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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #477
Monday, May 28, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Scott P. Ardoin (UGA Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research)
 
30. Influencing Student On-Task and Off-Task Behavior by Changing a Paraprofessional's Praise Rate in the Classroom
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA LYNN THORNTON (Western Michigan University), Kimberly Peck (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A teachers use of praise is beneficial for students, as it provides encouragement, helps build self-esteem, builds a close student-teacher relationship, and reduces the amount of disruptive behavior in the classroom (Brophy, 1981; Alber & Heward, 1997). In the current study, praise rates of a target paraprofessional, who worked in a general education setting, in an elementary school, were measured. Concurrently, on-task and off-task behaviors of a target student were also measured. The target paraprofessional and student were chosen based on baseline measures indicating low praise rates coming from the paraprofessional, and low on-task and high off-task behaviors from the student. A reversal design was used for this study to evaluate the effects of the intervention. During intervention, a praise training was provided to the classroom staff, followed by implementing a MotivAider that was used to prompt the target paraprofessional to deliver praise to the students for engaging in on-task behaviors. Results of the intervention, barriers to implementation, and areas of future research will be discussed.
 
31. Pilot Study: Does Exercise Participation Enhance On-Task Behavior and Task Completion in Preschool Children?
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
JACQUELYN M. MACDONALD (Regis College), Helen Consiglio (Regis College), Catherine Fuller (Regis College)
Abstract: Physical activity performed by children and adolescents in school settings can have a range of positive effects on cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Physical activity including free-dance and yoga can increase on-task behavior in kindergarten students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in a journal-writing activity. The primary, peer-reviewed literature examining the relationship between exercise/yoga/mindfulness interventions on academic skills and behaviors is limited, and there is a notable lack of studies at the preschool level. These interventions hold a great deal of promise as they are inexpensive to administer and accessible to a wide range of populations. The objective of the current study is to assess the acute effects of three levels of physical activity (no exercise/circle time, low intensity exercise/yoga and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on time-on-task in a block building task in 3-4 year old preschool children. We tested the hypothesis that both yoga and MVPA activity would increase time on-task compared to the circle-time (CT) control condition.
 
32. Utilizing a Self-Monitoring Behavior Package in an Early Intervention Classroom: An Implementation of a Group Self& Match System
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
LUCY AINSMAN (San Diego State University), George Roy Mayer (Retired; San Diego State Univeristy)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Self & Match System, a self-monitoring behavior package, as a group intervention system to increase socially significant behaviors (cusps) in an early intervention preschool classroom for students with disabilities. Students were taught to match their recordings of their own behavior to the teacher's recordings. The results of this study yield the conclusions that preschool students in this study were able to learn to accurately self-record and positively increase appropriate classroom behavior following the introduction of the Self & Match system. There was a reoccurring theme in the data that the Self & Match System, and/or behavioral cusps, might have been the factor that increased the three subjects' behaviors. However, the lack of experimental control made drawing functional relationships impossible. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the influence of behavioral cusps on experimental control, as well as implications, limitations, and recommendations for further research.
 
33. Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior by Reconditioning Classroom as a Reinforcer: A Single-Case Study
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TSZ CHING NG (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong), Tracy Yip (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract: Daniel is a six-year-old student who has been diagnosed with ADHD and ASD. He receives 1:1 ABA services and attends integration classes in Grade one for Literacy, Math Music, Mandarin, PE and Art class. Prior to the intervention, Daniel has exhibited over 1000 call outs (defined as using an above average loud volume in comparison to the noise level in class) of repetitive words throughout the school day. This was causing a lot of disruption in class and learning for him and his classmates were impeded. It was hypothesized that the classroom may have been paired as an aversive stimuli as he was required to sit and attend to the teacher, participate in class discussions, and completed worksheets. Although high rates of praises and generalized reinforcement was provided throughout the lessons, the amount of effort Daniel had to pay was much higher than anticipated. Intervention of reconditioning the classroom as a reinforcer was employed. Results has shown a positive effect of the intervention in which there was a significant decrease of call out behavior throughout the school day.
 
34. Outcomes in Instruction Informed by PEAK Versus a Non-Behavior Analytic Approach
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KORTNIE COTTER FISHER (Achievement Center), Jenna Conrad (Achievement Center), Robert Gulick (Achievement Center), Franki Krugger (Achievement Center)
Abstract: Effective and evidenced based instruction is a key component to making meaningful progress with regard to skill acquisition in individuals with autism or related developmental disabilities. Previous research suggests correlations between participation in programming outlined via PEAK Relational Training System with subsequent increases in participant scores on intelligence quotient testing (Dixon, Whiting, Rowsey, & Belisli, 2014) and rapid skill acquisition and mastery with as little as twenty minutes of exposure per day (McKeel, Dixon, Daar, Rowsey, & Szekely, 2015). The present investigation sought to examine the outcomes of "non-behavior analytic" special education programming as outlined by Individualized Education Programs versus programming informed by the PEAK Relational Training System. Participants enrolled in two separate summer programs for individuals with a diagnosis of autism were assessed using the modules in the PEAK Relational Training System curriculum at intake and program completion. The experimental group received instruction derived from the curricular programs of the PEAK Relational Training System; participants in the control group received instruction as usual for based on supports indicated for summer programming in their Individualized Education Programs. The results indicated notable rates of skill acquisition and mastery in the experimental group while the control group remained largely the same with the exception of a few participants that demonstrated skill regression. Implications for follow up research and practice are further discussed.
 
35. Searching for Correlations Between Fluency Building Activities and State Testing Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Justin Halton (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: This study will look at how completing fluency building activities impacts participants' performance on state testing, specifically in History. Participants are all required to complete and pass New York state testing, either the Regents exam or the Regents Competency Test to earn their high school diploma. These tests are comprised of multiple choice questions, short answer questions and an essay. Participants in this study worked on fluency building activities for several weeks before the exam, building fluency in the areas of vocabulary, dates and general concepts. Timings are completed daily, with the material, presented in a randomized sequence. Immediate feedback is given, goals are set and data is plotted on a standard celeration chart. Once a pre-determined mastery is achieved, new material is presented. We will be looking at participants' scores on the state tests and also the effect the fluency building activities had on the participants' overall experience in completing the tests.
 
36. The Impact of a Paper-Based Math Facts Curriculum on Math Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Justin Halton (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: An important part of the Common Core Standards is the requirement of fluency in basic math facts, in the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. At the Judge Rotenberg Center, students work through a paper based curriculum, Morningside Basic Number Skills, which teaches the basic math facts through a series of fluency based timings. Curriculum is broken into small steps or slices, which each student completes timings in, until they reach a pre-determined level of mastery. Data is plotted on a standard celeration chart, allowing the education staff to make data based decisions. We will be looking at the impact of using this curriculum, potentially in the areas of math facts grade level, generalization to more complex mathematics operations, and generalization to computer based timings.
 
37. Curriculum Redesign: Applying Behavior Analytic Strategies to Curriculum
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA MCQUESTON (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: One strategy some schools are using to promote inclusion of students with disabilities is peer mentoring or peer modeling. There are various ways to implement peer-mediated strategies in the school setting. One method is to teach peers to model behaviors and act as peer tutors, which is the approach used by in the Special Olympics Young Athletes program. Although promising, this program was not being used widely by teachers due to their confusion about how to implement it. Therefore, I have modified this curriculum in order to make it more accessible to teachers and to better include students with diverse behavior and academic needs. I incorporated behavior analytic teaching strategies in order to support students learning. These modifications will allow teachers to implement the Young Athletes program more readily, thereby promoting the inclusion of students with disabilities. Examples of the modifications based on behavior analytic principles are included, and implications of promoting peer-mediated strategies are discussed. As behavior analysts and those interested in behavior analysis, we are committed to dissemination of behavior analysis. This paper serves as a way to enter the education discussion proactively and for students with and without disabilities.
 
38. Increasing Compliance and Reducing Challenging Behaviors Using Antecedent Interventions (Multi-Element Design)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA DOMINESEY (Erie 2 BOCES), Carol Shaw (The Summit Center), Brianna Betker (The Summit Center)
Abstract: Children with Autism are often labeled as non-compliant or distracted. Too often, complex behavior intervention plans are put into place before simple strategies are ruled out. A variation of Additive Antecedent Interventions (AAI) as described by Stephenson and Hanley (2010) was implemented in this study. This study showed the impact of six antecedent variables (proximity, position, physical contact, eye contact, vocal attention, and play interruption) on compliance as assessed in five male students diagnosed with Autism aged five to eight using a multi-element design. All participants attended 6:1:3 classrooms at a private school. Two of the participants were in the same class. One of the participants received an additional antecedent (model) of the skill after it was determined that the tasks being asked of him were not in his repertoire. After all participants were exposed to the intervention, their compliance with demands increased to an average of 80% across four consecutive sessions and challenging behaviors averaged 0%-5% for all participants across four consecutive sessions. These findings support those of previous research on AAI and add to the level of confidence in their effectiveness.
 
39. A Case Study in Helping a Student Decrease Verbal Perseverations
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ROSEMARIE GRIFFIN (ABA SPEECH LLC), Carolline A. Turnbull (KidsLink Neurobehavioral Center)
Abstract: A 15 year old student diagnosed with autism and a seizure disorder presented with a high number of verbal perseverations throughout the course of his school day. He attends a specialized school for students with autism and has a 1:1 instructional staff for 85% of his school day. His curriculum includes communication training, self-help, daily living, leisure and pre-vocational skills. An analogue FA was conducted and results indicated that behavior served a primary function of socially mediated positive reinforcement via access to tangible items or activities. His intervention consisted of being placed on a differential reinforcement of diminishing rates (DRD) schedule. Upon verbal perseverations, the therapist would address the topic by answering the first time and then present him with a "talk time" card and told him that they could discuss the topic during "talk time". Reactive procedures included the following: upon the display of the defined targeted behavior, a token was removed at each occurrence of the verbal perseveration, at the end of the interval if he had not exceeded the allowable amount he was able to access reinforcement. If he had exceeded the allowable amount, a neutral statement was made ( " You can try again", etc...) and another interval began. Alternative teaching included a talk time scheduled many times throughout his day, count and mand procedure, self monitoring his vocal volume and a waiting program. These procedures helped the student go from a baseline of 65 allowable perseverations per 10 minutes to 9 allowable perseverations per 10 minutes over a 6 month period.
 
40. Collecting Reliable Data: Using a Training Module to Teach Interventionists' Effective Data Collection Practices
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ROLANDA R. MAEZ (University of New Mexico)
Abstract: Data collection and analysis is the cornerstone of what drives decision-making that is ultimately beneficial for students with disabilities. Not only is it mandated by law (e.g., IDEA, 2004), it also good practice for practitioners to utilize effective data collection practices. Proper data collection is necessary to make informed decisions about interventions that are meaningful for the child. However, even though preservice teachers receive coursework in assessment, they do not always collect data in systematic ways to guide instructional decisions once they complete their preparation programs (Campbell & Evans, 2000). Some perceived barriers to collecting data include the setting, lack of time, and the skill set necessary for effective data collection (Sandall, Schwartz, & Lacroix, 2004). This project developed a user-friendly training module that taught classroom teachers skills for effective data collection to monitor intervention effectiveness. Skills taught included developing an operational definition; selecting appropriate dimensions of behavior to monitor; creating a practical, reliable data collection system; graphing data; and analyzing collected data using basic visual analysis.
 
41. Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Teacher Candidates' Use of a Communication Strategy
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
BROOKS VOSTAL (Bowling Green State University), Alicia Mrachko (Bowling Green State University)
Abstract: Special education teachers are required to establish collaborative relationships with parents and other professionals in schools. To this end, teacher education programs are required to teach and demonstrate candidates' mastery of communications skills that foster collaboration as part of accreditation. Behavioral Skills Training (BST), which includes presentation of explicit information about the skill, expert modeling, practice with expert feedback, and participant self-assessment has been shown to be an effective method of changing teacher behaviors (Parsons, Rollyson, & Reid, 2013). The current study examined the use of BST to teach a previously validated communication strategy, LAFF Don't CRY. Participants included 40 undergraduate special education teacher candidates in their first practicum course for the major. Using a multiple probe across groups design, researchers randomly assigned participants to groups, delivered explicit instruction including individualized feedback, and then participants self-assessed their strategy usage while receiving emailed instructor feedback across probes that consisted of simulated parent-teacher or teacher-teacher conferences. The dependent variable was percent of strategy steps completed during the probe. Data showed that groups went from achieving a mean of 15% (range 11-23%) of strategy steps in baseline to a mean of 91% (range 81-96%) of strategy steps after training.
 
42. Analysis of the Effects of Catalyst Electronic Data System on ABA Teachers' Data Entry Duration
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TARA OLIVIA LOUGHREY (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Jessica Dunn (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Lindsey Jorgensen (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Alessandra Ramirez (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Maria Soto (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Diana Lozano (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Tiffany Morhaim (The Victory Center for Autism and Related Disabilities)
Abstract: Catalyst is an electronic data collection and management platform that allows users to collect real-time data through the use of an app on a portable electronic tablet. It also allows users to create and manage skill acquisition and behavior reduction programs through their online (desktop) portal. With Catalyst, users can collect the same range of data that have traditionally been collected using pencil and paper (e.g., frequency, duration, interval) but removes the redundancy of entering paper data into an online graphing program (e.g., Microsoft Excel). Catalyst automatically analyzes and graphs the data making it readily accessible via the app or online portal. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a data collection platform, Catalyst, in decreasing the duration of data entry for ABA teachers at a small school for children with autism and related disabilities. Five teachers collected baseline data on the duration of daily skill acquisition and behavior reduction data entry, including transferring data from clipboards and binders into their existing data collection platform (Microsoft Excel) and updating graphs. A multiple baseline across participants (teachers) was used. Duration data will be collected after the implementation of Catalyst to determine its effects on data entry duration.
 
43. An Evaluation of the Use of a Remote Bug-In-Ear Device to Facilitate In-Situ Teacher Training
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Kimberly Martell (Ball State University), JAMIE GAITHER (Ball State University), Leah Nellis (Indiana University at Kokomo), Nichole Weakley (Ball State University)
Abstract: Teachers are increasingly required to meet the needs of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Students with ASD often present with a range of challenging behaviors and skill deficits that interfere with learning. Teachers often lack adequate training to effectively work with students who have ASD. There are several existing studies that have documented the effectiveness of in situ direct training via a bug-in-ear for increasing teachers' capacity to use effective classroom management techniques. Although direct training is often found to be an effective teacher training method, it can be time and resource intensive especially in under-resourced schools. This study sought to increase the feasibility of teacher training by using technology to provide in situ training from a remote location. Specifically, this study used a non-concurrent multiple baseline design with a Koehler Levin randomization procedure to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of direct training via a bug-in-ear device (BIE; i.e., Bluetooth earpiece and webcam) provided remotely from an off-site location, and (b) evaluate the effect of behavior specific praise (BSP) for improving compliance and decreasing disruptive classroom behaviors in students with ASD. Data for four participants will be presented.
 
44. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety Skills Training in Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES E. KING (SEEK Education; University of Nevada, Reno ), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: A two-phase review examined 180 studies on safety skills training published in 30 behaviorally-orientated journals from 1968 to 2014. First, a systematic review organized the literature according to: publication trends, participant demographics, experimental characteristics, and distribution safety skill types and training contingencies (e.g., positive, negative reinforcement, punishment of unsafe skills, etc.). Second, a preliminary meta-analysis of the single-case studies yielded treatment effect sizes across training contingencies. Results and discussions underscore the need to advance applied technology pertaining to this socially important repertoire.
 
45. Decreasing Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior and Increasing Skill Acquisition Using a Time-In Light Procedure
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BENJAMIN HOUSTON HATLEY (Auburn University), Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University), Miranda Merrill (Auburn University)
Abstract: Problem behavior and skill acquisition for children with intellectual disabilities can be particularly challenging when working with children who engage in escape-maintained problem behavior. Escape extinction (Goh & Iwata, 1994) and Functional Communication Training (FCT; Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008) are well-established treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior. However, both of these treatments have produced negative side effects in children’s behavior (Lerman & Iwata, 1996; Schieltz et al., 2011). The time-in light procedure is an alternative treatment for escape-maintained problem behavior that addresses this concern. This procedure consists of a child turning on a light to signal their readiness to work. When the light is on, the establishing operation for the current reinforcer is presumably strong enough to offset the aversiveness of the demands. Then, when the establishing operation for escape is stronger, the child can leave the light off to escape demands. The results from the treatment evaluation will be analyzed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants with an embedded alternating treatments design. Data collection is currently ongoing and results will be discussed after additional data is collected. Interobserver agreement scores will be calculated using the proportional method for at least 33% of all sessions.
 
46. Coercive Interactions and Academic Performance in School-Age Children
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA GARCÍA (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California), Agustín Jaime Negrete (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California), Pedro Fernandez (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California), Enrique Berra (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California)
Abstract: Excess psychological control affects children's performance in cognitive tasks of problem solving, school performance, socioemotional adaptation (O'Connor, 2002) and mathematical performance (Aunola and Nurmi, 2004). By contrast, parental children have higher language skills (Hudson, et al., 2015) and higher self-regulated learning (Pino and Whitebread, 2010). However, maternal sensitivity has generally been assessed using self-assessment scales which, because of their global nature, do not capture the moment-to-moment dynamics of interactive processes (Cerezo, et al., 2011). Therefore, the objective of the present research was to describe the behavioral variables related to maternal sensitivity in two samples of children with high (7 dyads) and low academic performance (10 dyads), from the city of Tijuana from the second to second behavioral records video sessions of 30 minutes divided into two conditions: playful and academic activity (average Kappa = .87). The results indicate that mothers of underachieving children are more coercive and less interactive, whereas mothers with well performing children outweigh social and approval attenuations, whereas children with low academic performance are more indifferent to aversive behaviors of their mothers.
 
47. A Review of the Literature Pertaining to the Functions of Noncompliance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH MARIE MAROSE (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Kevin P. Klatt (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Much research exists to address compliance for children and adults. Several reviews of the literature pertaining to compliance exist, however, none of the reviews has investigated the functions of noncompliance nor the effectiveness of the interventions based on function. Therefore, the purpose of the current literature review was to examine the functions of noncompliance, and analyze which function-based interventions were the most effective. Past studies which conducted a functional analysis or functional assessment on compliance or noncompliance were collected and organized. Results of this review suggest that the functions of noncompliance include attention, escape, access to tangibles, or combinations of the three. The percentage of effectiveness was calculated for each function-based intervention. The results of the review along with recommendations for future research are discussed.
 
48. Socially Significant Impact of Multi-Component Treatment Package for Adolescent with Mental Health Diagnoses
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
PAULETTE CLARK (Nashoba Regional School District; Family Perspectives, Incorporated)
Abstract: This poster will present findings about the impact of using Applied Behavior Analysis principles including Functional Behavior Assessment and implementation of multi-component Behavior Intervention Plan in a public school, general education setting, in reducing escape maintained challenging behavior and increasing adaptive responses in a middle school student with mental health diagnoses. The multi-component intervention includes: 1) Functional Communication Training, 2) self-monitoring, 3) visual schedules, 4) written previews of academic, social and behavioral expectations across all activities and environments, 5) transition strategies and 6) providing instructive and corrective feedback with a sixth grade student diagnosed with Oppositional Defiance Disorder and a Mood Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Self-initiated Functional Communication Responses, time on task, work initiation and work completion increased and dangerous unsafe behavior decreased to near zero rates. Successful implementation of strategies resulted in student remaining in his home school in a general education setting, rather than requiring a move to a more restrictive therapeutic setting.
 
49. Multiple-Tact Training and the Emergence of Categorization and Listener Behavior in Children With Autism
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELA MENDONÇA RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia sobre Comportamento, Cognição e Ensino, Brazil), Rayssa Cavalcante (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: A series of studies has demonstrated that typically developing children and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are able to categorize, without direct training, when they can tact stimuli using a common name (the name of the category) and behave as a listener in relation to this common name. However, academic and social situations require us to tact and to behave as listeners to both the name of an item and to the category to which it belongs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-tact training would produce categorization and listener behavior in two children with ASD (9 and 10 years old), using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. Multiple-tact training consisted of teaching children how to tact nine Brazilian states maps and the three regions they belong to. After criterion was met, tests were introduced to assess whether participants would match states by region and select the correct comparisons after hearing the names of the states and their regions. Multiple-tact training led to the emergence of categorization and listener behavior for both participants. Although replication is necessary, results can contribute for educational and clinical practice for children with ASD.
 
50. A Comparison of Two Methods for Teaching Tacts to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Rafaela de Melo Franco (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), Pedro Gomes (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), DANIELA MENDONÇA RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia sobre Comportamento, Cognição e Ensino, Brazil), Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil)
Abstract: Efforts to evaluate the most efficient methods to teach verbal operants, such as the tact, to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have experimental and applied relevance. The purpose of the present study was to compare two tact training methods: individual versus simultaneous presentation of stimuli. Two children with ASD (3 and 5 years old) were exposed to both methods, using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants and an adapted alternating treatment design to compare the effects of the two methods. Experimental stimuli consisted of two sets of three non-familiar pictures for each participant. During tact training with individual presentation, one of three pictures was presented in each trial. During tact training with simultaneous presentation, three pictures were presented simultaneously in each trial. After training, tests were conducted to verify the emergence of the corresponding listener relations for stimuli in both sets. One participant reached criterion in fewer trials with the individual presentation method, while the other one met criterion faster with the simultaneous presentation method. We have not completed the study; however the results suggest that the stimulus discriminability and participants discrimination repertoire may influence performance on both methods.
 
51. Effects of a Prompt Hierarchy on Motor Imitation of Non-Imitative Children With Autism
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ANA CAROLINA CAROLINA SELLA (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), Rebeca Cavalcante (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), Sayonara Gomes (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), Daniela Mendonça Ribeiro (Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia sobre Comportamento, Cogniçâo e Ensino)
Abstract: Imitation can be defined as two organisms emitting similar behaviors and the behavior of one is under the topographical and immediate control of the other. When an organism shows an imitative repertoire, one may use this repertoire to generate new behaviors, which amounts to imitation being an important tool in interventions for people with deficits in any area. Despite its possible use, the scientific literature does not provide many examples on how to teach imitation to non-imitative children. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a 12-step prompt hierarchy on the motor imitation of non-imitative children. In addition, we monitored the hierarchy effects on eye contact and problem behavior. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used. Participants were between 2 and 4 years old and diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In baseline, participants did not show any imitative behaviors or eye contact and displayed several problem behaviors such as tantruming, whining, and not remaining seated. Intervention resulted in increase in eye contact and decrease in problem behavior. Overall, the hierarchy increased independent imitative behavior for one child, but not for the other. We discuss the issues with prompt dependency and how pre-requisite behaviors might have influenced the results.
 
52. The Effects of Self-Management Plus Token System on On-Task Behavior for a Junior-High School Student With Learning Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Ching-yi Ou (National Changhua University of Education), WENCHU SUN (National Changhua University of Education), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-management on on-task behavior for a junior- high school student with learning disability. A single subject research design (ABAB) is used as the research method. A junior-high school student with LD who had advanced speaker repertories and normal IQ participated in this study. However, his teachers reported that the student has showed disruptive behaviours and lack of on-task behaviour, which caused negative impacts on his academic performance. The independent variable was self-management which included self-recording and self-evaluation, plus token system. Self-recording was taught to the student to record his on-task (attention) behaviours individually before implementing to the natural environment. The dependent variables in this study were the percentage of on-task behaviour and the completion of academic task. The results showed positive outcomes on self-management and token system for this subject (Figure 1). With the on-task behaviors increased, the academic performance also improved, and the disruptive behaviours decreased. This research provided self-management as a useful intervention strategy for promoting attention behaviors for adolescent with learning disability. With the on-task behaviors increased, the academic performance also improved at the same time. Implications of the intervention for middle school student were discussed, and the suggestions for practice and further research were also included.
 
53. A Comparative Study of Diagnostic Factor and Working Memory of Children With ADHD, ADHD At-Risk, and Normal Using Active Game Task With Robot
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
YUNHEE SHIN (BK21Plus Student, Graduated School of Special Education, Daegu University, South Korea), Hyo-Shin Lee (Department of Early Childhood Special Education, Daegu University, South Korea), Sungbum Kim (Institute of Special Education & Rehabilitation Research Center, Daegu University, South Korea), EunJi Jeong (BK21Plus Student, Graduated School of Special Education, Daegu University, South Korea)
Abstract: This study was to compare to ADHD's diagnostic factors (Inattention, Hyper-activity, Impulsiveness) and working memory using active game task with robot. The subject of this study was 269 of normal children, 24 of ADHD at risk and 35 of ADHD who diagnosed by doctor in Y elementary school and H hospital, South Korea. The multimedia content consisted of diagnostic factors and working memory and conducted 3 levels of difficulty on task for 15 minutes per subject. In the task situation, there were 45inch TV and Kinect on the front, 3x3 digit mat on the center and humanoid robot moving with wheels on the front-right. All subject should step by step on the digit mat as directed from 3 to 5 digit units by robot and they also should correct-react by sudden stimulus of Wolf/Neighbor as directed in advance. The behaviors of their route, reactions of sudden stimulus, and deviant behaviors moving before start direction, attempting incorrect (commission/omission error) reaction before correct reaction, attempting deviated route and attempting to move before moving alarm. The results of this study were that It was a significant difference of success/fail on route per level among the subjects, ADHD children failed on the first level in most easier of level than ADHD at risk and normal children. In the response behavior of stimulus, it was a significant difference among the subject on the first level. The half of ADHD children have incorrect response and more ADHD at risk children failed than normal children. Finally, It was also a significant difference among subject on 2 deviant behaviors - attempting incorrect (commission/omission error) reaction before correct reaction and attempting to move before moving alarm.
 
54. Improving Musical Performance with Precision Teaching
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE NELSON (University of West Florida), Dayna Beddick (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Because audible errors in a musical performance are easily identified, fluent execution is essential. Precision teaching is an effective evaluation of music education, as it provides accurate feedback regarding progress toward fluent performance. See/Do Play written music was the pinpoint used to measure correct responses (correct notes played at correct time) during one-minute timing sessions. Written music was played on a marimba or vibraphone with a metronome. Specific beats were targeted to increase the number of correct responses until fluent performance (defined by the required tempo for the music) was achieved. Data were used to guide instructional decisions and monitor progress.
 
55. Functional Analysis as an Emerging Practice in Israel: Prevalence and Limitations
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AVNER FRAIDLIN (David Yellin Academic College; Western Michigan University), Shiri Ayvazo (David Yellin Academic College), Ronit Kankazil-Maimon (Matia Holon Azur), Dana Charlap (Matya Hefer-Sharon)
Abstract: Functional Analysis (FA) has been addressed as the gold standard recommendation for understanding and treating severe problem behaviors. Nonetheless, treatment challenges such as the presence of uncontrolled sources of reinforcement and resistance of staff impede its use in educational settings. Ayvazo and Eldar (2016) published a pioneer sample data of Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) processes executed in schools in Israel and addressed the challenges Israeli behavior analysts encounter when attempting to implement FA. The authors encouraged promoting the infusion of FA into routine behavioral-analytic practices provided in educational and clinical settings in Israel. This study surveyed 72 Israeli behavior analysts regarding their FA knowledge and practice, 57% of them were certified by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (nine BCBA, thirty-one BCaBA, one BCBA-D). Participants responded to a questionnaire concerning their FBA practices, training and experience with FA, and reasons for refraining from conducting FA. Data will be statistically analyzed and presented in tabular and graphical form. Preliminary findings presented as frequency of responses per question indicate 66% of the participants had never conducted FA. Foremost reasons are lack of resources, training or experience. Implications for training programs and the future development of applied behavior analysis in Israel will be discussed.
 
56. The Effectiveness of an Adapted Direct Instruction Mathematics Strategy Using Counters on Adding Negative Integers for a Female with a Learning Disability in a High School Resource Room
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M NEYMAN (Gonzaga University), Calle Sullivan (Gonzaga University), Kathleen Ruff (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: To proceed to higher math like Algebra, adding positive and negative integers must be developed. This study’s purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of an adapted Direct Instruction (DI) Mathematics subtraction strategy to add negative integers. The participant was a 14-year-old girl with a learning disability. The dependent variable was the number of correctly written answers including the correct value and sign. A permanent product data system employed 10-problem worksheets adding positive and negative integers within a reversal design. This study adapted the DI Math subtraction crossing-out strategy to teach adding integers with vertical counters/lines for positive quantities and horizontal counters for negative quantities. For the first addend, the correct number and type of counters was drawn. For the second addend, the correct counter amount was added to or crossed out the first set of counters. The sum was determined by the number and type of counters that were not canceled out. During baseline, low numbers of correct problems were completed, while intervention showed higher numbers completed to mastery level with 100% inter-observer agreement. Adapting the DI subtraction method was successful in teaching adding negative integers and provides a new strategy for high school instruction within Direct Instruction Mathematics.
 

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