The participants were from Chinese public primary school who had difficulty in both English words and Chinese phonetic alphabet blending,two of them were first graders,one of them was second grader. We used a delayed multiple probe design with a time-lagged baseline across participants to test the emergence of generalized sound blending repertoires as a function of direct blending training through learn unit. Our data showed that after direct CVC structure English words blending training through learn unit, the accuracy of untaught Chinese phonetic alphabet blending response increased for all participants. The results suggested that generalized sound blending repertoires of different language emerged as a function of the training procedure.
 
129. The Gray Elephant in the Room: An Aided Modeling Review Comparing Gray and Published Literature
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
KATE TYGIELSKI CHAZIN (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University), Kari Gagnon (Vanderbilt University), Virginia Turner (Vanderbilt University), Anne Lord (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) offers individuals with complex communication needs (CCN) a means of connecting and communicating with others in their verbal communities. Aided AAC modeling is the act of concurrently modeling target vocabulary vocally and on an AAC device, and it is one strategy for teaching individuals how to communicate using an AAC device. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the effect of aided AAC modeling on communication for individuals with language deficits. Of 3,021 studies found in database, forward, and backward searches, 27 met inclusion criteria and were assessed for this review. We are currently in the process of visually analyzing outcomes and assessing quality indicators. We predict that visual analysis outcomes and quality indicators will be heterogeneous, and that there will be differences between the results of gray and published literature. We also hypothesize that key participant characteristics (e.g., generalized imitation repertoire, ability to match-to-sample) will predict efficacy of aided modeling interventions. This literature review may help us better understand for whom and in what context aided AAC modeling is effective, as well as the impact of publication bias on the evaluation of intervention efficacy.
 
131. An Assessment of Observational Learning Procedures on Rate of Learning
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DARIA KACZOROWSKA (Teachers College, Columbia University), Ginger Harms (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated that young children possess a cusp, known as observational learning, with which they can learn through observing consequences delivered to others. Children with developmental delays often fail to develop this cusp and require intervention. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of researcher-delivered generalized social reinforcement versus stimuli-specific reinforcement for a peer confederate’s correct responses to tact stimuli during observational learning probe sessions. Participants were two preschoolers with developmental delays. The dependent variable was the number of observational learning presentations to criterion for the target participant. The researchers used an ABAB design with counter-balanced stimuli. The independent variables were stimuli-specific praise or generalized social reinforcement for the peer confederate’s correct responses. The researchers consequated incorrect responses with a correction procedure in each phase. The results show that both participants required fewer presentations to criterion in the stimuli-specific social reinforcement phases than in the generalized social reinforcement phases. These findings highlight differences between learning through antecedent conditions (e.g. Naming) versus learning as a result of consequences (learning through observing the consequences to others). The researchers discuss implications for observational learning procedures as well as tact instruction.
 
 

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