Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #284
Sunday, May 26, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
88.

Effectiveness of Immediate Versus Delayed Feedback on Therapist Skills in Implementing Discrete Trial Training

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
YUKIE KURUMIYA (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Patricia Weigand (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract:

The current study was conducted to 1) compare and evaluate the effectiveness of feedback at two different temporal locations (immediately after the performance versus immediately prior to the next performance opportunity), 2) investigate what behavior functions(s) that feedback could serve, and 3) identify whether preference of timing corresponded to performance improvement. Three experienced behavior therapists with different baseline levels participated in this study. Their performance in discrete trial training was evaluated in an alternating treatment design. Results indicated that both delayed feedback and immediate feedback were effective in improving discrete trial teaching implementation to the mastery level across all participants with no significant differences across all participants. A correlation between preference for feedback timing and performance was observed with two out of three participants. However, the findings suggest that, regardless of the personal preference of performers, feedback may primarily function as an EO for performers with a higher level of skill acquisition; whereas, feedback may primarily function as reinforcement for performers with a lower level of skill acquisition.

 
89.

Preferences and Performance Measures: Evaluating the Effects of Preference Assessment Methods and Reinforcer Delivery on Behavioral Staff Performance

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
DANIKA MCGANDY (Gorbold Behavioral Consulting, Inc.; Performance Trajectory), Stephanie Gorbold (Gorbold Behavioral Consulting, Inc.; Performance Trajectory), Myra Bertling (Performance Trajectory), Shazeen Ahmad (Gorbold Behavioral Consulting, Inc.; Performance Trajectory)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract:

Performance scorecards are an important performance management tool for any organization. They help both staff and managers track and gain a clear understanding of how employees are performing on tasks that are pertinent to their role, as well as the areas in which they may need additional support. They also allow for an objective measure to use when rewarding employee behavior, which when done with motivating consequences, can result in improved performance. The organizational behavior management literature includes few studies evaluating the effectiveness of various preference assessment methodologies on behavioral staff performance (Waldvogel, J.M., & Dixon, M.R., 2008; Wine, B., Reis, M., & Hantula, D., 2014). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a survey and ranking preference assessment method in identifying potential reinforcers for staff behavior. Effectiveness of preference assessment method is measured by comparing several staff performance measures before and after contingent reinforcer delivery across 21 months. Staff performance measures evaluated in this study include number of appointment cancellations, percent of clinical objectives mastered, and frequency of staff caseload changes.

 
90. Behavioral Safety in the Hairdresser’s Shop
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Alexandra Schönleber (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), CHRISTOPH F. BOERDLEIN (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract: Unsafe or risky postures are a common problem among professional hairdressers. Hairstylists work with chemicals, gas, many electric tools – and on top of that, they must stand all day long. This leads to postural deformities and persistent pain. A pilot study for the use of Behavior Based Safety (BBS) in a hairdresser shop was performed. As a result, three significant ergonomic behaviors became the focus of the intervention: • the hairstylist stands with both feet (three-point-stand) hip width on the floor • the hairstylist sits or stands with an upright upper body, the head is straight • the hairstylist changes the hairdryer and the brush into the other hand, at least every other minute The safe work behavior of two hairdressers in an owner-managed hairdresser shop was the dependent variable of the research. After baseline observations, the intervention has been implemented in a staggered manner, using a multiple-baseline design across subjects. Task clarification alone resulted in only minor and temporary improvements. Only the introduction of feedback and goal setting led to significant improvements in safe work postures.
 
91.

Direct Support Staff Retention and Turnover in the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis: A National Survey

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CORINNE THORNTON (Temple University; Aveanna )
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract:

This paper explores the current rates and correlates of turnover among direct support staff working with individuals with developmental disabilities. While the United State Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics collects data on annual separation rates by a variety of industry sectors, there is not a recognized sector for the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Other data sources similarly do not include Applied Behavior Analysis as its own industry sector, which produces a gap in knowledge. This study uses data obtained from providers of services for individuals with developmental disabilities in a national online survey to obtain rates of turnover for the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Results indicate a lower rate of turnover than what is reported in the fields of education, and social services in general. The results also indicate that pay rate and amount of supervision offered increase retention while training offered pre and post hire has little correlation to rate of turnover.

 
92.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist: Human Services in the Residential Group Home Setting

Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
MELYSSA MCDONOUGH (REM Minnesota), Brittany Kappel (REM Minnesota)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract:

The Performance Diagnostic Checklist – Human Services was evaluated for its applicability and usefulness in the residential group home setting. This study held two purposes; to assess if the PDC-HS would be an effective tool in determining performance deficit areas of staff expected to implement behavior procedures, as well as to determine if indicated versus non-indicated treatment of staff behavior resulted in change in client behavior. Results of this study showed that with Person A, at baseline, frequency of target behavior averaged 3.4 instances per day while staff adherence averaged 41%. After treatment, the average frequency of target behavior reduced to 0 and staff adherence increased to 100% with the same results at follow-up. With Person B, at baseline, frequency of target behaviors averaged 0.6 per day while staff adherence averaged 63%. After treatment, the average frequency of target behaviors reduced to 0 per day and staff adherence increased to 100% with the same results at a one month follow-up.

 
93.

Evaluating the Effects of a Token Economy on Target Responses in Staff

Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
JOANNE M GETTY (ABC Group Hawai'i), Janell Kaneshiro (ABC Group Hawai'i), Alexandra Pilar Sagastume (ABC Group Hawai'i)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract:

An area worthy of the attention of behavioral science is the behavior of staff in human service settings. The principles of learning and behavior, as applied to staff and the workplace can enable researchers to analyze what environmental changes can be made to increase staff motivation which can therefore result in increased performance, productivity, efficiency, or a decrease in errors. Although the growing popularity of Organizational Behavior Management has had an effect on the frequency of behavioral interventions used in business, the social importance of the behavior of staff that implement behavioral interventions used in treatment facilities and clinics necessitates further investigation and research. The current study evaluated the effect of the delivery of generalized conditioned reinforcers (tokens) to staff in a center that provides applied behavior analytic educational and behavior consulting to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other related developmental disabilities contingent on social interactions with clients not involving demands. This study attempts to contribute to current literature in applied behavioral science with the methodological application of a token economy to staff in human service settings.

 
94.

Occupational Safety and the Relapse of At-Risk Work Practices

Area: OBM; Domain: Theory
JONATHAN E. FRIEDEL (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Anne Foreman (CDC/NIOSH), Oliver Wirth (CDC/NIOSH)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract:

Behavioral-focused interventions are common in comprehensive workplace safety programs. The use of behavioral technologies such as positive reinforcement, measurement and feedback, and goal-setting can be effective in helping to establish safe work practices, but the long-term maintenance of these practices proves to be a challenge in industrial settings where competing reinforcement contingencies (e.g., productivity and time pressures) are ever-present. In these settings, the recurrence (i.e., relapse) of at-risk behaviors is a continual threat. The goal of this poster is to summarize the different forms and underlying behavioral principles of relapse (e.g., reacquisition, spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, resurgence, etc.) and how these contribute to breakdowns in the long-term efficacy of behavioral safety interventions. We conclude that an understanding of these principles will allow occupational safety experts to anticipate the potential for relapse in the design of more effective behavioral interventions.

 
95. Using an Adaptive Computer-Based Staff Training Package to Teach Staff a Social Skills Intervention
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Caitlin Mailey (Drexel University), JESSICA DAY-WATKINS (Drexel University)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract: The staff training literature often sites availability of expert trainers as a limitation to replicating training packages using in vivo training. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an adaptive, computer-based staff training package called Train-to-Code to teach a social skills intervention using a video model to two graduate students and one undergraduate student. Multiple video exemplars of each step of the procedure were viewed and coded as implemented correctly or incorrectly according to a comprehensive taxonomy developed by the researcher. Most-to-least prompting as well as feedback and error correction were embedded into the program and were faded as the participant succeeded through each of the seven levels of training for a total of six modules. A multiple probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program during pre- and post-training probes that were conducted with a confederate learner before and after completion of the training. Two of three participant scores increased from pre-training probes to post-training probes indicating that Train-to-Code was effective at teaching participants to teach a social skills intervention using a video model. These results have implications for remote staff training when in vivo training is not feasible.
 
96. Using the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Increase Treatment Fidelity on Behavior Intervention Plans
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLIN M GOULD (University of Massachusetts Boston), Melissa Collier-Meek (University of Massachusetts Boston), Lisa Sanetti (University of Connecticut)
Discussant: Peter-Cornelius Dams (Dams & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract: Paraeducators are responsible for implementing behavior plans for students in special education, but often have little prior training or experience. This lack of training fails to prepare paraeducators for their complex, challenging role of delivering instruction and supports to students with intensive needs. This poster will introduce the Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC) and review how it was used to identify appropriate supports in a study across paraeducators supporting students with autism in the general education classroom. Paraeducator implementation and student behavior were assessed via direct observation. Observations occurred for 30 min 2-3 times per week. Delivery of PDC-informed support was staggered across paraeducators to demonstrate experimental control in keeping with multiple baseline design. Visual analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of the PDC support on implementation and student outcomes. Results suggest that the PDC informed the selection of different implementation supports for paraeducators, but all required direct training. When applied, the PDC-informed supports were an associated with an increase in the level and trend of treatment fidelity for most paraeducators. One paraeducators’ treatment fidelity data did not increase following the PDC support. Student outcome data will also be analyzed and reported in this presentation.
 
 

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