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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #84
Saturday, May 26, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Pacific Ballroom
Chair: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
 
66. Teaching Talker-Echoic Repertoire to Kids With Apraxia, Autism, Speech Delay and Other Developmental Disabilities
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MARIBEL CASTILLO BERMUDEZ (Tucci Learning Solutions Incorporated)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: The echoic is a verbal operant in which the topography of the behavior has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the antecedent verbal stimulus that controls it and for which the reinforcement is not specific to the topography of the behavior (Skinner, 1957). A child's ability to imitate actions at 18 months old was a better predictor of his language skills at 36 months old than even gestures. (Child Development 2013). We cannot do anything with words until they are build on what was there before words existed (Catania). Imitation is a behavior cusp for the learner to produce generative responses. Echoic Training involves bringing verbal responses under the functional control of verbal SDs that have point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response. Instructional Control and Joint attention were also established before presenting the target tasks. Teacher's proximity has to be tolerated by the learners. Learners must at least sit for 5 minutes to complete 5 parts of a task; Learners must at least follow a series of 3-5 Firm single-step directions in a playful context. Using the CLM Tools, the non-directed (play skills) and problem solver-mand repertoires (asking) were first established to strengthen the learner's participation and as replacement of undesirable behaviors before introducing imitation training. The present research will also give information about the pace of learning for NAÏVE Learners concerning to their limited echoic repertoire. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the importance of motor imitation as pre-requisite skill and/or in teaching vocal imitation/ echoic for learners with apraxia, autism, speech delay and other developmental disorders using Competent Learner Model Curriculum (Observer-imitate; Problem Solver and Participator). This study will enable the learners to repeat the teacher's vocal distinct sound (i.e. "ahh"), generally to transfer the response form to other more advanced verbal operants as the end goal.
 
67. Pat, Tap, Clap, "Hey": Using Behavioral Momentum to Promote Echoic Responding
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
GARET S. EDWARDS (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Nicole Hendrix (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Ashley Stevens (Marcus Autism Center), Bethany Hansen (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), M. Alice Shillingsburg (May Institute)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: Delays in speech and language development are prevalent among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is estimated that 30% of school-aged children with ASD are minimally verbal or fail to develop language (Rogers, 2006; Tager-Flusberg, Lord, & Paul, 2005; Tager-Flusberg & Kasari, 2014), which increases the risk of poor outcomes later in life (Billstedt et al., 2007). Previous research suggests that presenting a sequence of high probability behaviors before a low probability vocal behavior may facilitate vocal responding in nonverbal children (i.e. Ross & Greer, 2003; Tsiouri & Greer, 2003). The current study aimed to test the clinical application of presenting a high probability motor imitation sequence in rapid succession prior to presenting a low probability echoic. One 3-year-old male with autism who emitted spontaneous vocalizations but displayed deficits in echoic skills participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across echoic sets was utilized. Echoic responding did not consistently occur during the pretest or in baseline for all three sets of sounds. Results of the intervention showed an increase in echoic responding across all three sets of sounds and an acquired generalized echoic repertoire.
 
68. Developing Augmented Mand in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Naturalistic Approaches
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
NOUF ALZRAYER (King Saud University ), Devender Banda (Texas Tech University)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: To date, there have been a few studies that have directly focused on using symbol discrimination training and naturalistic teaching approaches when teaching augmented mands to young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, we aimed to expand the literature by determining whether (a) applying natural environment training (NET) will facilitate augmented mand in young children with ASD, (b) utilizing a three-phase discrimination training procedure will improve symbol discrimination when using an iPad with Proloquo2Go (i.e., augmentative alternative communication[AAC] app) to mand, and (c) generalizing of augmented mand will occur across multiple stimuli (i.e., preferred items, common communication partners-therapists). We used a multiple probe design across three-phase symbol-discrimination training to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Two participants between the ages of 3 and 5 were taught to select a target symbol when presented with varying number of non-target symbols. Therapists who frequently interacted with the participants were trained to implement the intervention during free playtime within their natural environment. Our results revealed that the discrimination training and naturalistic teaching methods yield high-to-medium effects on the acquisition of augmented mand and the generalization of such skills across novel stimuli.
 
69. Effects of Mand-Model Approach on Augmented Mand and Natural Speech Production in Children With Developmental Disabilities
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
REEM MUHARIB (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Nouf Alzrayer (King Saud University ), Charles L. Wood (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: Research indicate 30% of children with autism may never develop functional spoken language (Wodka et al., 2013). One way to support communication of children with autism is with augmentative and alternative communication systems such as speech-generating devices (SGDs). Roche et al. (2014) and Gevarter et al. (2016) examined whether the use of an SGD would increase the vocal production of children with developmental disabilities. While all children learned to use the SGD, vocal production only increased in some children. The current study examined the effects of using an iPad as an SGD on manding skills of children with ASD/DD ages 5 to 8 years old with limited speech skills using a multiple probe across participants design. Intervention consisted of progressive time-delay, differential reinforcement, and least to most prompting. The child was required to access the App (GoTalk Now), then touch one of 9 icons that presented 9 different items, and vocally mand after evoking the speech-output. Data were collected on both iPad-based manding, and vocal manding. Generalization probes across the classroom teacher and follow-up probes were collected as well as social validity data. Results indicate the all three children learned to request via the iPad. Vocal production has substantially increased.
 
70. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Respond to Intraverbals About the Past
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
JEANNE STEPHANIE GONZALEZ (Rollins College; Johanna McDonald, LLC), Sarah Slocum Freeman (Rollins College)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: Responding to intraverbals regarding past events is a developmental milestone typically reached by age three or four. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) might struggle with this skill in comparison to their neurotypical peers. This experiment describes a methodology for teaching subjects with ASD to respond to intraverbals based on past events by systematically increasing delays between stimulus presentation and delivery of an intraverbal prompt. We expect response accuracy, regarding past events after a 30-min delay, to increase after treatment. Results of this experiment expand existing research on intraverbals and demonstrate a treatment method for teaching advanced intraverbals.
 
71. Variables Contributing to the Emergence of Intraverbal Responses After Listener Training
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CYNTHIA DELA ROSA (University of Florida; Florida Autism Center), Daniel E Conine (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, several elementary verbal operants are defined as being functionally independent of one another. However, circumstances have been identified in which training one verbal operant will result in untrained (emergent) responses in another verbal operant. One such area which has attracted special attention in prior research is the relationship between listener training (e.g., selecting pictures or items in the presence of a verbal stimulus) and intraverbal responding. Results from previous studies conducted with typically developing children and children with autism alike have shown mixed results, and the variables contributing to emergent intraverbals after listener training remain somewhat unclear. The current study extends the findings of prior research by conducting listener training with and without tact requirements for two children with autism using a multiple baseline across target sets. Collateral responses during training were tracked in order to permit a more fine-grained analysis of variables that predict or account for emergent responding. Results suggest that tacts emitted during listener training were predictive of emergent intraverbals, and the tact training condition most reliably produced emergent intraverbals. These findings have clinical significance for behavior analysts seeking efficient means of teaching intraverbals to individuals with autism.
 
72. Establishing Substitutive Stimulus Function for the Development of Intraverbal Learning
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SHU-HWEI (SUE) KE (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of establishing substitutive stimulus function for the development of intraverbal learning. Two children with autism who have extensive tact repertoires but minimal intraverbal repertoires participated. A multiple probe design was used. During the baseline, a tact session always precedes a toy play session. Participants were asked to tact the toy. Following that, they were provided the opportunity to engage with 5 different toys. No feedback and consequence were given during the session. This was followed by intraverbal probe session. During the probe, no toys were present and participants were asked the same question (e.g., "what toy did you play with?"). Percent correct of intraverbal responses were recorded. During the substitution training, the procedures are the same as described in baseline except for two differences. First, each toy was presented with a specific container. Second, during the probe session, a specific container associated with the toy was presented with the intraverbal question simultaneously. The results show the percentage of correct intraverbal responses increased and was able to maintain for both participants.
 
73. Using Instructive Feedback to Teach Untrained Operants
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH VEAZEY (Trumpet Behavioral Health ), Amberly Bossert (Trumpet Behavioral Health ), Iulia Runcanu (Trumpet Behavioral Health )
Discussant: Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: The purpose of this procedure was to extend upon the work of Vladescu and Kodak (2013) in the area of instructive feedback. Researchers wanted to extend upon this research by determining whether instructive feedback is effective within two different operants. After obtaining baseline, there were two types of sessions; probe sessions for untaught intraverbal responses and teaching sessions for targeted tacts. The protocol was as follows; 1) the participant tacted a picture (or was prompted to do so), 2) instructive feedback was delivered as a related statement to the tacting stimulus, 3) reinforcement was provided contingent upon correct tact responding, 4) probing occurred later to determine whether the statement was learned as an intraverbal. An eight-year-old diagnosed with autism participated and all sessions took place during normal therapy times. An alternating treatment design nested within a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the results. The results indicated that the procedure was effective and intraverbals were learned using instructive feedback and not specific prompting or reinforcement procedures. Maintenance data collected after training also indicated that both the intraverbals and tacts maintained in her repertoire. This protocol demonstrates procedures that practitioners could use to make discrete trial training more efficient.
 

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