Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Online; 2020

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Poster Session #75
VRB Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Virtual
103. Proposal of Curriculum Module to Extend Tacts Using Sentences in Children With Cochlear Implants
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ANDERSON NEVES (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP, Brazil), Deisy De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Ana Cláudia Moreira Moreira Almeida Verdu (Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP), Leandra Silva (Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais, Bauru, SP, Brazil), Adriane Moret (Universidade de São Bauru, Bauru, SP, Brazil)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract:

Children with cochlear implants (CIs) who are readers usually produce more accurate speech when textual behavior than tacts. Equivalence based instruction (EBI) and matrix training can promote auditory comprehension, speech accuracy in tacts and verbal productivity, from a minimum set of sentences taught. The present study evaluated the effects of an EBI module on equivalence relations (between pictures, and dictated and printed sentences), accuracy in tacts, and recombinative performances, in six children with CI, readers and who had inaccurate tacts. Three sets of sentences were phonetically-balanced, arranged into subject-verb-object matrices and planned in progressive difficulty (regular and irregular words, and pseudo-sentences); nine sentences in the diagonal were taught, and 25 were evaluated in recombinative probes. The teaching module was organized into three steps and multiple probes evaluated all relations in EBI-network. In each step, were directly taught matching pictures to dictated sentences (AB) by MTS and by exclusion teaching; and construction of sentences under dictation (AE) by CRMTS. According to multiple baseline between sets, all participants learned the taught relations (AB-AE), increased the accurate tacts (BD), and produced both equivalence and syntactic (intra-intersets) relations. The results subsidies a broader curriculum of sentences for the rehabilitation of children with CI.

 
105. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on Variability, Speech Accuracy, and Emergence
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE LAFRANCE (H.O.P.E. Consulting, LLC; Endicott College - Institute for Behavioral Studies), Thais de Souza Mascotti (São Paulo State University, Brazil), Leandra Silva (University of São Paulo, Brazil), Ana Claudia Moreira Moreira Almeida Verdu (São Paulo State University, Brazil and National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Teaching)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract: The current study investigated the effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) on the emergence of listener and speaker behavior (i.e., tacts and echoics), as well as increases in the accuracy of participants’ vocal-verbal behavior. Four young boys participated (ages 5-7). Three had a diagnosis of Autism. The fourth had a diagnosis of Auditory Neuropathy and used a cochlear implant. Experimental phases included: 1) pretests of all operants (listener, tacts, echoics), 2) listener training 3) tests of emergence (tacts and echoics), 4) MEI, and 5) tests of emergence (tacts and echoics) with untaught stimuli. This sequence was repeated across three sets of stimuli. Results show a high degree of variability, and a low degree of accuracy (below 40% correct) in pretests, and reduced variability and increased accuracy (above 70%) in post-MEI tests of emergence. Additionally, all participants demonstrated emergent tacts following MEI. However, the accuracy of participants’ verbal behavior was slightly lower with untaught sets of stimuli, and this effect was observed to maintain in follow-up. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
 
107. Using Autoclitic Frames to Teach a Component of Perspective Taking to a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Alessandro Dibari (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Lorenza D'arcangelo (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Claudia Costella (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Angela Cardascia (Associazione Bambini Autistici (ABA) - Conversano)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract:

We evaluated procedures for teaching one student with ASD a component of perspective-taking: identifying their own knowledge based on sensory information, using prompting, fading and reinforcement. During the intervention we taught him to tact the verbal or non-verbal stimuli that evoked his response and to discriminate between known or unknown information based on the verbal statement provided by the experimenter. Specifically, after presenting a verbal statement with or without salient stimuli to the student, we taught an autoclitic frame (e.g. “because I see/hear/touch” or “because I don’t see/hear/touch”) in response to the question “why do/don’t you know?” We evaluated the clinical efficacy of the teaching procedures using a multiple baseline across test conditions design. After no response in baseline for the three test conditions, we used a different set of stimuli during the teaching phase. After reaching mastery criteria we presented again, as post training, the same set of stimuli used in baseline. The student reached mastery criteria for the untaught sets in each test condition. We discuss how this skill may be related to more advanced perspective taking skills, based on Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior.

 
108. The Effects of Echoic Response Requirement During Auditory Visual Discrimination Training on the Emergence of Tacts in Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE CAROLINE COSTA CARNEIRO (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Mariéle Cortez (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Daniela S. Canovas (Grupo Método - Intervenção Comportamental), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of requiring echoic responses during an auditory visual discrimination training on the emergence of tacts in a five years-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using an adapted alternating treatment design with pretest and posttest probes. In the auditory-visual discrimination training, the first set with three stimuli (set A), echoic responses were not required during the auditory visual discrimination training, while for the second three stimuli set (set B), echoic responses were required during the auditory visual discrimination training. After meeting mastery criteria on the auditory-visual discrimination training, tact responses were assessed for the six stimuli. The results showed full emergence of tacts in both conditions, although the participant needed less training sessions to master criteria on the condition in which echoic responses were required. The procedure is currently being applied to another children in order to verify generality.

 
109. Using a Perspective-Taking Skill Taught in a Contrived Setting to Teach a Perspective-Taking Problem Solving Response in a Social Situation
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Stefano Assetta (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Riccardo Bordoni (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract:

During study 1 we taught an adolescent with ASD to pass a “false belief” task using multiple-exemplar training (MET) and prompting and fading. During baseline we presented three different role playing scenarios (RPS) adherent to the “Sally and Ann” test but using preferred characters; the student failed to provide the correct perspective-taking (PT) response. During the training phase we presented novel RPS interspersing oral scenarios (OS), teaching the student to tact the controlling variables of his own behavior and the behavior of the character before providing the PT response. During post training the student correctly provided PT responses for the same scenarios presented in baseline, for three novel OS and for a novel “false belief” task (unexpected contents). During study 2 we probed a problem solving response that implied an applied PT response in the natural environment in a social situation. Consistently with previous researches the student failed to generalize the PT response in an applied setting. Then we taught, using MET and prompting and fading, the problem solving response in the natural environment chaining the PT response to the problem solving response. During post-training the student provided the problem solving response without engaging overtly in the PT response.

 
110. The Effects of a Writer Immersion Intervention on the Functional Writing of Elementary School Students
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LEITER (Teachers College), Victoria Verdun (Teachers College Columbia University ), Ruby Sara Gibson (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract: A functional writing repertoire is a vital component of any child’s education, as it allows children to affect the behavior of others beyond the immediate effects of speaking. In the present study, researchers used a replicated AB design to investigate the effects of a writer immersion package on the functional writing and conditioned reinforcement for the writing of four third-graders. During the intervention, two writers were given drawings that included a shape, a line, and a word, and instructed to write about the picture in such detail that a naïve reader could draw it. The writers then watched attempt to follow their directions. If the drawing was missing any components, the researcher instructed the writer to rewrite their directions. This process continued until the writer was able to write functional directions on their first attempt with a novel picture. The results showed that the writer immersion package successfully increased the number of functional components in the writing of both the writers and drawers in the intervention. Researchers did not find any noticeable changes in the participants’ conditioned reinforcement for writing. Future research should investigate modifications in the writer immersion package and how they affect conditioned reinforcement for writing.
 
 

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