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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #74
Saturday, May 26, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Matthew W. Johnson (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
14. Delay Discounting and Cannabinoid Enzyme Inhibitors
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
DEVIN GALDIERI (West Virginia University), Karen G. Anderson (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Impulsivity has been implicated in a number of disorders and maladaptive behaviors including pathological gambling, substance abuse, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, suicidality, and psychopathology in general. Serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are two neurotransmitters that are well documented for their effects on impulsivity and their activity can be altered by other neurotransmitters systems, such as the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system can be manipulated by agonists such as delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as well as by drugs that alter the endocannabinoid system's own enzymatic regulatory system, such as cannabinoid enzyme inhibitors. The present study examines effects of two cannabinoid enzyme inhibitors whose effect on impulsivity is relatively unexplored. Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a discrete-trials delay-discounting procedure and given a range of acute doses of URB597 and JZL195. Effects of drug administration will be assessed using several measures of impulsivity, including percent of larger-reinforcer choice, indifference points, and area under the curve. Changes in measures of impulsivity following drug administration would indicate involvement of the endocannabinoid system and suggest new potential targets for treatment of impulse-control disorders.
15. Treatment of Life-Threatening Vomiting with Electroconvulsive Therapy
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA GONZALES (WellSpan Philhaven CADD), Steven Sciortino Jr. (Vista Adult Services Organization, Drexel University)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Frequent and uncontrollable vomiting can cause substantial damage to an individual?s health. In this current case, the individual suffered from significant weight loss and was prescribed a feeding tube for all meals, hydration and medication. The feeding provided sufficient nutrients to sustain a healthy lifestyle. Over a four-year period, multiple behavioral interventions, (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior, Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates, Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior, Over-Correction, Blocking and Inpatient Treatment at Kennedy Krieger Institute) and behavioral pharmacology interventions (Haldol, Ativan, Propranolol, Atarax, Sancuso, Cogentin, etc.). These interventions did not demonstrate significant reduction of vomiting behavior. The effects of the behavioral treatments eventually subsided or evoked high intensity aggressive behaviors. The most recent treatment, electroconvulsive therapy, although controversial has demonstrated a reduction in the vomiting behavior. Prior to electroconvulsive therapy, rates of vomiting ranged from 139 to 327 and averaged 229 per day. Electroconvulsive therapy was implemented for seven weeks, which included 18 treatments scheduled for three times per week. The most recent data for vomiting rates showed a range of 1 to 14 and averaged 7.9 per day. This case supports electroconvulsive therapy as an effective treatment for life-threatening vomiting behavior.
16. Examination of the Effects of Adult Chronic Olanzapine on Food Demand
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
DANTON SHOEMAKER (Texas Tech University), Paul L. Soto (Texas Tech University)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Olanzapine (OLZ) is associated with rapid weight gain perhaps involving changes in food’s reinforcing effectiveness. The current study examined if OLZ alters the reinforcing effectiveness of food as assessed by a demand curve analysis. Mice (n=16; 8 males and 8 females) were divided into two groups (OLZ vs. Control). Mice had previous training under fixed ratio (FR) schedules of food reinforcement. First, mice were exposed to 12 daily sessions of FR 5 food reinforcement. Next, the OLZ group received cookie dough with OLZ (3 mg/kg) and the control group received plain cookie dough for 43 days. A demand assessment (FR 1 – 480) started on day 19 of dough delivery and concluded on the last day of dough delivery. Beginning two weeks later, two more demand assessments were conducted. Changes in consumption with FR value were fitted by the exponential demand equation, which yields estimates of maximum consumption at zero price, Q0, and rate of decline, a. Across demand assessments, ratio of a values (OLZ to control) decreased from 2.03 to 1.52 in females and from 1.59 to 1.28 in males indicating differences in a values decreased with time since treatment and suggesting that OLZ decreased the reinforcing effectiveness of food.
17. Effects of Methylphenidate on Sensitivity to Reinforcement Amount, Delay, and Probability: Implications for Impulsive and Risky Choice
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
JEREMY LANGFORD (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Under rapid-acquisition, concurrent chains (RACC) procedures, effects of psychomotor stimulants on behavior controlled by different reinforcement dimensions (e.g., amount and delay) have been extensively studied in isolation. However, the effect of these drugs on preference controlled by these different dimensions of reinforcement in combination (as in impulsive or risky choice) have not been investigated as thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to investigate choice controlled by reinforcement amount and delay in combination (Experiment 1) and by reinforcement amount and probability in combination (Experiment 2), as well as to examine effects of methylphenidate (MPH) under these conditions. In each experiment, pigeons responded on a RACC procedure in which both terminal link parameters of reinforcement alternated independently and pseudo-randomly across sessions such that in some sessions both parameters favored one response key (dominated sessions) or each parameter favored a different key (tradeoff sessions). Initial-link response allocation tracked the four different terminal link arrangements, and initial analyses indicate, that in both experiments, the reinforcement parameters exerted an additive and independent control on preference (as assumed by the generalized matching law). Preliminary assessments indicate that intermediate doses of MPH (e.g., 5.6 mg/kg) decrease preference controlled by each reinforcement parameter.
18. Effects ofN-Methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonists on the Odor Span Test of Working Memory in Rats
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL JOHN MATHEWS (West Virginia University), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: The glutamate hypothesis proposes that NMDA receptor hypofunction underlies cognitive and perhaps other schizophrenic symptoms. The present study used the odor span task to assess the effects of NMDA antagonists on remembering multiple stimuli in rodents. This task uses an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure in which responses to a new olfactory stimulus are reinforced on each trial, whereas responses to previously presented stimuli are not. NMDA antagonists have been associated with memory impairments in a variety of animal models, however, there are inconsistencies across different NMDA antagonists and tasks used. The current study compared the acute effects of phencyclidine, ketamine, and the novel NMDA antagonist methoxetamine on responding in the odor span task and a simple discrimination control. Phencyclidine and methoxetamine impaired odor span accuracy at doses that did not impair simple discrimination in most rats, however effects of ketamine were less selective. Within-session analyses indicated that effects of phencyclidine and methoxetamine depended on the number of stimuli to remember, i.e., impairment only occurred when the memory load was relatively high. These effects of phencyclidine and methoxetamine were consistent with the hypothesis that NMDA antagonists may interfere with working memory, but the basis for less selective results with ketamine are unclear.
19. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Withdrawal Increases Perseverative Responding in Mice
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW LELAND ECKARD (West Virginia University), Karen G. Anderson (West Virginia University), Steven Kinsey (West Virginia University )
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Dependence on cannabis can result in withdrawal following abstinence, which increases the likelihood of relapse. The primary psychoactive component of cannabis is δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and behavioral models of THC withdrawal can aid in identifying therapeutics to attenuate withdrawal symptoms. However, the behavioral profile of THC withdrawal has been primarily focused on rodent-specific behaviors (e.g., paw tremors) limiting applicability to humans. The current study used an alternating fixed-ratio (FR) task to assess perseverative responding associated with THC withdrawal in male and female mice. Within each session, an FR-3 schedule alternated between two nose-poke operanda every five reinforcers for a total of 12 alternations per session. Following baseline stability, mice were administered THC (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (n = 9) every 12 h for 6 days. THC withdrawal was precipitated using the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A; 2 mg/kg). Precipitated THC withdrawal increased perseverative errors, with the error being localized in the first ratio after a left/right alternation, suggesting an attentional deficit during withdrawal. These results extend the behavioral profile of THC withdrawal in rodents to include increased perseveration. Implications of these results suggest THC withdrawal may produce deficits in attention and motivation, as observed in clinical populations.
20. An Introduction to Bayesian Reasoning for the Analysis of Delay Discounting Data
Area: BPN; Domain: Theory
CHRISTOPHER FRANCK (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Warren K. Bickel (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Statistical inference (including interval estimation and hypothesis testing) is commonly used in the analysis of behavioral data. As with many other fields, statistical approaches for these analyses traditionally use classical methods. Interpreting classical intervals and p-values correctly can be bothersome and counterintuitive. For example, a reported confidence interval for the rate of delay discounting does not have a 95% chance of including the true but unknown discounting rate. Similarly, a p-value of 0.04 does not imply that the probability that the null hypothesis is true is 4%. The correct interpretations are an artifact of the classical (i.e. frequentist) assumption that parameters of interest (e.g. discounting rate) and hypotheses are fixed but unknown quantities. By contrast, Bayesian methods treat data, parameters, and hypotheses as random quantities and use rules of conditional probability to update beliefs about parameters (e.g. discounting rate) given observed study data. Thus, Bayesian credible intervals make direct probabilistic statements about the range on which the discounting rate likely exists, and Bayesian hypothesis tests provide the probability that competing hypotheses are true. To illustrate the use of Bayesian methods on behavioral data, this work re-analyzes data from a recent delay discounting study of community controls, heavy smokers, and alcohol- and cocaine-dependent individuals to assess the impact of non-, mono-, dual-, and trisubstance use. The re-analysis methods are compared with the original analysis for interpretation, and similarities and differences in conclusion are discussed.
21. Undergraduate Demand for Fake IDs: Relations to Substance Use and Behavioral Economic Implications for Policy
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
LONDONNE AYERS (University of Kansas), Rachel Nicole Foster (University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Fake IDs are unfortunately ubiquitous on college campuses. Use of fake IDs enable underage drinking via entrance to bars/clubs, and/or purchasing of alcohol at liquor stores. Research suggests that fake IDs are often obtained via bulk ordering using illegal online vendors. Given the success of operant demand analytics in the area of alcohol use, we propose a behavioral economic strategy to model fake ID intentions and associated drinking problems. Using a mixed factorial design, we assessed operant demand for fake IDs in 317 undergraduates in a 2 (obtaining 1 vs 2 IDs) by 2 (purchasing for self or in a bulk order) design. Results suggest association between fake ID motivations and alcohol misuse. Behavioral indices such as Omax and Pmax provide novel insight into potential policy considerations, such as incentivizing fake ID buy-back programs on college campuses. Implications for future research will be discussed.
22. Sex Differences in Midazolam Self-Administration in Rats
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
JAMES E. COOK (University of Mississippi Medical Center), Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center), James K. Rowlett (University of Mississippi Medical Center; Tulane National Primate Research Center)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: More women are prescribed benzodiazepines than men and may differ from men in their potential for abuse. Sex differences exist in the reinforcing effects of various drugs of abuse, but potential sex differences in self-administration of benzodiazepines has not been examined. This project evaluated whether the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam functioned as a reinforcer in male and female rats and if there were sex differences in the acquisition of midazolam-maintained responding. Food-restricted male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with chronic i.v. catheters. Acquisition of responding maintained by midazolam was assessed across three 5-session blocks. Ascending midazolam doses (0.03, 0.1, & 0.3 mg/kg/infusion) were delivered on a fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedule in each 5-session block. Following acquisition, dose-response curves were established for all rats on a FR 2 schedule. There appeared to be no sex difference in acquisition of midazolam-maintained responding, but female rats required higher doses to function as a reinforcer. The extent to which this difference reflects pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic differences is unknown. Although speculative, that relatively higher doses of midazolam were required for self-administration by female rats raises the possibility that women may be more likely than men to experience negative consequences associated with high-dose use of benzodiazepines.
23. Historical Research Highlights From Intersectional Pharmacological and Neuroscientific Fields
Area: BPN; Domain: Theory
STEPHANIE CRAN (University of North Texas), April M. Becker (The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; University of North Texas)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Research from neuroscience and pharmacology has led to discoveries about the processes within the organism that are involved with reinforcement of operant behavior. Such findings, to name a few, include information about "motivation", "reward centers", and how various chemicals affect operant behavior under various contexts. These areas of science have complemented the field of behavior analysis by furthering knowledge about potential processes within the organism that influence environment-behavior relations in both human and non-human animals. Each science approaches this topic using a different lens and for different reasons. However, exchange between the fields has produced many advanced discoveries. This poster describes the rich history of the intersection of neuroscience, pharmacology, and behavior analysis and samples some key findings within those intersectional fields. Future neuroscientific and pharmacological directions within behavior analysis are discussed.
24. Rats and RedBull: A Study on Creativity
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
PAIGE ORFIELD (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Matthew E. Andrzejewski (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Logan Wild (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Ryan Powers (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater)
Discussant: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: For some time, behavioral variability has been proposed as a dimension of operant behavior that is vulnerable to environmental manipulations. For example, it has been demonstrated that variability of 4-lever press sequences can be affected by dopamine drugs such as amphetamines and SKF-38393. In the present experiment, we tested the effects of over-the-counter energy drinks on variability of rats sequential responding. Four rats were trained on a procedure similar to that of Neuringer (1991) and Pesek et al. (2011) where sequences of four level presses were reinforced if they were novel compared to the past eight response sequences, referred to as a lag 8 condition. Preliminary training proceeded systematically and will now be followed by access to 4 different doses of red bull in a counterbalanced order. We plan to explore the effects of OTC energy drinks on variability measured by both U (entropy), and a ratio of reinforced sequences.



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