Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #495
Monday, May 27, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Meghan Silva (May Institute)
20.

Effect of Literacy Strategies on the Reading Comprehension

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EMANUEL MERAZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Enoc Obed De la Sancha Villa Villa (Universidad Veracruzana-IPyE), Esperanza Ferrant-Jimenez (University of Veracruz), Dina Carmona (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract:

Some researches that have evaluated the reading achievement of university students have found deficiencies of comprehension and writing of complex ideas in specialized texts. To recognize the effect of the types of literacy strategies that are qualitatively differentiated on the analysis of the texts, the classification of the psychological interactions of the progressive complexity was resumed. Based on this categorization, different literacy criteria were developed: 1) identify elements, 2) reorganize information, 3) relate concepts and identify variants, 4) transform or expand concepts by introducing elements of different readings, 5) abstract a non-explicit concept in the readings from the integration of information. In this study, university students participated and were divided into three groups: The Low Group was exposed to exercises of the first two levels, the Intermediate Group to the first three levels and the High Group exposed to the five levels. All the participants read three texts of the same theme. The results showed a higher score in the comprehension test for the Intermediate Group, with significant differences in criteria 2, 3 y 5. Additionally, a downward trend was observed in all subjects as the level of assessed criteria increased. The results are useful for the development of strategies in undergraduate students for the analysis of specialized texts that require profound comprehension.

 
21. Email Professionalism Training for Undergraduates
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS FARNSWORTH (Western New England University), Rachel H. Thompson (Western New England University), Joseph Van Allen (Western New England University), Tylynn Kuralt (Western New England University)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract: Email is the primary form of communication between undergraduates and instructors outside the classroom, but past research suggests that undergraduate email writing needs improvement. Fortunately, simple interventions can help. The purpose of the present study was to extend research by Elbeck and Song (2011) by evaluating the effect of an out-of-class, self-guided email professionalism training on adherence with basic formatting and etiquette guidelines. The training package consisted of instructions, an online quiz, and written quiz feedback. “Email professionalism” was operationally defined by email checklist ratings based on the presence of features generally associated with beneficial outcomes in the email-communication literature. Experimental control of email checklist ratings by the training was demonstrated using a multiple baseline design across two sections of an introductory psychology course. Novel context probes, in which participants emailed a novel recipient for a class assignment, were rated higher than emails sent to the course instructor. Mean week-by-week interobserver agreement for both sections was over 90%. The results of social validity assessments suggest that the goals, procedures, and outcomes of the training were viewed favorably by participants and career-development staff. Email professionalism training outside the classroom is feasible and may supplement or replace other tactics.
 
22. Utilizing Behavior Skills Training for Graduate Students Conducting Classroom Observations
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NICHOLAS LEONARD SCHEEL (University of South Florida), Diana Socie (University of South Florida), Jennifer M. Hodnett (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract: Training individuals to conduct classroom observations typically requires practice in an analogue setting using one or a combination of strategies, including behavior vignettes, role-play, or video clips of target behaviors (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2013 p. 109; Hartmann & Wood, 1990; Bass, 1987). However, researchers have yet to determine a standard approach to training observers. Extant research in applied behavior analysis includes the use of behavior skills training (BST) to teach a variety of skills, including discrete trial teaching (Sarokoff & Sturmey, 2004) and stimulus preference assessments (Lavie & Sturmey, 2002). In the current study, BST was implemented to teach graduate students to collect disruptive and off-task behaviors student behavior utilizing videos of elementary students’ classrooms. Participants included 10 School Psychology graduate students with varying levels of behavior observation experience who were randomly assigned training dyads or triads. We utilized a concurrent multiple baseline design to evaluate the effect of BST on observers’ rating accuracy for both class-wide engagement and disruptive behaviors. Results indicate observers had difficulty achieving accuracy in ratings after BST due to variability in video quality and saliency of students’ disruptive behaviors. Once video quality was controlled for, all participants reached the predetermined level of rating accuracy.
 
23. The Effect of Electronic Guided Notes on Student Academic Performance in an Online Course
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
YAARA SHAHAM (Florida Institute of Technology), Kristin K. Myers (ABA Technologies; Florida Institute of Technology), Ada C. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract: This study examined the effect of electronic guided notes versus other note-taking techniques on student academic performance. Four students in an online, graduate level course participated. A multielement design was used to compare the effect of the use of electronic guided notes, traditional paper guided notes, and an unstructured, paper-and-pencil note condition on unit test scores. Within each condition, students were assigned to use electronic guided notes or to use another, student chosen, note taking method. The results revealed lowered performance when using electronic guided notes for two participants. For two other participants, no consistent differences existed between guided notes and the informal, paper-and-pencil note conditions were found. Social validity measures indicate that three of the four participants preferred electronic guided notes over paper-and-pencil note-taking methods. Two of these individuals indicated that the electronic format made studying easier while one indicated no difference in the methods. The remaining individual indicated that the use of electronic guided notes resulted in disruption of her note-taking and studying behavior.
 
24. Decomposition of Complex Addition and Subtraction Problems: A Behavior Analytic Intervention
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALLY PATTERSON (George Mason University), Robin Moyher (George Mason University)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract: Although reliable gender differences in objective mathematics achievement do not become apparent until adolescence, gender differences in arithmetic strategy choices (ASCs) are evident by early elementary school. Boys are more likely than girls to rely on efficient, “covert” strategies such as retrieval or decomposition. First- and second- grade girls who were at-risk for poor performance in or attitudes toward mathematics were taught to solve complex addition and subtraction problems using a decomposition strategy. The ABA-based intervention relied on task analysis, differential reinforcement, chaining, and errorless learning. Data were analyzed in a single-subject, multiple-probe across participants design. A functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables was determined through analysis of six features for single-subject designs: level, trend, variability, immediacy of effect, overlap, and consistency of data points. As a result of intervention procedures, all participants used a decomposition strategy to accurately and efficiently solve complex arithmetic problems. Results demonstrate that ABA can be used to teach general education girls a mathematics strategy that is associated with success in and positive attitudes towards mathematics. Broad implications for the study relate to early intervention efforts to diversify mathematics- and science-related fields.
 
25. Teaching Addition to Learners With Moderate to Severe Disabilities Using Video Prompting
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SCOTT DUEKER (Ball State University)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract: Academic performance for learners with moderate to severe disabilities falls far behind their typically developing peers and puts them at risk for continued dependence after school ends. Video prompting is an evidence-based practice that has been used to teach various non-academic skills. Few studies have focused on using video prompting to teach academic skills other than reading. This study used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to evaluate the use of video prompts to teach single- and double-digit addition to three learners with moderate to severe disability. Results indicated that all three learners improved their accurate completion of addition problems immediately upon introduction of the video prompting intervention. In addition, all three learners were able to completely fade the use of the videos and generalized completing addition problems to another setting. Social validity of the intervention was high across all participants, their families, and their teacher.
 
26. Time to Sweat the Small Stuff: Focusing on Math Tool Skills to Increase Math Fact Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL ANTHONY CRAFTON (Georgia Southern University), Andrew Bulla (Georgia Southern University - Armstrong ), Jack O'Connor (Matthew Reardon Center for Autism)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract: Children with autism often times receive accommodations and modifications to general education curriculum as part of their individual education plans (IEP) to help them in school. These services, however, may not be addressing the underlying issues that are impeding academic performance. Educational strategies derived from precision teaching provide one solution towards addressing academic issues in individuals with autism. The current project used a combination of precision teaching and direct instruction to increase the frequency of math facts completed by children diagnosed with ASD. The effects of building frequencies of see/say and see/write numbers 0-9 on Math Fact performance were assessed. Data were plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart to quantify the effects of the intervention. Results of the project suggest that for some students, intervening on tool skills produced changes in overall frequencies of math facts.
 
27.

Science Instruction for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analysis of Single Case Research

Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
DORIS ADAMS HILL (Auburn University College of Education), Jonte Taylor (Pennsylvania State University)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract:

Society at large has taken a major interest in supporting the need for a science-literate society (National Research Council [NRC], 2011). This is largely due to the fact that more occupational opportunities exist in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields. However, for students with disabilities, STEM opportunities lag behind their peers without disabilities. In fact, when it comes to STEM achievement during school, 8th grade students with disabilities score significantly less than peers. Even with the disheartening science achievement outcomes for students with disabilities, there is research that provides support for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in science classrooms and learning science content and concepts. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the efficacy of classroom science instruction for students with ASD. The majority of studies examined used single case research (SCR) methodology, hence the focus of the current review and analyses of SCR effect sizes. The authors of the current study used a variety of SCR effect size analyses to answer the following questions: What were the effects of science-related achievement studies for students with ASD? What were the Intervention-based effect sizes for students with ASD?

 
28.

The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction Mathematics on Teaching Numeral Identification to a High School Student With Down Syndrome and Autism in a Special Education Classroom

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M NEYMAN (Gonzaga University), Yanell Magana (Gonzaga University), Alexis Kozyra (Gonzaga University)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract:

Early number skills such as number line estimation, counting skills, and understanding nonsymbolic and symbolic quantities have been found to predict math achievement (Fuhs, Hornburg, & McNeil, 2016). Numeral identification occurs when a student can communicate the symbol’s name representing the quantity shown and is an important skill that can be correlated to numeracy and literacy skills (Neumann, M., Hood, Ford, & Neumann D., 2013). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Direct Instruction (DI) Mathematics teaching technique on numeral identification of a 16-year-old male with Down syndrome and autism in a high school special education classroom. Event recording assessed the participant’s ability to identify numerals. After being shown a group of blocks and numeral flashcards, the participant pointed to the correct flashcard. A multiple baseline design assessed the progress across the target numerals (2, 4, 5, and 6). For the intervention, the researchers used repeated trials, discrimination practice, and most to least prompting to teach numeral identification. If any error occurred, a model, lead, test procedure was the correction procedure. The participant reached mastery across numerals. The DI procedure was effective for a classroom setting and utilizing manipulatives to develop numeral identification.

 
29.

Self-Directed Video Prompting for Rapid Acquisition of Vocational Tasks for High Schoolers With Developmental Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LOUIS R LEIBOWITZ (Ivymount School & Programs), Gulnoza Yakubova (University of Maryland College Park), Lauren J Lestremau (Ivymount School & Programs), Briella Baer (University of Maryland College Park), Nada Halawani (University of Maryland College Park)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract:

Community-based and integrated employment settings are becoming increasingly prioritized for individuals with disabilities, yet rates of employment for this population continue to be significantly discrepant from their non-disabled peers. Two significant barriers to employment that these individuals may face is the need for extensive on-the-job training to learn new job tasks, as well as prolonged dependence on a supervisor or job coach to perform those tasks. Identifying training practices that are both effective and efficient is of critical importance to improving employment outcomes. This study uses a multiple-probe across participants design to examine the effects of a video-prompting treatment package on the rapid acquisition of novel vocational tasks for four high school students with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Results showed an immediate and significant increase in task accuracy, with all participants achieving 100% task accuracy within two to six sessions and maintaining high rates of accuracy when staff-delivered prompts and error correction were removed. These results are significant as an extension of the applied research on video prompting and the development of an intervention package that may be practical, transferable, and socially valid in community-based employment settings.

 
30.

Using Feedback to Teach Academic Skills to Students With Disabilities: A Single-Case Design Meta-Analysis

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LANQI WANG (University of Iowa), Shawn M. Datchuk (University of Iowa), Derek Rodgers (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract:

There is a persistent gap in academic performance between students with disabilities and their typically developing peers. To remediate academic difficulties, one typical instructional practice is the delivery of feedback. Numerous frameworks for instruction, such as direct or strategy instruction, include feedback; however, little is known about the benefits of feedback in isolation. This meta-analysis examined the effects of feedback to teach academic skills to students with disabilities. This poster presents the results of a meta-analysis of single-case design studies that investigated the effects of feedback in isolation. The purpose of the meta-analysis was three-fold: (a) to evaluate the effects of feedback for students with disabilities, (b) to compare the effects of different types of feedback. A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria, and 35 effect sizes (i.e., Tau-U) were calculated from the studies. A total of 95 participants were included in the studies. The majority of participants were from elementary school and most of participants were identified as having learning disability, autism, and developmental disability. Ten studies compared feedback to a non-instructional condition. The average weighted effect size was 0.82. Four studies compared feedback to other academic interventions. The average weighted effect size across these studies is 0.65.

 
31.

Services to Students With Autism in South Texas

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CAROL L. REYNOLDS (Military School Districts Cooperative), John A. Reynolds (Medina Valley Independent School District), Lupe Castaneda (Northside Independent School District), Sonya Casas (SAISD), Kelsey L Cody (San Antonio Independent School District), Janet Enriquez (Education Service Center - Region 20), Alonzo Alfredo Andrews (The University of Texas at San Antonio), L L Mason (Univ of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Meghan Silva (PENDING)
Abstract:

For the 2018-2019 academic year, nine San Antonio area school districts were funded by the Texas Education Agency to provide verbal behavior training to preschool and kindergarten students with autism. At the start of the year we assessed participants using the Stimulus Control Ratio Equation (SCoRE) to determine the extent to which mands, echoics, tacts, and sequelics exerted disproportionate levels of control over each participant’s verbal behavior. The results of the SCoRE were then used to develop individualized verbal behavior treatment plans for each student to be carried out in his/her home classroom. We subsequently trained more than 100 teachers and paraprofessionals to implement referent-based verbal behavior instruction, with a goal of balancing out the relative strength of these four primary verbal operants. In addition to providing direct classroom-based services for students with autism, the project included ongoing parent trainings conducted by district behavior analysts throughout the academic year. At the end of the year, students were reassessed with the verbal behavior SCoRE to analyze language gains. Here we present an overview of the project along with the results of our grant activities.

 
34. Behavior Boot Camp: Training Educators to Implement Behavioral Strategies to Address Challenging Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DAVID FORBUSH (Utah State University), Tyra Paige Sellers (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Melody Andreasen (Utah State University), Jeana Cleaver (Utah State University), Seth Walker (Utah State Universtiy), Kerry Abigail Shea (Utah State University), Ronnie Detrich (Detrich and Associates), Katie Endicott Harris (Utah State University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: A significant increase in students who engage in challenging behaviors is present in public schools. Concurrent to these increases, resources continue to be limited to train educators in evidence-based behavior analytic strategies. In response to these challenges, the Utah Professional Development Network designed an intense week-long training (Bootcamp) for educators, administrators, and behavior specialists with supported follow-up sessions throughout the school year. In June of 2018, 55 participants from 43 schools attended. Content included: operational definitions, measurement selection, assessing functions of behavior, descriptive assessment, reinforcer identification procedures, antecedent interventions, differential reinforcement, function-matched interventions, extinction, functional communication training, treatment selection, punishment, development of behavior intervention plans, and self-care. Participants were then assigned to a Virtual Community of Practice (VCop) which met six times throughout the year. During the VCop meetings, participants presented case studies on students with challenging behavior and received feedback on: a) if they had developed a clear operational definition; b) if their descriptive assessment data resulted in a viable hypothesis of function, and c) if they selected an appropriate function-matched intervention. Baseline data was presented with each case study. All participants gained skills in addressing challenging behaviors and the project also supported Utah School Leaders with external resources.
 
35. The Influential Consultant: Evolution of Consultation Theory for School Consultants
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SHARLA N. FASKO (University of Detroit Mercy)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Consultation skills are critical when developing interventions and implementer compliance. Early models of consultation included strict directives about the consultant-consultee relationship. More recently, the evidence-based communication approach of the VitalSmarts series (Crucial Conversations, Crucial Accountabilty, Influencer, etc.) has gained respect within the consultation community. Founded upon the work of Albert Bandura, this set of techniques is well suited for the consultation needs of behaviorists. However, while it has been well-received in the business community, this approach has scarcely been noticed by consultants within the school setting. Incorporating the techniques explained in Crucial Conversations (Patterson, et al, 2012) is worth exploring. This poster reviews the restrictions of the traditional consultation approaches in light of the research collected by the authors of this series. Of particular interest are the relationship limitations spelled out by Gutkin and Curtis (1982) and Reynolds et al (1988). How should we revise these tenets of consultation considering the recent research of this team?
 
36.

Having Fun With Functions! Training Classroom Staff to Identify Behavioral Function and Select Function-Matched Interventions

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DELANIE REED LOMBARDO (Western Michigan University), Kimberly Peck (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Classroom management is vital for an educational setting and should be the first step when addressing behavioral concerns. One strategy to improve classroom management is the use of universal strategies (Johnson & Street, 2005), which can help to improve students’ behavior and foster a positive classroom environment. Even with the use of such strategies, disruptive behaviors may pose a barrier to ongoing fidelity. As such, it is critical for teachers to be trained on basic foundational procedures for managing behaviors as it can help prevent unwarranted and more intensive interventions in the future. The current study provided a training, adapted from Loman, Strickland-Cohen, Borgmeier, and Horner (2013), to early childhood special education classroom staff. Participants’ accuracy of identifying behavioral function and function-matched interventions were collected in via two means: 1) brief classroom scenarios using pre- and post-training written assessments, and 2) through in-vivo classroom observations before and after the training. These results will be shared along with participants’ social acceptability of the training. Considerations for maintenance and generalization of skills will be discussed.

 
38.

A Comparison Between the Use of Traditional Precision Teaching Standard Celeration Charting Approaches With an Electronic Version of the Standard Behavior Chart: Classwide and Individual Data SAFMEDS Instruction Combined With Precision Teaching Measurement

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
William Sweeney (The University of South Dakota), KIM KILLU (University of Michigan - Dearborn)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

This demonstration project illustrates the This demonstration project evaluated the effectiveness of SAFMEDS on the classwide acquisition and fluency of basic concepts in curriculum-based assessment/Precision Teaching course. SAFMEDS, an acronym for "Say All Fast a Minute Each Day Shuffle," was coined by Lindsley (1983) as a functional flashcard procedure for building large repertoires of sight words in a given content area. Second, this project illustrates the use of traditional Precision Teaching counting, recording, and charting approach that employs the Standard Celeration Chart in comparison to an computer-based charting technology developed by Chartlytics © that utilizes a similar semi-logmetric technique utilizing a Standard Behavior Chart. The perspective of this project was to implement SAFMEDS procedures as a means of teaching college level students to recognize important concepts related to instruction covered in a curriculum-based assessment/Precision Teaching course. Additionally, these SAFMEDS instructional procedures combined with Precision Teaching measurement approaches provide opportunity to model the importance of frequent and daily measurement of curriculum through the use of the SAFMEDS procedure with the class. The monitoring of this procedure, by the instructor on a class wide basis and by the students managing their daily data, was used to determine whether the SAFMEDS procedures was effective for improving the acquisition of key concepts imbedded with in the curriculum of the Precision Teaching and informal assessment course. Further, through the ongoing repeated practice procedures and formative evaluation procedures assure the pre-service teachers in this course practice essential skills necessary for successful implementation of appropriate and measurably effective instructional practices for future use in their respective classrooms and professional settings. This presentation also discusses some of the pros and cons of both the traditional use of the Precision Teaching Standard Celeration Chart as well as the use of the Chartlytics © electronically-based Standard Behavior Chart

 
39.

Utilizing the Standard Celeration Chart to Make Decisions Across Students, Classrooms, and Teachers

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Justin Halton (Judge Rotenberg Center), JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

We will be looking at ways to improve education decisions across students, classrooms, and teachers through analysis of the standard celeration chart. Over the past few months at JRC use of the standard celeration chart has increased across classrooms, teachers, and students. These increases have led to a wide range of decisions across the school on multiple levels. Standard Celeration charts utilized for the Morningside Math Fluency program have been reviewed for decision making by students, teachers, and coaches on a routine basis. We will be searching for ways to make chart analysis more efficient. Charts shared represent class wide interventions and individual interventions on daily charts. Also included is a monthly chart showing days charted across all teachers maintaining paper charts at JRC with the Morningside Math program. Charts shown demonstrate class wide interventions, individual student interventions, and teacher charting progress and decisions made through analysis of the charts. Listed descriptions of classroom interventions, individual interventions, and interventions utilized to increase teacher charting. Decisions reached from chart analysis include instructional/environmental changes, adjustments to rewards/performance criteria, and amount of teacher coaching received.

 
40.

Training Parents of Children With Autism to Implement Naturalistic Teaching Using Interactive Computer Training

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ADRIANO BARBOZA (Federal University of Pará), Jade Rodrigues (Federal University of Pará), Romariz Barros (Federal University of Pará)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Parent training has been an effective tool to facilitate access to behavior analytic treatment, especially in countries under development (such as Brazil). Because of the lack of human and financial resources that are available for that purpose, semi-presencial tools (e.g. videomodeling and Interactive Computer Training) have been used to disseminate behavioral intervention to wider portions of the population. However, these tools have been used in the Brazilian context only to teach structured teaching procedures (e.g. discretre-trial instruction) and not naturalistic teaching procedures. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an online training module to teach how to implement the Natural Language Paradigm procedure and assess its effects on the performance accuracy of parents of children with autism. The procedure was conducted at Federal University of Pará, in Brazil, and in a parent association in Pernambuco, Brazil. 4 parent-child dyads participated in the study: Mario and Martin, Sarah and Andrew, Natalie and Daryl and Paula and Victor. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants was used. All the participants presented zero levels of responding at baseline. After the online module was presented, the participants’ accuracy increased at least in 64%, but without reaching procedural criteria (i.e. at least 90%). After a 30-minute online feedback session (i.e. Skype) was provided, performance accuracy reached 100% for Mario, 95% for Natalie, 91% for Paula and 96% for Sarah. High levels of accuracy (90% in average) were still found when the participant implemented the procedure in a home setting, as well as with different materials. Based on the current data, it might be promising to use Interactive Computer Training to teach parents of children with autism to implement naturalistic teaching procedures. Since there was not any presence-based workload in order to teach the procedures to the participants, it is possible – by using this tool - to help disseminate the behavior-analytic intervention to places where there’s a lack of professionals to provide continuous training opportunities, as well as reducing the costs needed to provide services with high integrity.

 
41.

An Examination of the Relationship Among Undergraduate Students’ Psychological Flexibility, Stress, and Academic Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Lacie Campbell (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), BREANNA LEE (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Psychological flexibility, which can be interpreted behaviorally as the ability to adjust responding in order to maximize reinforcement in the current environment, has been shown to correlate with a number of socially relevant behaviors among various populations, such as individuals with mental health needs, employees, parents, and others. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of psychological flexibility, as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, with other variables relevant to a population of undergraduate university students, including reported stress, as measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, and academic performance, as measured by average performance on weekly quiz scores. The results suggest that there was a statistically significant relationship between psychological flexibility and self-reported stress among participants (r=0.671, p=0.000), however a statistically significant relationship with either psychological flexibility or reported stress and academic performance was not found. These results suggest that, while students’ reported flexibility and stress may be related, while these self-reported measures may not be directly related to performance on academic tasks. The limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future research regarding psychological flexibility-based interventions for stress management and improved performance among university students will be discussed.

 
42. Do Bonus Points Lead to Success?
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
GRAYSON BUTCHER (University of North Texas), Mary Elizabeth Hunter (The Art and Science of Animal Training)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Procrastination is a common problem in courses that use a self-paced format. Procrastination may impact whether a student completes the course or withdraws, what final grade the student receives, and whether the student experiences unpleasant collateral emotions (Johnson & Ruskin, 1977). Previous research on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) has demonstrated that making a nominal amount of “bonus points” contingent upon early completion of some or all of the course material can result in positive outcomes, such as a decrease in overall procrastination (Powers and Edwards, 1974), an increase in the number of A grades (Riedal, Harmey, LaFief, and Finch, 1976) and fewer withdrawals and incompletes (Semb et al., 1975). This study investigated patterns of student progress on a self-paced, fourteen-part project in an undergraduate PSI class. During one semester, students were given six suggested deadlines throughout the semester. During the following semester, students were given the same suggested deadlines and a nominal amount of bonus points for completing the first four units of the project within the first 3.5 weeks of the semester. Preliminary results indicate that the addition of the bonus points increased early unit completion by 69% when compared to the previous semester.
 
43. Data Collection Methods: A Two-Part Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
BETHANY A PATTERSON (Patterson Behavioral Services), Shaakira Sharif (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jennifer Kontak (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: In the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) data collection measurements are in terms of accuracy, validity, and reliability. Comparisons of electronic and pen-and-paper data collection in ABA direct intervention will be discussed in the form of a literature review. Therapists are currently using large amounts of behavioral data that is used to determine treatment for their clients. The data collection process is complex, unstandardized, and can cause problems with the staffs’ ability to conduct their trials. Pen-and-paper data are not always useful when there are numerous papers, unorganized data practices, and complex coding. As a result, therapists are beginning to transition to electronic data collection methods. However, there is very little research focused on ABA settings using technology for data collection, as well as limited training provided to therapists. HIPPA compliance and client privacy play an ethical part in using technology in ABA. Although, technology has provided a great resource to organize and graph data during direct intervention in ABA, it is important for ABA providers to consider appropriate training and ethical considerations when choosing electronic data collection. Further research regarding use of technology for data collection needs to be conducted.
 
44.

A Child With Behavior Problems Walks into a BARR...47 Times

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
RACHEL GAY (Collierville Schools ), Michele Seiler (Collierville Schools ), Merrill Winston (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Prone restraint in the school setting has historically been a hotbed of controversy for multiple reasons. This case study examines the use of prone restraint in compliance with the requirements set forth by the Professional Crisis Management (PCM), specifically the Brief Assisted Required Relaxation (BARR) procedure on an eight year old male diagnosed with an emotional disturbance. This physical intervention was part of a comprehensive intervention package that included a continuous schedule of reinforcement, discontinuous work schedules, response cost, and high-magnitude social reinforcement. The intervention resulted in a rapid reduction of aggressive behavior toward staff and peers in a tightly controlled setting, which had a collateral effect of reduced need for prone restraint. The case study serves as evidence in favor of the inclusion of prone restraint in a behavior-analytic treatment package that can have a dramatic reduction in dangerous behavior and a corresponding increase in productive classroom behavior.

 
45.

An Examination of the Effect of a Values-Based Intervention on Undergraduate College Students’ Quiz Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BREANNA LEE (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Lacie Campbell (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Previous research has demonstrated that university students experience high levels of demand in their degree programs, which often results in difficulty maintaining their academic performance and managing their distress. As well, research suggests that values- and acceptance-based interventions may be beneficial to support academic success of university students. The present study examined the effectiveness of a 6-week values clarification and committed action training program derived from acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), which has been utilized in previous research with graduate students, to increase academic performance undergraduate students in a psychology program in a multiple baseline design across across groups and participants. The effect of the intervention was measured in terms of academic performance as indicated by participants’ performance on weekly classroom quizzes. Participants completed the training outside of class, however the intervention was designed to guide participants through values clarification and determining committed actions related specifically to their education. Results suggest that a values-based intervention may be beneficial for students in an undergraduate setting, and limitations and future directions for research will be discussed.

 
 

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