Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


11th International Conference; Dublin, Ireland; 2022

Event Details

Previous Page


Paper Session #38
Toilet Training for Individuals With Exceptional Needs
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–2:25 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Meeting 3
Area: AUT
Chair: Ofelia M. Flores (Simon Fraser University)

CANCELED: A Comparison of Two Error Correction Procedures: Clinical Application and Findings

Domain: Applied Research
SARAH FATTAL (Love ABA), KONSTANTINOS RIZOS (Forest Bridge School), Marlizanne Gouws (Forest Bridge School), Sophie Meyer (Forest Bridge School)

A substantial body of research compares various types of error correction procedures (e.g., Cariveau & Montilla 2018). The present study examined the effects of two different error correction procedures: a variation of the 4-Step Correction Procedure (aka, MPSR - Modeling, Prompts, Switch, Repeat Backstepping) and the prompt-as-a-consequence procedure. One female and three male students (13-15 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. All four were classmates in a special education school. The participants were introduced over a school term to novel stimuli that required receptive identification. A reversal design with two different sequences (ABCA and ACBA) was used for the purposes of this study. Interobserver agreement and procedure fidelity data were collected for 16% and 11% of the treatment sessions with a mean agreement of 99% and an overall adherence of 98%, respectively. The results showed that a higher number of targets met, a lower number of trials to criterion, and a higher accuracy of responding was achieved by the participants when exposed to the MPSR variation and suggest that this error correction procedure may be better suited for learners that belong to a population similar to the participants.


Toilet Training for Individuals With Exceptional Needs

Domain: Applied Research
OFELIA M. FLORES (Simon Fraser University)

Humans at birth are endowed with 2 efficient sphincter reflexes that provide an effective system of discharging bodily waste. When sufficient water or faecal matter accumulates the muscles relax and waste is expelled. The process is a natural part of human functions. However, it is socially expected that children control their bladder before entering kindergarten. Urinary continence in typical children is achieved with little parental effort before the fourth birthday. Typical children in the USA may have less than 4 urination daytime accidents per week just before the third birthday. The definition of this criterion implies that a child is on their way to becoming competent in this critical self-care skill. Underdeveloped continence may lead to inadequate hygiene, stigmatization, and impoverished quality of life. In a clinic setting, I implemented an intensive toilet training protocol based on the principles of Applied Behaviour Analysis for 4 kindergarten learners with a diagnosis of Autism who were wearing diapers 24/7. Parents' attempts to toilet train their children had been unsuccessful. The protocol involved hydration to ensure an increased number of opportunities for urinations and scheduled trips to the toilet. Three students achieved mastery criteria and one student completed their training at home. Parents received training and the skill generalized to home and into community settings




Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh