Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #503
Monday, May 27, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
139. Using Telehealth to Manage Problem Behavior: An Evaluation of Dropouts and Cancellations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PEI HUANG (The University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Kenzie Marie Miller (The University of Iowa), Sungeun Kang (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Loukia Tsami (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract: Telehealth can be an effective approach for conducting functional analysis and functional communication training with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who display problem behavior (Wacker et al., 2013a; Wacker at al., 2013b). Researchers have investigated various aspects of telehealth delivery, such as cost benefits (Lindgren et al., 2016) and treatment fidelity (Suess, 2014). However, few studies to date has evaluated dropouts and cancellations within this model. The current study analyzed data from a telehealth behavioral assessment and treatment program which is part of a randomized clinical trial of functional analysis procedures in progress across three sites (Lindgren & Wacker, 2015-2019; NIMH R01MH104363). Young children diagnosed with ASD who engaged in problem behavior and their primary caregivers participated in this study. Treatments are based on the results of either a standard functional analysis (SFA) in the standard group or an abbreviated antecedent assessment (brief assessment of motivation; BAM) in the pragmatic group. Within a weekly assessment and treatment model employing functional communication training as the primary treatment, this study looked at the percentage of dropouts/cancellations and the major themes among the reasons for dropping out/cancellations. The results suggest that the most common reasons for dropping out include no response and lost before start; the most common reasons for cancellations include technology issues, health/illness, and schedule conflicts.
 
140.

Decreasing Non-Contextual Vocalizations in a Child With ASD Using Differential Reinforcement Procedure

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE MARTOCCHIO (Beacon ABA Services ), Lisa Tereshko (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Vocal Stereotypy has been reported to occur in an average of 54% ofindividuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (Chebli, Martin, and Lanovaz, 2016). This behavior can take many forms such as repetitive vocalizations, sounds, noises, babbles, or singing that are not directly related to the current context or activity, and can interfere with functional communication and hinder opportunities for social engagement (Ahearn, Clark, and MacDonald, 2007).. The current study examined the use of a differential consequences procedure to reduce vocal stereotypies in a six-year-old boy with ASD . In Phase 1 of this study, a watch on the child’s wrist was established as a discriminative stimulus (SD) that indicated availability of reinforcement contingent on the absence of vocal stereotypy during treatment sessions. Once control over vocal stereotypy in the treatment condition (wearing the watch) was established, Phase 2 of the study was implemented in which procedures to transfer control over stereotypy across people, settings, and activities were implemented. A third experimental phase was then conducted in which the participant was taught to self-monitor frequency of vocal stereotypy and self-deliver reinforcement using a token system. Data indicate that the differential reinforcement procedures implemented in this study were effective in reducing frequency of vocal stereotypy for this participant across all conditions . Discussion the study’s results will focus on social implications, limitations of the current study, and areas for future research.

 
141.

Analysis of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JASMEEN KAUR (Kennedy Krieger institute ), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Andrew Yang (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Joelle Krantz (Kennedy Krieger Institute; The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute; The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute; The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Functional analysis procedures emphasize identifying the function of problem behaviors by observing differential responding as a result of environmental manipulations. However, each instance of severe problem behavior (SPB) is potentially dangerous. Research on precursors has been limited, however, two methods of identifying precursors have been described, and there is some evidence that interventions targeting precursors can prevent SPB occurrence. One method used to identify precursors is a correlational analysis. However, results are correlational and only indicate a temporal relation between the precursor and SPB. In order for a behavior to be a precursor to SPB, it must also have a functional relation (Fritz et al., 2013). The current study includes both methods described above and was completed with an 8-year-old male with autism who engaged in precursor behavior (negative vocalizations, stomping, and/or dropping to the floor from a standing or seated position) and SPB (self-injury and disruption). Interviews with caregivers and descriptive assessments were conducted to identify precursor and SPB. An experimental analysis of precursors was conducted to demonstrate that precursor and SPB fall within the same functional response class. During test conditions, the therapist systematically delivered social consequences for (1) precursor behavior or (2) SPB. During control conditions, the client had noncontingent access to highly preferred toys and adult attention. Results from the experimental analysis of precursors and the correlational analysis indicated that precursor behaviors reliably preceded SPB, the occurrence of SPB diminished if reinforcement was delivered for precursor behavior, and the behaviors were part of the same functional response class.

 
142. Using Stereotypy as Reinforcement for Alternative Behaviors in a Chained Schedule
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATIE JOHNSON (University of Missouri-Columbia, Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities ), Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri-Columbia, Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities ), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract: Some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in stereotypy or repetitive behavior typically maintained by automatic reinforcement. Chronic stereotypy, especially at high frequencies, can interfere with learning and cause social stigmatization. Response blocking and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) have been found to be effective for reducing motor and vocal stereotypy. Previous literature has also evaluated stereotypy as reinforcement for alternative behaviors, such as functional play or work tasks. The current study sought to replicate and extend previous studies by evaluating the effectiveness of a chained schedule on gaining stimulus control over motor and vocal stereotypy and increasing the complexity of novel alternative behaviors. Preliminary results indicate that chained schedules are effective at reducing stereotypy during the s-delta and increasing the complexity of novel alternative behaviors. These findings emphasize the importance of providing contingent access to stereotypy when attempting to gain stimulus control and highlights the ability of skill acquisition of novel behaviors during the s-delta.
 
143.

Mand Acquisition: An Inspection of Prompting Methods Within Mand Instruction

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LORI L. CHAMBERLAIN (PaTTAN Autism Initiative ABA Supports), Ashley Harned (PaTTAN Autism Initiative), Aimee Miller (PaTTAN Autism Initiative ), Brooke Stock (PaTTAN Autism Initiative ), Amiris Dipuglia (PaTTAN/ Autism Initiative)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in mand acquisition in learners with Autism and other language delays when they are taught to mand using an echoic prompt versus an intraverbal plus echoic prompt. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the rate of mand acquisition between the two different teaching procedures. This study was completed in the past with three participants that showed slower acquisition when mands were taught using the intraverbal plus echoic prompt. The study is being replicated this year with three more participants. These participants are showing mixed results presently. The parameters of mand instruction will be analyzed and discussed concerning important variables to consider during teaching. Motivating operations, prompt levels with early learners versus a learner that has had many mands previously acquired, and finally the use of the intraverbal prompt with instruction for a student that has previously only been taught using echoic prompting only are important variables to analyze with regards to mand instruction.

 
144. Rapport Building and Instructional Fading: Replication in a School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEPHANIE COE (May Institute)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract: A key diagnostic feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is social impairment. Therefore, the teaching of social skills is frequently incorporated into treatment packages for individuals with ASD. However, because of social impairment, escape-related problem behavior can be evoked within the instructional setting (Geiger, Carr, & LeBlanc, 2010). In the current study, the guidelines described by Shillingsburg, Hansen & Wright (2018) were utilized in order to evaluate the effects of rapport building and instructional fading in the minimization of problem behaviors and promotion of social initiations for an 8-year-old boy with ASD. The participant was referred to an early-learner program in a private school for students with ASD due to a high frequency of severe problem behavior, including aggression and self-injurious behavior. The current study serves as an extension of Shillingsburg et al. (2018) in that it utilizes a nine-stage rapport building and instructional fading progression within a school setting. Results of the current study suggest that a treatment package incorporating rapport building and instructional fading is effective in minimizing problem behavior.
 
145. The Use of Technology to Teach Reading Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of Quality
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SO YEON KIM (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), Rose A. Mason (PUrdue University), Catharine Lory (Purdue University), Emily Gregori (Purdue University), Marie David (Purdue University)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract: Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have diverse needs in reading. One increasingly popular technique for providing individualized instruction for students with ASD is using technology as an instructional tool. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to determine the quality of the research evidence on technology-based reading interventions for students with ASD and to analyze the characteristics of research studies with high-quality research evidence. A total of 31 experimental studies that incorporated technology (e.g., computer, iPad) into reading interventions for students with ASD were systematically aggregated. The rigor of group design studies (n = 4) and single-case studies (n = 27) were reviewed according to What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) design standards. Overall 17 studies (55%) met the WWC design standards without or with reservations. Descriptive information of technology-based reading interventions with high-quality research evidence (n = 17) was summarized (e.g., age, diagnosis, setting, interventionist, intervention components, outcomes). Additionally, the use of technology during the reading intervention was described based on the type of technology (i.e., hardware, software), roles of technology (i.e., presenting materials, delivering intervention, supporting instruction), and availability (i.e., price). Lastly, implications for researchers and educators will be discussed.
 
146. The Effects of the Mirror Protocol on Generalised Motor Imitation and Early Observing Responses
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AISLING COLLINS (Jigsaw CABAS® School), Samantha Parker (Jigsaw CABAS® School ), Jo Thorne (Jigsaw CABAS® School ), Emily Peak (Jigsaw CABAS® School)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract: The acquisition of a generalised motor imitation (GMI) repertoire is a fundamental developmental cusp that has significant impacts on an individual’s ability to learn without direct instruction and develop their repertoire of habilitative responses, yet studies suggest that children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulties acquiring such a generalised repertoire. This research extends previous studies by investigating the effects of the mirror protocol on the inducement of a GMI repertoire and on other early observing responses in a 14 year old male participant who had a diagnosis of an ASD. The participant functioned at the early listener and early speaker levels of verbal behaviour. The research was conducted at an independent CABAS® day school for children on the autism spectrum aged between 4 and 19 years old. Results demonstrated a successful acquisition of GMI following the mirror protocol, with rates of acquisition increasing as phases went on. The protocol also had effects on some of the participant’s early observing responses, therefore the necessity to adjust future curricula for this participant discussed.
 
147.

Relative Preferences for Edible and Leisure Stimuli in Children With Autism: A Replication in Italy

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Crystal M. Slanzi (University of Florida), Maria Graziano (Cooperativa Dalla Luna, Bari), GUIDO DANGELO (Cooperativa Dalla Luna, Bari), Daniel E Conine (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Preference assessments are frequently used to determine which items may function as reinforcers during skill acquisition programs for clients with autism. Numerous studies have found that edibles tend to outrank leisure activities when they are included together in preference assessments (DeLeon et.al., 1997, Bojack & Carr, 1999, Fahmie, et.al., 2015). If so, the reinforcing potential of leisure items may be obscured by the presence of edible items in the same assessment. In recent years, with advances in technology, there are a wider variety of leisure items available, such as tablets and cell phones. As a result, some children may show a greater preference for technological leisure items with respect to food items during preference assessment. To date, only one study has included screen-based media in assessments that compare edible and leisure items (Conine & Vollmer, 2018). The present study replicated Conine and Vollmer with 16 subjects with autism in Italy. Results showed that for 44% of participants a leisure item ranked above all edible items, and for 28% leisure items displaced all edible items. Thus, our study replicates the results of Conine and Vollmer and suggests that these findings have generality across cultures.

 
148.

Toilet Training of a 5-Year-Old Boy With Autism Spectrum Without Intellectual Impairment

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUMIKO SASADA (Academy of Behavioral Coaching), Kenji Okuda (Educational Foundation of Nishi Karuizawa Gakuen)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

?Study Objectives?The purpose of this study is to examine toilet training and its effects in young autistic children without intellectual impairment. Despite being able to urinate in the toilet for the target child, the use of urine and diaper continued until 5 years old. So we gave consultation to parents and a token - economy to the boy. Subject: A boy with autism spectrum without intellectual impairment, is 5 years old, belong to kindergarten. Urination at the toilet was possible at the age of 3, but parents used diapers as he wanted, even after that. Before the intervention it confirmed to the attending physician that there was no physical abnormality about excretion. Target behavior: To urinate in the toilet Measure: Number of remains urine except toilet Intervention scenes: The time from getting up after getting up to the entrance at home and staying at the kindergarten was targeted. Generalization: The generalization setting was ranging from after kindergarten to going to bed. Procedure: We explained his parents that they continued to use the diaper according to the child's requirements, it increased his behavior to urinate at other place except toilet. We said to the boy, (1) time of morning at home (2) in the morning at kindergarten (3) kindergarten in the afternoon, If he was able to urinate in the toilet without being urinated all their period, he got a hero card. It was also sounded an alarm tone every 45 minutes to guide the toilet. ?Results and Discussion? On baseline, no success was observed for more than 2 days, but from the 6th day of intervention success was successful for 10 days. Given a hero card, the child was joyfully jumped and had the opportunity to voluntarily go to the toilet. There was no enuresis even during the evening hours at home in the generalization setting. In autistic children with excessively restricted or persistent interests and high language ability, parents are involved in the child's claims and sometimes maintain inappropriate life habits. Consultation to parents and motivation for children are important for obtaining appropriate ADL.

 
149.

Effect of an Interactive Web Training to Support Parents in the Management of Problem Behaviors: A Randomized Waitlist Study

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE TURGEON (University of Montreal), Marc J. Lanovaz (Université de Montréal)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently emit problem behaviors (PB). When left untreated, they are associated with consequences such as social exclusion, limiting learning, and potential harm to the child. However, many families have limited access to effective interventions, such as services based on behavior analysis, due to long waiting lists for public services, geographic isolation, and costs for obtaining services from the private sector. Web-based training for parents can be a useful tool to ensure early access to best practices for reducing PB in children with autism. The effectiveness of a web-based training intervention for decreasing childrens’ PB and increasing modifying parenting practices was assessed using a randomized waitlist design. Forty-seven parents of children with ASD were recruited for this study. Analyses using randomisation tests indicate a significant difference in the change of score for the integrity of the treatment (Mexp.= 1.07; Mwait.= -1.21; p< 0.01), as well as, a marginally significant difference for PB frequency (Mexp.= -12.86; Mwait.= -5.71; p = 0.063) and severity (Mexp.= -8.71; Mwait.= -2.54; p = 0.065). Results for the eight and twelve-week post-tests will also be presented. This study contributes to the knowledge regarding technology as an inexpensive and accessible tool to support families for the management of PB of children with ASD. Limits and future directions will be presented.

 
150.

Assessment and Treatment of Response to Name in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Daniel E Conine (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), ARLEEN M RUIZCALDERON (Florida Autism Center), Molly A Barlow (University of Florida), Emma Grauerholz-Fisher (University of Florida)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not reliably respond when their names are called. As such, response to name has become diagnostic for ASD and has been indicated as a critical target for early intervention. The current study extends previous research by evaluating an abbreviated assessment and treatment model for response to name with six children with ASD. Results indicate that tangible reinforcement procedures can produce rapid increases in discriminated response to name, often without the addition of response prompts. After treatment, response to name was maintained at lean schedules of tangible reinforcement for all participants. Caregiver training was also conducted after treatment, and our assessment procedures discriminated between children who did and did not require intervention for response to name. We also used a social screening condition with all participants to assess for deficits and response to name, and to determine whether necessary treatment conditions can be predicted based on performance during screening. The results of this study have implications for clinical practice in terms of efficient approaches to treatment, and methods of programming for generalization, maintenance, and caregiver training.

 
151. An Evaluation of a Clinic-Based Intensive Toilet-Training Package
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANELLE KIRSTIE BACOTTI (University of Florida), Brandon C. Perez (University of Florida), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract: Toileting skills are often delayed or not acquired by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (e.g., Tsai, Stewart, & August, 1981) which can negatively influence their quality of life (Kroeger & Sorensen-Burnworth, 2009). Effective toilet training procedures for young children with ASD have included multiple treatment components that require caregivers to implement them across settings (e.g., LeBlanc et al., 2005). The current study systematically replicated the procedures outlined by LeBlanc et al. (2005) in an early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) clinic. The subjects were three young children with ASD who experience urinary incontinence. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across subjects was implemented. The procedures involved a progressive toilet sit schedule, reinforcement for appropriate urinations and self-initiations, positive practice for urinary accidents, increased fluids, a urine sensor and alarm, and communication training. Baseline performance was near zero levels or variable. An immediate change in level of successful performance was observed with the implementation of treatment. These results suggest the toilet training package was effective when targeting urinary continence in children with ASD when implemented in an EIBI setting. This evidence implies children with ASD can be successfully toilet trained when urinary continence is targeted in one setting.
 
152. Equating Target Sets in the Adapted Alternating Treatments Design: A Review of Methods and Recommendations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE BETH HESTER (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sydney Batchelder (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sydney Ball (University of North Carolina Wilimington), Astrid La Cruz Montilla (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract: The adapted alternating treatment design (AATD) is a commonly used experimental design in comparative studies on instructional procedures. This design allows for the evaluation of two or more independent variables on responding to unique target sets, prominently used in skill acquisition research. A critical feature of this design is that the unique target sets must be equated for difficulty to ensure a valid comparison of the independent variables. The current review included articles published in five behavior-analytic journals that used the AATD between 1985 and 2017. The findings show an increasing trend in the cumulative number of articles using the AATD with 68 total articles published in the reviewed period. Of these articles, less than half (i.e., 42.65%) indicate using any form of logical analysis to ensure that targets are of equal difficulty. Alternative methods for assigning targets to conditions were commonly reported (e.g., random assignment), which may duly affect behavior analyst’s confidence in the findings of these studies. The implications of these findings and best practice in the use of the AATD are considered.
 
153.

Research on Technology Used with Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review (1995-2018)

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY HENG (Université de Montréal), Marc J. Lanovaz (Université de Montréal), Alexia Beauregard (Université de Sherbrooke)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Researchers have widely adopted technology to provide intervention and to teach skills to preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using technology has the advantage of being accessible, and predictable, and these devices often function as reinforcing consequences. With the advance of science and the arrival of new types of technology, the number of studies on this topic has grown and it is difficult for researchers to know what has been done and what has not. This systematic review of studies from 1995 to 2018 therefore aims to provide a current state of the literature and guide future research on the subject. Our systematic review included 168 studies, which were categorized according to their study design, number of participants, settings, types of technology, devices, skills targeted and level of assistance. Our results recommended future studies to explore other types of technologies than speech-generating devices (SGD) and video modeling as they have been getting the most attention up until now. As for the methodology of the studies, our result indicated a need of more group studies following single-cases ones as well as a better isolation of the technology from human interventions to establish a greater conclusion on their efficiency.

 
154.

Teaching Functional Communication Using a Picture Exchange Communication System Through Parent Training and Intervention: A Case Study

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLE GORDEN (Comprehensive Behavior Supports)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a protocol designed to teach individuals with limited or no communication skills to communicate using pictures. Often, children with Autism display communication deficits at a very young age. Previous studies have shown that intervention in combination with parent training is essential for teaching and generalizing novel skills. The purpose of this poster is to summarize the effects of discrete trial teaching combined with parent training when teaching functional communication in an applied setting. The Board Certified Behavior Analyst used the Picture Exchange Communication System protocol to teach a nonverbal three-year-old child with Autism across a seven month period of intervention. The results demonstrated that the child’s spontaneous communication skills increased during intervention, however acquisition rate increased when parent training was utilized, as well. As a result, the client completed Phase III in the Picture Exchange Communication System protocol. Therefore, increased acquisition was observed when parent-implemented Picture Exchange Communication System training was combined with discrete trial learning during in-home Applied Behavior Analysis sessions.

 
155.

A Personal Narrative Intervention for Adults With Autism and Intellectual Disability

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE BIRRI (University of Cincinnati), Christina R. Carnahan (University of Cincinnati), Pamela Williamson (The University of North Carolina at Greensboro), Carla T. Schmidt (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

A personal narrative intervention package was used to teach macrostructure within participant-generated personal narratives. The effects of the personal narrative intervention package were assessed using a combined single-subject, multiple-baseline, and an A-B-A-B design across four adults with ASD and ID. During the initial baseline phase, participants included few macrostructure elements in their personal narratives. When the intervention package was introduced, there was an immediate increase in the number of macrostructure components included in participant-generated personal narratives. A withdrawal of the intervention yielded results similar to those of baseline. Following the reintroduction of the intervention, macrostructure scores immediately increased back to levels similar to those of the initial intervention. The skills taught to participants were maintained across three weeks post-intervention, however, generalization was not demonstrated. This personal narrative intervention package allowed adults with ASD and ID to share personal stories and more meaningful social experiences with others.

 
156.

An Examination of Lag Schedules and Response Effort During Functional Communication Training in Children With Autism and Challenging Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching ), Emily Ailene Corley (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) outcomes are generally vulnerable to relapse evoked by treatment challenges. Basic and applied experiments have suggested that reinforced variability may be more resistant to change than reinforced repetition. Lag schedules of reinforcement can increase variability in play skills, feeding, and verbal behavior such as tacts, intraverbals, and selection-based or topography-based manding. Therefore, reinforcing mand variability during FCT with lag schedules may mitigate recurrence of challenging behavior by strengthening the persistence of manding during challenges to treatment such as a sudden increase in response effort. The current study evaluated potential recurrence mitigating effects of lag schedules during FCT by comparing challenging behavior and manding in an effort challenge preceded by a Lag 0 or Lag 2 schedule of reinforcement in a boy with autism and challenging behavior. We replicated experimental control over mand variability and challenging behavior demonstrated in prior studies but found no benefit of reinforcing mand variability in FCT prior to the effort challenge. Implications for future research are discussed.

 
157.

Evaluation of a Brief Engagement-Based Single Stimulus Preference Assessment in Young Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY AILENE CORLEY (University of Texas at San Antonio), Bryant C. Silbaugh (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Empirical preference assessments enable practitioners to predict which items or activities will function as reinforcers for children with disabilities. For example, practitioners can use a single stimulus preference assessment (SS-SPA) to identify preferred stimuli by repeatedly presenting the learner with stimuli singly and measuring approach or engagement. However, the SS-SPA may be incompatible with many clinical or educational environments due to its lengthy administration time and its utility in young children is not well understood. Therefore, the current study examined an abbreviated engagement-based version of the SS-SPA in two young children with development disorders and evaluated the reinforcing effects of preferred and nonpreferred stimuli in a concurrent operants reinforcer assessment. We discontinued the study for one participant after completing the preference assessment. Our results suggest that a single administration of an engagement-based single stimulus preference assessment can identify preferred stimuli in young children with developmental disorders. We also found that the Reinforcer Assessment for Individuals with Severe Disabilities questionnaire yielded more accurate predictions about reinforcing stimuli relative to our empirical preference assessment. We cautiously conclude that repeated administration of the engagement-based SS-SPA may be necessary to obtain differentiated data and we discuss some of the nuances of conducting reinforcer assessments that measure “in-square” behavior which seem to have received little or no discussion in the literature.

 
158.

A Comparison of Nested and Un-Nested Stimuli to Teach Visual Identity Matching

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE MARIE CUNNINGHAM (UNMC), Elizabeth J. Preas (UNMC ), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Early intensive behavioral intervention programs often use identity-matching procedures to teach children with autism basic discriminative and relational performances. However, teaching visual discriminations to some children with autism may be challenging when common methods of teaching identity matching have failed. In the current study, we manipulated the tactile features of stimuli to increase the discriminability between identical matching objects for two children with autism. We used an adapted-alternating-treatments design within a concurrent multiple baseline design across sets of targets to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of nested versus un-nested matching stimuli. Nested stimuli were objects in which the participant could place the identical matching stimulus inside the comparison stimulus when presented in an array of two; whereas, the participant placed the identical un-nested matching stimulus next to the comparison stimulus. The overall results showed that participants acquired nested targets in fewer sessions and trials compared to un-nested targets. Findings from this study suggest that tactile manipulation of stimuli may facilitate the acquisition of identity matching for children with autism with a history of failed attempts to teach matching using common teaching procedures.

 
159. An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a Behavioral Assessment of Sibling Relationships
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLENE NICOLE AGNEW (The Graduate Center; City University of New York; Queens College), Emily A. Jones (Queens College, The Graduate Center, City University of New York)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract: Quality of sibling relationships is evaluated with written or verbal assessments; however, no assessment of sibling relationships captures the perspective of siblings who cannot complete these measures, such as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A lack of assessments for this population makes it difficult to describe their sibling relationships, evaluate outcomes, and compare sibling interventions. In this study, we investigated a behavioral assessment of sibling relationship preference (the Sibling Relationship Assessment, or SRA) consistent with the methodology of preference assessments. We used a group design to assess discriminability between 10 dyads where both siblings were typically developing and 10 dyads where one sibling had ASD. We integrated the evaluation of SRA methodology into standard psychometric assessment guidelines of reliability and validity for psychological tests. The SRA demonstrated feasibility and efficiency. It also discriminated between groups. We found strong evidence for the psychometric properties of test-retest and inter-rater reliability, but low evidence for convergent and discriminant validity, possibly due to the bidirectional nature of validity assessment and lack of any current measure to assess validity for this population. Overall, the SRA is a feasible, efficient, and psychometrically reliable measure of sibling relationship quality, although further psychometric evaluation is recommended.
 
160.

Use of Parent-Mediated Social Story(TM)Intervention for Social Interaction of Korean American Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VERONICA YOUN KANG (University of Illinois at Chicago), Sunyoung Kim (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Greater attention has been on children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as well as those with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in applied research. The current study evaluated the effects of parent-mediated Social StoryTM intervention on social interaction of three 3- to 7-year-old Korean American (KA) children with ASD. Using multiple baseline design across subjects, the three children and their parents read stories written in their preferred language that illustrated four social play behaviors: appropriate verbal/nonverbal initiations and responses. During intervention, parents and children read the stories and were observed during a 10-min play at home with a designated set of toys. During baseline, generalization with researcher, and follow-up, social stories were not read prior to the 10-min play. Based on a visual analysis and percentage of non-overlapping data (PND), the three children showed improvement in their responses to adults’ initiations as well as in their initiations and affects after reading the Social StoryTM, although PND for initiations were relatively low in two children. The findings suggest that training KA parents of children with ASD to implement the Social StoryTM intervention positively impact children’s social interaction when Social StoriesTM reflect their home language and culture.

 
161.

Reducing Blood Draw Phobia in an Adult With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Low-Cost Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
JAMES NICHOLSON MEINDL (The University of Memphis), Serena Saba (Lewis & Clark College), Mackenzie Gray (Independent Researcher), Laurie L. Stuebing (OR-ABA), Angela Nicole Jarvis (The University of Memphis)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Needle phobias are common in children and adults worldwide. One effective intervention for this phobia is exposure therapy where a participant is gradually exposed to increasing levels of the fear-evoking stimulus while differential reinforcement is applied. This intervention, however, may be difficult to implement with some medical procedures as it may be difficult to obtain unfettered access to medical facilities and equipment for the purposes of exposure. Virtual reality may overcome these obstacles. In this investigation we developed a low-cost virtual reality-based exposure therapy which was used with an adult male with autism spectrum disorder and a history of extreme needle phobia. The intervention quickly eliminated the phobia and the effects were generalized across settings, behaviors, and time.

 
162.

Acquisition of Manual Signs Using Within-Session Prompt Fading and Verbal Reprimands

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAIME ALYSSA SCIBELLI (Melmark New England), Lauren Carter (Melmark New England), Silva Orchanian (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Errorless learning techniques teach skills under dense schedules of reinforcement while minimizing error pattern development. Undesirable outcomes of such techniques include prompt dependency. Paradoxically, physical prompting and error correction may be aversive students, making the relationship between prompting and skill acquisition complex. The purpose of this study was to utilize within-session prompt fading paired with verbal reprimands to overcome prompt dependency in an individual with Autism learning sign language using a multiple baseline design. During phase 1, all correct responses resulted in access to the functional reinforcer; incorrect responses resulted in error correction (full physical prompting). During phase 2, the participant was required to move through the prompting hierarchy until independence was achieved within each trial. Correct prompted responses resulted in verbal praise and the presentation of the next discriminative stimuli; correct independent responses resulted in access to the functional reinforcer. All incorrect responses resulted in a verbal reprimand (that’s not right!) followed by a requirement to repeat the trial. Generalization was assessed across settings and instructors. Procedures were replicated for an additional communicative response. IOA was conducted for 33% of sessions with a mean agreement of 100%. Results showed the intervention was highly effective in producing skill acquisition.

 
163. Using an Eye-Tracking Training Paradigm to Teach Responsiveness to Joint Attention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALLISON BRANDMARK (James Madison University), Cassidy White (James Madison University), Sarah Skidmore (James Madison University), Raquel Dash (James Madison University), Trevor F. Stokes (James Madison University), Krisztina Jakobsen (James Madison University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract: Young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) commonly display a deficit in Joint Attention (JA), which is correlated with delayed language development and lower levels of communication and social skills later in life. JA is a social interaction in which attention is concurrently managed between an object or event and a social partner. Several studies have successfully trained JA in children with ASD using in-person behavior analytic methodologies. With the development of new technology, researchers have started using an eye-tracking device for a more precise measurement of JA. This has led to innovative training paradigms. The current study used an eye-tracking device to train preschool-aged children with a deficit in JA to engage in JA using a prerecorded video. The participants, who were between the ages of four and six and who were suspected of having ASD, were shown videos of a model engaging in JA. Using most-to-least prompting, at least one participant successfully learned to follow the model’s eye-gaze and began to engage in JA with the model. While data is still being collected, training JA with an eye-tracking device and prerecorded videos may be equally effective and possibly easier than in-person trainings.
 
164. Treatment of Stereotypy: Differential Reinforcement Schedules and Reinforcer Delivery Rate
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FINLEY CRUGER (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Angelica J Sedano (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Chelsea Hedquist (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract: We used multielement and reversal designs to compare two differential reinforcement schedules, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in three individuals with autism who exhibited automatically-reinforced stereotypy. DRA was more effective than DRO for decreasing stereotypy and increasing appropriate engagement and productivity. A potential explanation for this differential efficacy is DRA may have been resulted in a greater reinforcer delivery rate than DRO. To examine this possibility, we retrospectively collected frequency data on reinforcer delivery from video samples of DRA and DRO sessions. For two of three participants, the mean rate of reinforcer delivery was higher in DRA than in DRO, suggesting that a higher density of reinforcer delivery was correlated with increased efficacy. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research will be discussed. Interobserver agreement was collected for 37.1% of sessions and averaged 98.8%.
 
165.

The Effects of Prompts in Error Correction in Early Behavioral Intervention for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHENGAN YUAN (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Error correction is one of the most common procedures used in early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism. Effective error-correction procedures are critical to facilitate task acquisition and typically include a prompt for learners to make a correct response. A variety of prompts during error correction have been reported, such as vocal model (e.g., Kodak et al., 2016) and gestural prompt (Leaf et al., 2016). However, given prompting procedures may have differential effects (e.g., Finkel & Williams, 2001; Ingvarsson & Hollobaugh, 2011), error correction with different prompts warrants investigation. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of error-correction procedures with an echoic or a tact prompt on the acquisition of an intraverbal skill of three children with autism. When an error occurs, the instructor will either deliver an echoic model or a tact prompt for the participants to make a correct response. A multiple baseline design with embedded alternating treatments is used to detect differential effects of the two error-correction procedures. The results may provide guidance for effective use of prompts during error correction for children with autism in an early behavioral intervention setting. Data collection will be completed in February 2019.

 
166.

Bite Sized: Teaching Self-Pacing to a Child With Autism During Mealtimes

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN ANN HOYLE (SARRC), Brent Seymour (Southwest Autism Research)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the area of feeding can be a challenge for many. Issues with feeding can range from skill deficits related to consumption, food selectivity, and prior traumatic experiences. Specifically, teaching one to safely consume a broader variety of foods and textures is critical to increase the individual’s adaptive repertoire, and as a result provides lifelong opportunity for social enrichment during mealtimes. The goal of the present study was to teach a child with ASD to learn self-pacing, while engaging in independent feeding. Extra-stimulus prompting and systematic manipulation of bite amount were used to teach the participant to pace themselves and consume an age-appropriate amount of food during each bite. The stimulus was then faded to a common plate used at home and school, and the number of bites available on the plate was gradually increased. Results indicate that fading the stimulus, as well as, manipulation of the amount during bites was successful in teaching a child to consume a safe and appropriate number of sequential bites while self-feeding.

 
167.

Quantifying Small-Group Interactions With Motion Capture System: Perspectives on Behavioral Development

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MASASHI TSUKAMOTO (Keio University), Airi Tsuji (University of Tsukuba), Satoru Sekine (Keio University), Kenji Suzuki (University of Tsukuba), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Using engineering technologies to quantify interpersonal interactions could provide another perspective for the social intervention in children with autism. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the small-group interactions between two typically developing children (age 6, respectively) and two adults using the motion capture system (MCS). This experiment consisted of a single session including testing phases and interaction phases. In testing phases (baseline, post 1, and post 2), the children and the adults played a kind of volleyball which required to toss a balloon toward each other, wearing a specialized cap which acquires the information about head position. The children freely moved around and touched the balloon in the circle with a diameter of approximately four meters while the adults were pinned in the predetermined position. Results from testing phases showed that the rate of children’s engagement to the adult who intended to reinforce their social-communicative responses in interaction phases consistently increased (Fig. 1). Our concern is whether we could observe a correlation between the number of interactions such as toss a balloon and the tripartite interpersonal distance calculated from information of head positions (the MCS data is under analysis).

 
168. Using Acoustical Feedback to Improve Autistic Student Behavior During Transitions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ADELE ANAGRAFICA CARPITELLI (Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento Allenamente TICE Live and Learn), claudia loria (Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento Allenamente ), Valentina Petrini (Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento Allenamente), sara nutini (Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento Allenamente)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract: Transitions are a natural part of everyday activities during the day when moving from one activity or place to another. Extended transition durations, particularly transition periods between one activity and another are related to problem behavior among children in educational, and all other settings (Ardoin, Martens, & Wolfe, 1999. The percentage of time spent in transitions during a school day is about 18-25% (Schmit, Alper, & Raschke, 2000), and 85% of teachers in preschool and kindergarten classrooms identified independent transitions as a critical key to success (Wilder, Chen, & Atwell, 2006). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of auditory feedback to improve transition behavior in a children with autism using a changing criterion design. The dependent variables measured were the percentage of correct steps emitted by the student during the 5 minutes baseline and frequency of problem behavior in baseline. The independent variable was a training based on a modified TAGteachTM procedure and correction to decrease problem behavior while increasing appropriate walking. The results indicated that the intervention was successful in reducing problem behavior and increasing the percentage of correct step during transition for the participant.
 
169.

Increasing Leisure Item Engagement in an Individual With Restricted Interests

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH PRESCOTT (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Abigail McVarish (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Valerie Hall (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to increase simple and complex leisure item engagement across a variety of non-electronic items. An individual with autism, who engaged with an iPad to the exclusion of other leisure activities, participated. Response restriction (RR) preference assessments were conducted before, during, and following training to determine whether shifts in response allocation emerged. A multiple baseline across items design was used. We assessed leisure item training, including prompting and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), for increasing simple and complex forms of item engagement. Prompting alone was sufficient in increasing simple engagement to criterion levels. However, the addition of DRA was required to increase complex engagement. Increases in engagement occurred with an untrained leisure item. Shifts in response allocation from iPad to non-electronic leisure items occurred in post-training RR assessments. Reliability was collected in 31% of sessions and averaged 97%.

 
170.

Using Essential for Living to Determine Selection-Based Communication Systems Among Learners Without Alternative Methods of Speaking

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY BEAL WILKINSON (Victory Academy), Kristina Vera Montgomery (Victory Academy), Danielle Vernon (Victory Academy), Jade Rey (Victory Academy), Anna DeMots (Victory Academy), Katie Anderson (Victory Academy)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Typically, behavior analysts assess for augmentative or alternative communication systems by analyzing a client’s vocal-verbal behavior, fine and gross motor skills, visual discrimination and selection skills, and behavioral barriers (Valentino, et al., 2018; Sundberg, 1993). However, little research exists that establishes criteria or decision protocol for specific device selection, once the need has been determined. The Essential for Living (EFL) curriculum and assessment is a “comprehensive functional, life skills curriculum, assessment, and skill-tracking instrument designed for learners with moderate to severe disabilities and limited skill repertoires” (McGreevy, Fry, & Cornwall, 2014, p. 1). The assessment initiates a vocal-verbal intake of the client and provides clear categories of vocal profiles and speaker behavior to assess the need for alternative or augmentative communication systems. We used the EFL to specifically categorize the vocal-verbal and communication skills of 21 students, across three life-skills classrooms, and found that, of the 12 students who were eligible for or using devices, seven did not meet criteria for an effective, alternative method of speaking. Novel systems that lowered the response effort to request specific items were then introduced to those students, initially eliminating the need for a two-hit response to access preferred items. The result was a steady increase in engagement, independence and accuracy.

 
171. Examining Unclear Preference Assessment Results due to "Saving the Best for Last" Bias
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MWUESE NGUR (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract: Determining client preferences is an integral step in the development of a behavior change program. Research has yielded several empirical methods to assess client preference; however, it is unclear whether one preference assessment method may yield more accurate results for clients with specific characteristics over other methods. In this study, two preference assessments were conducted with a 15-year-old male diagnosed with autism and moderate intellectual disability who engaged in severe aggressive behavior. During a multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment (DeLeon & Iwata; 1996), results across trials were inconsistent, and at times it appeared the participant “saved the best for last.” Following the MSWO, a paired stimulus (PS) preference assessment (Fisher, Piazza, Bowman, Hagopian, Owens, & Slevin; 1992) was conducted and a clear hierarchy of preferred items was observed. When the top item chosen from the MSWO was compared to the top item of the PS, the item ranked first in the PS was chosen by the participant 100% of trials.
 
172.

Evaluating the Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessment for Identifying Social Reinforcers for Skill Acquisition

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Alison Schaefer (New England Center for Children; Western New England University ), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), ANGELICA J SEDANO (New England Center for Children; Western New England University )
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous research on pictorial-paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessments with social stimuli by assessing the generality of outcomes across multiple reinforcer assessments. A 16-year-old boy with autism participated. Following implementation of the PS assessment, highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) attention forms were evaluated in two subsequent reinforcer assessments. First, we conducted a concurrent-operant arrangement in a reversal design, using a simple arbitrary response (i.e., target touch). Responding was allocated to the HP relative to the LP and control options; however, responding was allocated to the LP relative to control when the HP option was no longer available. Second, we conducted a single-operant arrangement in a multielement design, using a more complex arbitrary task (i.e., 8-step LEGO structures). Criterion performance was achieved only when the HP item was contingently delivered. Reliability was calculated for 33% of sessions and agreement averaged 96%.

 
173.

Relations of Learning Abilities, Task Characteristics, and Acquisition of Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA PONGOSKI (Manitoba Association for Behaviour Analysis, University of Manitoba), Geneviève N. Roy-Wsiaki (Université de Saint Boniface), C.T. Yu (University of Manitoba)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

The current study seeks to establish whether learning ability and task difficulty interact to affect the rate of task acquisition for children with autism spectrum disorder in an early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) program. To do so, training tasks selected from the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised that were previously categorized into learning ability levels will be taught to three children recruited from an EIBI program. For each child, three training tasks will be selected as Matched, Mismatched Above, and Mismatched Below the child’s current learning ability level and will be taught using discrete trial teaching methods. Within-subject and between-subject comparisons will be conducted to evaluate acquisition rates across training tasks. Results from this study may provide clinicians with pertinent information to create more efficient and individualized training procedures for children enrolled in EIBI programs, who are subject to increasing waitlists and delays in services.

 
174.

The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude on Preference for Response-Reinforcer Arrangements

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB ANDREW RICHARDSON (Evergreen Center), Kimberly Beckman (Evergreen Center), John Claude Ward-Horner (Evergreen Center), Joseph M. Vedora (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of reinforcer magnitude on preference for response-reinforcer arrangements. A 16-year-old boy with autism participated in the study. Within each experimental phase, the participant was provided a choice among different response-reinforcer arrangements. The continuous arrangement consisted of completing an entire academic task followed by continuous reinforcer access, the discontinuous arrangement consisted of dividing the academic task and reinforcer access into several smaller units, and the control condition consisted of completing an academic task without accessing reinforcement. The magnitude of reinforcement in the continuous arrangement was manipulated across experimental phases by providing shorter duration of access to the reinforcer. With the exception of one experimental phase, the participant preferred the continuous arrangement despite that it resulted in an 80% reduction in the total duration of access to the reinforcer. These results suggest that continuity of access to a reinforcer may be an important variable influencing preference for response-reinforcer arrangements.

 
175.

Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure and Echoic Response: Effects on Intraverbals Emergence in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MALENA RUSSELAKIS CARNEIRO COSTA (University Federal of Pará), Carlos Souza (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

The emergence of intraverbals is mainly studied through procedures that involve differential reinforcement such as tact training and listener training. However, another procedure called the ‘Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure’ (SPOP) emerged as an alternative to verify the emergence of verbal repertoires. This procedure consists of observation of stimuli presented contiguously, where the only response required is the observation and does not involve differential reinforcement of any responses. Studies have shown that verbal operants can be established through SPOP, and have also emphasized the role of echoic behavior as an intermediator in the emergence of tact, listener, and intraverbal responses. This study compared the efficacy of the SPOP with and without requirement of echoic response in the emergence of intraverbals in three children with autism spectrum disorder, with a multiple probe design with alternating treatment. The study consisted of seven phases: 1) Evaluation of syllable articulation; 2) Initial Intraverbal Probe; 3) Tact Training; 4) Baseline; 5) Implementation of treatments; 6) Generalization test; 7) Maintenance test. Results showed the efficacy of SPOP in intraverbal acquisition and the mediator role of the echoic behavior. Effects of training and testing without reinforcement and task structure are discussed.

 
176. Using a Video Modeling Treatment Package to Teach Imitation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SOFIA F. PETERS (Western Michigan University), Corinne Kelley (Western Michigan University), Sarah Bradtke (Western Michigan University), Kelly Kohler (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Imitation is a critical skill that allows individuals to learn through less restrictive prompting methods and may allow access to less restrictive learning environments such as a typical classroom, where instruction is often delivered by modeling. Many individuals with autism learn to imitate with interventions that utilize live models with least-to-most prompting strategies, but for some, these methods are not successful or efficient. While video modeling has been used to teach a variety of skills to individuals with autism, there is limited research using video models to teach imitation. This study investigated the effectiveness of using a video modeling treatment package to teach imitation to children with autism who had been unsuccessful with previous teaching methods. Baseline consisted of the treatment-as-usual, which used live models and least-to-most prompting. A multiple-baseline across behaviors was used to evaluate the effectiveness of using a video modeling treatment package to teach imitation, which consisted of video models and most-to-least prompting faded within session. Results and implications are discussed.
 
177. The Predictive Utility of Preference Rank on Substitutability of Preferred Foods by Healthier Alternatives
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH WEINSZTOK (University of Florida), Kissel Joseph Goldman (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Nutrition and weight status was listed as a primary focus of the Healthy People 2020 report. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially vulnerable to nutritional deficits, as often these individuals may exhibit selective or restrictive eating habits. Selective eating repertoires can lead to overweight or obesity and/or nutritional deficits. One way to combat overweight and obesity through nutrition is to replace unhealthy foods with healthier substitutes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to determine if topographically similar, but healthier, alternatives would substitute for less healthy foods commonly used as reinforcers, and (2) determine if preference rank for the alternatives predicts this substitution. Preferred foods and healthier alternatives were first ranked through paired-stimulus preference assessments. The most highly preferred foods in each assessment, and their pair, were then examined in a concurrent progressive-ratio assessment to determine if the healthier alternative functioned as a substitute for the preferred foods. Alternatives were considered substitutes if responding shifted towards the healthier alternative as the behavioral cost to access the preferred food increased. Results show that some healthier, formally similar, alternatives readily substitute for highly preferred foods. Implications for interventions to increase nutritional status among individuals with autism are discussed.
 
178. A Comparison of Electronic to Pen-and-Paper Data Collection: A Case Study in an Autism Service Agency
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Larissa Zwick (The University of Western Ontario), Lauren Kryzak (Above and Beyond Learning Group), NICOLE M. NEIL (University of Western Ontario)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Clinical decisions regarding a child’s behavior intervention plan are based on the analysis of continuous measurement of child performance. The efficacy of treatment is compromised when integrity errors occur during the data collection or graphing. Traditional intervention sessions use a paper-and-pencil method whereby trained instructors must adhere to clinical requirements for graphing data by hand. The use of an electronic software program (e.g. Catalyst) is an alternative modality for data collection where therapists are able to record, store, and program discrete trial data. The purpose of this study was to compare the pen-and-paper methods and Catalyst software on measures of integrity and social validity. Secondary analysis of data was conducted comparing measures of integrity 3 months prior to, and 3 months following the introduction of Catalyst Software for seven children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder receiving home-based applied behavior analytic treatment from a service agency in New Jersey. Measures of integrity show variable outcomes as a result of the introduction of the Catalyst Software. Social validity measures such as how therapists, team leaders, and parents perceive the significance of goals, the appropriateness of procedures, and the importance of the effects of Catalyst will also be reviewed.
 
179. Evaluating Long-Term Direct and Indirect Outcomes From A Severe Behavior Day Treatment Model
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMISON KEITH KEENUM (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nadratu Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Behavior analysts typically use percent reduction of problem behavior as a primary outcome measure when evaluating intervention effectiveness for the treatment of problem behavior (Scheithauer, Muething, Silva, Gerencser, Krantz, & Call, 2018). However, families of individuals who engage in severe problem behavior are likely to experience a number of outcomes beyond what is captured by percent reduction. To date, few researchers have systematically evaluated the broader impact of behavior interventions, beyond the observed reduction of problem behavior, on the lives of patients and their families. In addition, the long-term outcomes of treatment gains following successful discharge have yet to be evaluated using data from both direct observations and indirect measures. The purpose of the current study was to assess the global long-term impact of problem behavior interventions on families from a sample of individuals that received treatment from a severe behavior day treatment model. Indirect measures include Behavior Problem Index, Parental Stress Index, and Severity Rating Scale. The current study includes data from participants’ severe behavior day treatment admissions at three time points during the admission: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and follow-up. Outcomes from the study may provide valuable information regarding how the global impact of interventions used to treat severe problem behavior maintain following discharge.
 
180.

Examining Collateral Effects of Functional Communication Training for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KENZIE MARIE MILLER (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Kelly Pelzel (University of Iowa), Nicole Hendrix (CHOA), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Loukia Tsami (UHCL), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Sara Elizabeth Wise (University of Iowa )
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

One of the most common behavioral treatments for problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is functional communication training (FCT; Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008). Studies have shown FCT to be an effective treatment, even when training is delivered via telehealth (Lindgren et al., 2016). Despite numerous studies showing reductions in problem behavior in the training context, little research has been conducted on response generalization or collateral effects of FCT outside of the training context. Using a variety of standardized ratings scales to measure collateral effects, this poster presents findings from a multi-site, large-n study on FCT for young children with autism using telehealth. Thirty-four children with ASD who responded to FCT were assessed prior to and immediately following treatment. The results suggest that there is some collateral benefit related to targeted and nontargeted behaviors outside of the training context for some, but not all participants. Implications on clinical practice and future research will be discussed.

 
181.

Effects of Short-Term Behaviour Consults for Adolescents and Adults With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN COWLED (Great Start Behaviour Services)
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

Due to the way funding for disability is distributed in Australia, many of the clients we provide services to have a limited pool of funding for the year, so optimising service delivery, has been crucial. Our service provides home-based behaviour support consultation, to help carers learn how to identify the function of a behaviour, decide what to teach the individual, and then how to teach. We work with the client, and their carers, to assess and observe the behaviour, gather baseline data, develop a comprehensive Positive Behaviour Support Plan, and provide ongoing consulting services using Behaviour Skills Training to coach carers to implement strategies. Sessions are supplemented with information sheets on various topics including reinforcement, task analyses, and data collection. We provided this service for seven clients, aged 9 - 23, diagnosed with Autism and Intellectual Disability, in their homes, schools, and workplaces, in Sydney, Australia. Data indicate that over the course of 6 months, challenging behaviour decreased, while skills taught to replace the behaviour increased. Limitations with this study include lack of social validity data, and lack of observation of generalisation in multiple environments. Future directions include working with carers to enhance maintenance and generalisation.

 
182.

An Analysis of Treatment Outcomes for Insurance-Funded ABA Programs in a Growing Digital and Direct World: Paper and Pen Versus Point and Push

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SAM GARCIA (The ABRITE Organization )
Discussant: Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract:

The practice of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) in the treatment of children with autism has been widely accepted as an empirically validated treatment, therefore many health insurance carriers now provide ABA treatment for their members diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. As more medical insurance providers adopt the new American Medical Association category I CPT codes for billing ABA therapy services or “adaptive behavior services,” an examination of the efficiency of data collection methods is particularly emphasized given the requirement for qualified health professionals (QHP) to be “face to face” with the client or family. A move toward more direct services from a BCBA or BCaBA encourages ABA providers to look toward more efficient modalities to examine behavior data, learner prompting data and specifically skill acquisition data. This study seeks to discuss and examine trials to mastery data, prompt data and duration to mastery data between a paper and pen data collection system verses a digital data collection system. Results are discussed in relation to learner outcomes along with their organizational and clinical implications. Moreover, study limitations and recommendations for future studies of learner outcomes provided by insurance funded ABA programs are discussed.

 
184. A Consecutive Case Series Analysis of Resurgence and Renewal in a Clinical Sample
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA SUZANNA COLEMAN (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Recurrence of previously extinguished problem behavior poses a threat to maintaining treatment gains both in the clinic and in generalization settings. Resurgence and renewal are both examples of recurrence phenomena that may occur independently, but little is known about their potential relationship. We conducted a consecutive case series analysis of thirty-two participants with autism who were admitted to a day treatment clinic to examine the relationship between the potential for resurgence when increasing the Sdelta interval of a multiple schedule of reinforcement and renewal observed during context changes. Results indicated that the likelihood of renewal was the same whether or not resurgence was observed during the first thinning step of the multiple schedule. However, when resurgence was observed, the magnitude of renewal was considerably higher than when resurgence was not observed (see Figure1). These preliminary results suggest that clinicians should anticipate a considerable increase in problem behavior when there is a context change later in treatment (i.e., renewal) when resurgence is observed earlier in treatment.
 
185.

?Utilizing a Positive Punishment Procedure to Decrease Bruxism in an Individual With an Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JEFF SCHRAM (Engage Behavioral Health), Amye Morris (Engage Behavioral Health), Faith Woerner (Engage Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Bruxism otherwise known as excessive teeth grinding can have serious health concerns. Individuals who engage in bruxism can cause irreversible damage to their teeth, gums, and bones. This case study included a six-year-old female diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The procedure used to reduce bruxism included positive punishment and took place in a clinical setting. Generalization with parents and maintenance measures were collected. As a result of the punishment procedure there was a decrease in teeth grinding. Positive punishment procedures may have beneficial implications on bruxism in a clinical setting.

 
186.

Relocation Barriers Faced by Military Families With Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRITTNEY FARLEY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; Collaborative Autism Resources and Education), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Military families relocate three times more often then nonmilitary families. This is concerning for military families who have children diagnosed with ASD due to inconsistencies faced relocation such as a delay in services and no continuity of care. The current study aims to expand on previous research relating to barriers of military families who have children with ASD following relocation and identify potential causes of delays in services. An online survey methodology to obtain information from 25 military caregivers with children diagnosed with ASD and 20 ABA providers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze caregiver demographics and service delivery questions. Caregiver reports were consistent with current research on barriers military families face the following relocation. Based on caregiver reports delays in services can be contributed to provider waitlists lasting one to six months, obtaining a new referral taking one week to two or more months, and the intake process including a new assessment.

 
187.

Feeding Problems in Children With Typical Development and Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
Felipe Diaz (Guadalajara University), JAIME GUTIÉRREZ (Guadalajara University), Jonnathan Gudiño (Guadalajara University), Maria Acero (Guadalajara University)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Child feeding problems is a term used to describe dysfunctional childhood feeding. Children with eating problems show a wide variety of behaviors at mealtime. Feeding problems can range from mild to severe. The typical development in children refers to the acquisition of various skills that characterize children of similar ages within the same culture. These characteristics are severely deficient or not found in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ASD is a condition characterized by problems in different areas such as social interaction, communication, stereotyped patterns of behavior, as well as motor delays that lead to eating or swallowing problems. Interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have shown to be effective in the modification and resolution of behavioral problems in children with typical development and ASD. Therefore, the purpose of the present project is to identify and modify the behavior problems related to problems of food and basic self-care through an intervention based on ABA in Mexico. These interventions will be probed in children with typical development and ASD.

 
188.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy to Treat Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviours in Children With Autism: A 5-7 Year Follow-Up

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER JAKSIC (University of Manitoba), Courtney Denise Bishop (Brock University ), Dana Kalil (Brock University), Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University), Nicole M. Neil (University of Western Ontario), Jan Frijters (Brock University), Maurice Feldman (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Children with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often engage in repetitive behaviours similar to those seen in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Recent research supports the use of a manualized Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) treatment package to treat these obsessive-compulsive behaviours (OCBs) in children (ages 7 to 12 years) with high functioning ASD (Vause et al., 2018). This package adapted traditional CBT to meet the unique needs of children with ASD (e.g., increased use of visuals, highly repetitive, a protracted cognitive component). However, there are limited studies that included extended follow-up. The current study evaluated treatment outcomes, five to eight years after the children received nine sessions of group CBT to treat their OCBs. Standardized (i.e., Repetitive Behavior Scale–Revised - Compulsive, Ritualistic, and Sameness subscales) and behavior specific parent-report questionnaires between baseline, post-treatment, and five to eight years following treatment were compared. Results from the 13 participants showed a substantial reduction in OCBs between pre-test and follow-up as well as no significant difference between post-test and follow-up. Qualitative data collection is ongoing. Future implications and limitation of these results will be discussed.

 
189. A Comparison of Prompting Methods for Teaching Receptive Identification
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLEE TOMAK (Western Michigan University), Kelly Kohler (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Receptive language is critical for the development of spoken language (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013). Many activities that children engage in throughout their daily lives and education require them to have a receptive identification repertoire. Fisher, Kodak, and Moore (2007), and Carp, Peterson, Arkel, Petursdottir, and Ingvarsson (2012) compared methods for teaching receptive identification to individuals with autism. The methods used include a control condition, the use of a least-to-most prompting hierarchy embedded in the error correction, and the use of a picture prompt embedded in the error correction. This study was a replication of their comparison that extends their findings and assesses the efficacy of an additional method, the use of an immediate picture prompt being presented simultaneously with the auditory sample stimulus. This study is expected to help children with autism and other developmental disabilities acquire a receptive identification repertoire. If successful, this procedure could determine a more efficient alternative to other receptive identification procedures.
 
190. Use of Discrimination Training to Establish Instructional Control and Introduction of Novel and Non-Preferred Demands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA SABIN MILSTREY (The BISTA Center), Becky Baize (The BISTÅ Center)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Fisher et. al. (1998) established a procedure whereby differential reinforcement of communication (DRC) was used to teach participants to tolerate delays to or tolerate denied access to reinforcement. In the present study, we attempt to extend the current literature by showing that using discrimination training to teach certain conditions with varied instructions and demands, results in positive effects of treatment. These effects include higher compliance percentages, decreased occurrences of problem behaviors when new or novel demands are introduced to sessions, and promotes better generalization and fidelity of treatment. A functional analysis of mands was conducted to assess whether the participant would exhibit problem behaviors upon the termination of mand compliance by the therapist. Upon establishing function of problem behavior, a treatment protocol using DRC with an accompanying SD and S△ was developed, resulting in problem behavior rates dropping to near zero rates per session, and higher compliance percentages per session whenever novel demands were introduced.
 
191.

An Evaluation of Antecedent-Based Modifications During a Functional Analysis of Severe Problem Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELISSA SPINKS (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Molly K Bednar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Darre'll Joseph (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Loyola University Maryland), Brody Cavanaugh (Kennedy Krieger Institute )
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Although a general model for conducting functional analyses (FAs) exists, modifications are often necessary. Hagopian, Rooker, Jessel, and DeLeon (2013) evaluated FAs for 176 cases and noted that modifications classified as antecedent, consequent, and/or design were often conducted when initial results were inconclusive. We describe an antecedent-based modification made during the FA of problem behavior for a 14-year-old boy. Results from the standard FA suggested that his behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, anecdotal observations and parental report indicated that his behavior may also be maintained by access to attention and preferred items. Therefore, we modified the FA to be more representative of his home environment where problem behavior often started when he was alone. In the modified FA, each test condition began with him alone in a room. Contingent on problem behavior, a therapist entered the room and delivered various consequences (i.e., attention or access to a preferred toy) or he was left alone (i.e., in the alone condition). Results of the modified FA indicated that his problem behavior was sensitive to both automatic reinforcement and attention. A treatment consisting of noncontingent attention, functional communication, and competing stimuli was effective in reducing his problem behavior.

 
192. Teaching Job Interview Skills Using Behaviour Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER CHURCH (Western University), Phoebe So (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH))
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract: In the Province of Ontario, Canada, efforts are being made to assist teenagers and young adults who have Autism to obtain work. The focus of these efforts tend to be on job placement and vocational skills training. Using video modelling, this multiple baseline design research focused on teaching four young adults how to conduct a task analysis to prepare for and complete a job interview.
 
193.

Effects of Two Methods for Programming Reinforcement of Multiple Alternative Responses in a Test for Behavioral Resurgence

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER SCHWARTZ (The New England Center For Children; Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

In this translational study of behavioral resurgence, a 16-year-old young man with autism received small pieces of a preferred snack upon clicking moving objects on a computer screen. One object was designated as the target response (TR) and clicking this was reinforced during an establishment phase. Two objects were designated as the alternative responses (AR1 and AR2) and clicking these was reinforced during the elimination phase as follows: in the serial condition AR1 was reinforced for several sessions, and then AR2 was reinforced for several sessions. In the alternating condition, the object designated for reinforcement alternated each session. Elimination phases were followed by a resurgence test wherein no reinforcement was delivered. Data collection was automated by the computer program, and all analyses and calculations were verified by the second author. Each condition was completed twice, yielding two comparisons. In the first comparison, there was more complete elimination of the target response in the serial condition and greater resurgence in the alternating condition. These outcomes were not replicated in the second comparison. This failure to replicate may be accounted for by repeated exposure to the extinction condition. Extensions and methodological considerations will be discussed.

 
194.

Matrix Training and Behavioral Generactivity: Teach of Autoclitic Tacts for Children With Autism Spectrim Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JADE LOUISE RODRIGUES (Universidade Federal do Pará), Sara Keuffer (Universidade Federal do Pará), MALENA RUSSELAKIS CARNEIRO COSTA (Universidade Federal do Pará), Mariane Guimarães (Universidade Federal do Pará), Álvaro Júnior Melo Silva (Universidade Federal do Pará), Carlos Souza (Universidade Federal do Pará), Romariz Barros (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Considering the importance of teaching verbal repertoires to children with ASD, mainly recombinative repertoires, the present study consisted of the systematic replication of a study, using two 3x3 matrices formed by nouns and verbs. Two children diagnosed with autism participated of the study, and a non-concurrent multiple baseline design was implemented between participants. The independent variable was the training in matrix, which consisted in the training of the three diagonal relations of the matrix, and the dependent variable was the percentage of correct answers in the matrix test, which verified the emergence of the relations of autoclitic tacts (noun and verb) with the six stimuli not involved in directly trained relations; and the emergence of relations involving the nine elements of the second matrix for which there was no training. The study consisted of the following phases: 1) baseline; 2) diagonal matrix training; 3) training matrix test; 4) generalization matrix test; 5) maintenance test and 5) direct teaching of relations that did not emerge. The results showed that the training in the matrix was effective for the establishment of autoclitic tacts for the participants of the present study. Points related to stimulus control are discussed in the study.

 
195.

Measuring Electrodermal Activity in the Context of Shifting Reinforcement Contingencies

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ANDREA ZUCHORA (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Investigation of physiological correlates of behavioral variability may help improve understanding of differences in effects of reinforcement across contexts and individuals. Two students with autism at a special education residential school wore wireless wristbands that monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) as they completed a free-operant tabletop task which entailed placing a ball in one of two Montessori object-permanence boxes. Small pieces of a preferred snack were delivered according to concurrent schedules (FR 1/EXT), and unsignaled, unpredictable contingency changes were effected over the course of 48-66 sessions, sometimes within the same day. We evaluated relations between response allocation, EDA level (µS), and coefficient of variation (CV) in EDA. For both participants, same-day contingency reversals resulted consistently in lower levels of EDA and decreased allocation of responding to the reinforced alternative, as compared to comparable sessions without a same-day contingency reversal. Other analyses, however, did not show systematic relations between experimental manipulations and measures of EDA. Interobserver agreement (IOA) was calculated for 53% of sessions by dividing the total frequency of responses recorded by the first observer by the total frequency of responses recorded by another observer. The average IOA calculated was 96%, with a range of 91%-100%. Methodological considerations and extensions will be discussed.

 
197.

A Case Study: Omnibus Mand Plus Delay and Denial Tolerance Training to Reduce Tantrum Behavior in an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KODIE HEADING (Logan Center- Sonya Ansari Center For Autism), Erin Rockhill (Logan Center- Sonya Ansari Center For Autism), Ashly Voorde (Logan Center- Sonya Ansari Center For Autism), Britany Melton (Endicott College; Logan Center- Sonya Ansari Center For Autism)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Self-injury and aggression are common behaviors observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (Kanne & Mazurek, 2010). These behaviors can cause serious harm to themselves and others as well as interfere with learning (Erickson, Srivorakiat, Wink, Pedapati, & Fitzpatrick, 2016). The present case study involves one individual being treated using variations of omnibus mand training combined with delay and denial tolerance teaching (Hanley, Jin, Banselow, & Hanratty, 2014). Data will be presented on frequency of aggressions and self-injury, as well as the duration of tantrum behavior. The data presented will be from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018. Approximately nine months of the data takes place after the intervention; the first three months take place before the intervention. There has been a decrease in all three behaviors, most notably in tantrum duration. Treatment and general strategies will be discussed. All phase changes throughout the course of treatment will also be discussed.

 
198.

Establishment of Listener and Tacts With Intraverbal Control Possessive Pronouns in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA KEUFFER (Universidade Federal do Pará), MALENA RUSSELAKIS CARNEIRO COSTA (Universidade Federal do Pará), Juliana Lobato (Universidade Federal do Pará), Michelle Brasil (Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA)), Álvaro Júnior Melo Silva (Universidade Federal do Pará), Romariz Barros (Universidade Federal do Para), Carlos Souza (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

The reversibility is pointed out as a difficulty in teaching pronouns for children with autism, as in the case of "mine" and "yours", which may refer to the same object in the same situation, but the use of one or another depends from the speaker's perspective. Considering perspective-taking relations and their importance to the development of children with autism, the objective of this study was to investigate the establishment of listener and autoclitic tact with intraverbal control of possessive pronouns in children with autism through Discrete Trials Training. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline experimental design was implemented among three participants. The procedure consisted of the following phases: 1) baseline of listener and autoclitic tact with intraverbal control of possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his and her); 2) listener relations training; 3) tact relations training; and 4) randomized test of tact and listener behaviors. Results showed that the procedure used was effective in teaching tact and listener relations of possessive pronouns for all participants. It is discussed that the training of tact and listener have occurred separately can be a reason for the effectiveness of the procedure and the need for future studies in this area.

 
199.

Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Children With Autism to Seek Help from Police Officers When Lost

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELICA A. AGUIRRE (Minnesota State University, Mankato), Greta Kos (Minnesota State University, Mankato)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at an elevated risk of becoming lost in otherwise mundane situations due to running away or wandering behaviors (Anderson et al., 2012). When children with ASD become lost it may be difficult for them to effectively and efficiently seek help from community helpers in a safe manner due to communication deficits and poor social skills (Dogan et al., 2017). The present study will use a multiple-baseline design to evaluate the effects of a behavioral skills training (BST) procedure to teach children with ASD how to identify when they are lost and how to seek help from confederate police officers in a center-based setting. Pretest and posttest generalization probes will be conducted to probe the participants’ interactions with different confederate police officers. BST will consist of teaching participants when to seek help and how to identify and communicate with a police officer. Proposed results anticipate that all children with ASD will increase their help seeking behaviors by asking a confederate police officer for help when lost during posttest in-situ generalization probes. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

 
200. Differential Results of Diverted and Divided Attention in Caregiver-Conducted Functional Analyses
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (Rowan University), Jessica Nastasi (Rowan University), Brieanna Sanchez (Rowan University), Donald Daly (Rowan University)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract: Positive reinforcement in the form of access to attention is a commonly identified function of aberrant behavior (Beavers et al., 2013). Clinicians frequently evaluate attention in a functional analysis (FA) to determine the maintaining role of this consequent variable. However, the antecedent of restricted attention may differentially evoke problem behavior whether attention is diverted (i.e., one person to another activity) versus divided (i.e., between two or more individuals). Determining which type(s) of restricted attention evoke aberrant behavior may influence FA results and subsequent treatment. In this study, two separate conditions were included in the FA when the functional assessment interview conducted with all participants receiving in-home behavioral services indicated that both diverted and divided attention were likely to evoke problem behavior. The case manager for each client conducted the FA as they typically would with the addition of diverted and divided attention conditions. All FAs were conducted by caregivers. Preliminary results suggest differing patterns across participants with a function identified in neither condition (16.67%), both conditions (50%), and only one condition (33.33%). No significant difference was found for number of sessions in each condition. Further questions that may better differentiate attention types and improve the efficiency of FAs are discussed.
 
202.

Boundary Conditions of Observational Learning in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW PIERCE BLOWERS (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Ciobha Anne McKeown (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute )
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Studying observational learning entails modeling contingencies for a child and subsequently testing whether the child learned. Researchers have identified a set of skills considered fundamental (called observational learning component skills) to establishing observational learning in children with autism. Attending to only a part of the contingency during observation opportunities, the stimulus modalities of contingencies modeled, observing an insufficient number of observation opportunities, and deficient component skills are some variables that may influence whether a child with autism will exhibit observational learning. In the current study, we initially sought to identify boundary conditions of observational learning in children with autism. We promoted attending to all parts of contingencies during observation opportunities, tested observational learning across four contingencies with different stimulus modalities, and developed an assessment to empirically identify the number of observation opportunities to model before testing. All children learned in baseline, albeit after experiencing a number of individualized observation opportunities beyond what would likely occur systematically in their home or school environment. Thus, we decided to identify a procedure that would lead to observational learning after a minimal number of observations of the same contingency. Teaching children to imitate the model’s behavior and engage in differential observing responses to the consequences the model experienced in observation opportunities was effective in teaching these children to leverage observational learning.

 
204. The Effects of Speaker Immersion Protocol on Independent Mands
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
RUBY SARA GIBSON (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract: Independent language is the way in which individuals communicate and learn about the environment around them. Speaker immersion protocol (SIP), is a tactic used to increase vocal behavior of children with verbal delays. This tactic uses multiple establishing operations (EOs) in order to increase speaker behavior. The current study used a multiple probe design to evaluate the effects of SIP on the emission of mands for two fifth grade male students. The researchers collected pre-intervention probes on the emission of verbal vocal operants (VVOs) emitted across three non-instructional settings (NIS). In addition, the researchers collected data on the participants’ use of target form of the mand during EO pre-, and post- intervention probes throughout the day, which is referred to as EO probes. SIP occurred during two 15-min sessions in the morning and afternoon during NIS, with a total of 60 opportunities to mand for preferred items that the researchers contrived. During intervention, the researchers recorded correct and incorrect responses of the target mand, and the researchers implemented a correction procedure if the participant emitted an incorrect response. Results of this study showed an increase in mands across Participant A and B during EO probes, but not as dramatic of an increase in NIS. The researchers discuss on expansion of this study, as well as limitations within this experiment. Keywords: establishing operations, mands, speaker immersion protocol
 
205.

Analyzing Trends in Empirical and Non-Empirical Behavior Analytic Relational Frame Theory Research, 1990-2017

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELANA SICKMAN (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Taylor Lauer (Missouri State University), Breanna Lee (Missouri State University), Annalise Giamanco (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Relational Frame Theory (RFT) provides a contemporary account of human language learning that may have several applications within Applied Behavior Analysis. We reviewed the current state of RFT research that was published in major applied behavior analytic journals from 1990 through 2017. The review extends upon prior work by directly comparing the publication of empirical and non-empirical studies within both a stimulus equivalence and RFT account of language development. Our results show that the publication rate for both empirical and non-empirical articles has increased over this time; however, following 2003, the rate of increase for empirical articles has exceeded the rate of increase for non-empirical articles. Our results also show that the journals that have most frequently published research on RFT or equivalence are the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. These journals differ in that JABA has historically been more likely to publish empirical research, whereas TAVB has historically been more likely to publish non-empirical research. The presence of published studies across applied behavior analytic research along with overall rates of increase suggest that RFT and equivalence research is becoming increasingly prevalent and accepted within Applied Behavior Analysis.

 
 

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