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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #272
Sunday, May 27, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Robin Codding (University of Minnesota)
 
39. Direct Instruction Revisited
Area: EDC/CSS; Domain: Basic Research
ZAHIDA CHEBCHOUB (UAE University)
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to analyze the effects of using direct instruction on English as a Second Language learners' acquisition of new vocabulary. Wanzek (2014) and Ellis (2010) stated that direct instruction in second language learning has showed positive results. Rupley et al (2009) acknowledged the importance of direct and explicit instruction in teaching reading comprehension to students who exhibit difficulties in this skill. In this present research, The researcher, who is also the class teacher, has started collecting data to measure the effects of direct instruction technology on learners' acquisition of vocabulary. The subjects are 30 learners of English as a Second Language. Choral responding, use of Active Student Responses and response cards were used to introduce and teach new vocabulary. Thirty-minute sessions run three times a week from September 3, 2017 to October 1, 2017 were conducted for data collection. These sessions will continue until the end of November 2017. Preliminary results have shown that the technology of direct instruction has indeed a positive effect on the acquisition of vocabulary by learners of English as a Second Language. The researcher aims at encouraging educators to use the technology of direct instruction, especially in the field of second language teaching.
 
40. Teaching Reading With Direct Instruction in an Icelandic Classroom: Treatment Fidelity
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ZUILMA GABRIELA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland), Gudbjorg Vilhjalmsdottir (City of Hafnarfjordur)
Abstract: Measurements of practitioner performance are rare even in research studies of the effect of interventions. Fidelity measurements provide information that increase generalizability of research findings and can be found useful in praxis when providing feedback to executors. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the provision of training on a regular basis could increase treatment fidelity of three teachers using Direct Instruction (DI) in teaching reading to first graders. A multiple baseline across subjects experimental design was used to measure the effect of training teachers to use DI. Training consisted of three variables: modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. The three variables were used simultaneously and the effect of each one was therefore not measured separately. Teachers treatment fidelity was measured using a tool based on Corrective Reading Decoding Fidelity of Implementation Observation Checklist by Benner, Nelson, Stage and Ralston (2011). The teachers reached the set goal of 80% treatment fidelity and maintained their performance scores throughout the study. When teachers had reached the 80% fidelity goal, training was systematically reduced.
 
41. Examining the Effectiveness of an Intervention That Combined Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend and Positive Reinforcement on Reading Fluency in Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
MAHA ALI ALGHAMDI (Duquesne University), Xiuchang Huang (Duquesne University)
Abstract: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) vary greatly in reading proficiency. Reading fluency is a skill that they often struggle with. The Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) is an intervention that has been proved effective by previous research in helping students with disabilities improve both reading fluency and comprehension. This study aims to extend previous research and investigates the effectiveness of an intervention that combines both RAAC and positive reinforcement (i.e., 10 minutes iPad time) on reading fluency in three elementary students with ASD. An oral reading fluency curriculum-based measurement was administered first to determine individual student's reading level before implementing the intervention. For intervention, participants are asked to read the material (e.g., a paragraph) three times with a one-minute break in between, followed by a few general questions about the reading material. Whenever the students are able to finish reading the designated materials within a certain time limit (e.g., 1 minute), they will be provided with 10 minutes iPad time as positive reinforcement. This study employs a multiple baseline across participants design to collect data. The intervention is introduced to participants sequentially one by one after baseline data collection and students' reading performances are measured and graphed accordingly.
 
42. Enhancing the Quality of Teacher Explanations Using Direct Instruction Practice Simulations and the Standard Celeration Chart
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ADAM HOCKMAN (The Mechner Foundation)
Abstract: Large scale curricular adoption is difficult in general education. The perils of implementing Direct Instruction curricula across districts are well documented, with much disapproval pointing to teachers losing their autonomy once required to use scripted teaching protocols. Without teacher buy-in, published curriculums are often put on a dusty shelf at a district office after a year or two, meaning schools never experience the maximum benefits of using highly validated programs. Teachers, however, can learn a small set of effective active student response strategies and instructional design principles to better shape meaningful 1:1 conversations with students on any given topic. Additionally, they can easily learn to adapt these practices based on a learner’s skill repertoire. Data will be presented from a participant who practiced three instructional simulations with a teacher coach to master a set of instructional practices in a 1:1 context until reaching a recommended performance standard. These simulations were arranged to represent a broad array of student response eliciting strategies and instructional design practices into a few highly concentrated teaching scenarios. Using the Standard Celeration Chart (SCS), baseline and intervention data were collected to assess the inclusion of these practices in the natural environment when interacting with students one-on-one. Generative responding, retention, and endurance were also analyzed.
 
43. Investigation of the IES/NSF Protocol for Identifying Promising Evidence Through Lines of Research Inquiry
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BARBARA R. SCHIRMER (Walden University; Concenter Group), Alison Schirmer Lockman (Rowan University), Todd N. Schirmer (Napa State Hospital)
Abstract: The current study was designed to investigate the applicability of the IES/NSF pipeline-of-evidence protocol for identifying a given instructional intervention as research-based. To test the protocol, we retroactively examined the empirical evidence for two interventions used for literacy instruction and mapped this evidence to the six steps in the protocol: 1) Foundational studies that examine phenomena in the absence of a direct link to educational outcomes; 2) Early Stage/Exploratory studies that examine the connections or relationships among constructs; 3) Design and Development studies involving the design and testing of individual components of an intervention; 4) Efficacy studies of the intervention under ideal circumstances; 5) Effectiveness studies of the intervention under typical circumstances; and 6) Scale-up studies of the intervention under typical circumstances but in a wide range of contexts and populations. We found that in the case of Reciprocal Teaching, empirical evidence was manifest at each stage of the pipeline. In the case of Shared Book Reading, foundational, early stage, design/development, and efficacy research were absent. Results indicate that the IES/NSF pipeline-of-evidence protocol offers a productive approach to identifying evidence-based practices because it takes into account the role of methodological designs in lines of research inquiry.
 
44. A Pilot Study of a "Skill/Will" Procedure to Improve Early Reading Screening Measures in Kindergarten
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BREDA V. O'KEEFFE (University of Utah), Kristin Kladis (University of Utah), Kaitlin Bundock (Utah State University), Kristen Stokes (University of Utah)
Abstract: Reading screening measures for Kindergarten students typically have lower predictive validity than other types of reading screening measures for older students. We conducted a pilot study of a simple goal/reward procedure ("skill/will") to distinguish between performance and skill difficulties on Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) and Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) in a multiple baseline across students design. Before baseline, nine students scored below benchmark on PSF and/or NWF at Middle of Year (MOY) benchmark assessment without changes. Baseline included progress monitoring 2-3 days/week with standard assessment directions. Intervention included adding a goal/reward for students. A "reward" was delivered when students met or exceeded their highest previous score (1 reward item) and met or exceeded the MOY benchmark (2 reward items). Across students and skills (n = 13 legs of study), nine met/exceeded MOY benchmark during baseline (suggesting additional exposure to the assessments was adequate), two exceeded benchmark during goal/reward procedures (suggesting adding a simple performance component was adequate), and two required extended exposure to goal/reward or skill-based review to exceed benchmark. At End of Year benchmark (follow-up), 12 of 13 skills were at or above the benchmark on PSF and/or NWF, suggesting lower risk than predicted by Middle of Year screening.
 
45. Increasing Eye Contact and Reading Comprehension in Children With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MUNIRAH MCNEELY (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
Abstract: This study investigates two questions: (1) whether childrens attentive responses during storytelling can be increased by using a procedure that involves social reinforcers and (2) whether the adult reader reinforcing the childs attentive response influence his/her comprehension of the story read. Participants chosen for this study were two 3-year old girls, who had recently been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Data show that for both participants, the percentage of trials with attending responses and comprehension of the story across 20-trial blocks was higher during the intervention phases (B1 and B2) compared to their attentive responses during Baseline (A1) and reversal phase (A2). Reinforcement consisted of providing contingent praise immediately following a 2-second eye contact response. A token economy was also implemented at the end of each of the 10-minute sessions. The treatment was successful in increasing the number of attending responses, which in turn appeared to increase understanding of the stories read. The results of this study are discussed in the context of establishing repertoires related to auditory joint attending in preschool-aged children with autism.
 
46. A Comparison of the Effects of Strategic Incremental Rehearsal and Listening Passage Preview Interventions on Target Word Reading
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE C. BRICKO (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Allison Heifner (University of Nebraska-Lincoln ), Elisabeth Kane (University of Nebraska-Lincoln ), Edward J. Daly (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Abstract: Abstract The most common and time-honored form of teaching word reading in isolation is flash-card training. Flash-cards can be presented quickly and efficiently and deliver a lot of learning trials. Yet, they do not explicitly teach word reading in connected text. The purpose of the current study was to directly compare the effects of a flashcard training method (SIR) to modeling fluent reading in connected text (listening passage preview; LPP). A combined condition (SIR/LPP) was included as a point of comparison for the other two conditions. Conditions were compared using an alternating treatments design and word reading accuracy in independent texts was measured. The participant was a tenth-grade student attending an urban high-school in the Midwest. Treatments were compared in two phases, one without contingent reinforcement and one with contingent reinforcement. SIR and SIR/LPP produced comparable results under a reinforcement contingency, and both were superior to LPP. It appears that SIRs frequent opportunities to respond may have produced better stimulus generalization than modeling in the natural context (LPP) under a reinforcement contingency. Results will be discussed in terms of SIRs potential to improve word reading in texts with a simple reinforcement contingency for other students.
 
47. Using Self-Questioning to Improve Reading Comprehension for Students With Learning Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
NOUF ALTAWEEL (Old Dominion University)
Abstract: Reading comprehension is a necessary demand for students' achievement in schools (Crabtree, Alber-Morgan, & Konrad, 2010). However, students with learning disabilities (LD) face more obstacles learning to read (Vaughn, Levy, & Coleman, 2002). While self-questioning as a reading comprehension strategy has been promising in improving reading comprehension for typical students and students with disabilities (Joseph, Alber-Morgan, Cullen, & Rouse, 2016), little is known about the effective self-questioning approaches for students with learning disabilities. This review included 13 empirical studies conducted between 1998 and 2017, investigating the use of self-questioning approaches to improve reading comprehension particularly for students with learning disabilities. Results indicate five self-questioning approaches concerning instructor-provided (e.g., Crabtree et al., 2010) or student-produced questions (e.g., Rouse, Alber-Morgan, Cullen, & Sawyer, 2014). Each of the five approaches asserts the positive role of self-questioning on improving reading comprehension. However, comparing between approaches to determine the most effective self-questioning approach has been proved inconclusive due to the effects of confounding factors (e.g., discrepancies in assessment procedures) and the limited information on generalization across the reviewed studies. particularly for students with learning disabilities.
 
48. Effects of Instructional Strategies and Strategic Incremental Rehearsal on Letter Identification: An Experimental Analysis
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN HATHAWAY (University of Missouri ), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Missouri), Jessica Detrick (University of Missouri)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of instructional strategies on letter identification for two Kindergarten students who experienced letter identification difficulties. All procedures were conducted in the participants' school. Across both participants, IOA for task accuracy and instructional strategy use was assessed across 31% of sessions and averaged 97%. A three-phase analysis was conducted within a multielement design. Phase 1 evaluated the number of letters participants correctly identified when an instructional strategy was not provided. Phase 2 evaluated the effects of two different instructional strategies and rewards on participants' correct letter identification, and Phase 3 evaluated the effects of instruction, specifically strategic incremental rehearsal (SIR), plus the most effective instructional strategy, identified in Phase 2, on participants' correct letter identification. Results (Figures 1 and 2) showed that an effective, yet different, instructional strategy was identified for each participant during Phase 2. Specifically, a letter line was identified as most effective for one participant, whereas picture cards were identified for the other. For both participants, strategies were insufficient in fully improving their letter identification skills. Thus, results of Phase 3 showed that SIR plus an instructional strategy was effective for further increasing both participants' correct letter identification.
 
49. Implementing Class-Wide Matching to Sample Instruction in Preschool Classrooms to Teach Early Literacy Skills
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JESSIE RICHARD (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: The current study examined the effectiveness of a novel method of delivering classwide literacy instruction in preschool. The need to improve preschool instruction with evidenced based techniques, especially in the area of literacy instruction is warranted. Four preschool classrooms were involved in the study for a total of 95 students and 4 teachers. Data was collected using AIMSweb Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), AIMSweb Letter Sound Fluency (LSF), and a researcher-created accuracy probe. The classwide matching to sample instruction occurred four days a week for 3-6 mins. It was implemented during opening circle time. Each session consisted of 1 letter that involved a series of steps that were completed within the matching to sample instruction. There were two matching to sample instructions delivered in a week: letter naming and letter sound. Each session consisted of a stimulus being presented with three comparative stimuli, a stimulus being paired with a verbal word, or a stimulus being paired with a verbal sound. Overall, A = print, B = picture, C = letter name, and D = letter sound. Results from the current study provide preliminary support for matching-to sample instruction to be used to improve letter name and sound acquisition, letter naming fluency, and letter sound fluency with preschool students. The current study highlights the effectiveness of utilizing explicit instruction using scaffolding techniques, frequent review and practice opportunities, visual aids, and specific feedback when activating prior knowledge to teach an academic skill.
 
51. Jolly Phonics: Learning to Read When All Else Fails!
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
POOJA PANESAR (Kaizora Consultants)
Abstract: Reading is an important skill in life. It affects how we understand what the world communicates to us and getting by generally. Most studies in the literature on reading focus on high-functioning autism, but there is limited information on teaching reading to those with severe autism. Jolly Phonics is a synthetics phonics program used to teach reading and writing using multisensory modes by breaking up the English Language into 42 sounds and incorporating various activities. This study was done on a 14 year old boy in Kaizora, a day-centre located in Kenya. Many methods were tried in previous schools and none were successful. By breaking down the jolly phonics program into small steps, he began learning group 1 sounds (s, a, t, p, i, n) and completed these successfully in 25 sessions. He is now able to blend short c-v-c words by learning just these 6 sounds. As he progresses across the 7 groups his ability to blend longer words is predicted to increase whereby he will be able to work on comprehension as well. Jolly phonics has been a successful strategy with other students in this centre and this study shows how much impact it can have on learning to read.
 
52. Impact of Reading Intervention on The Reading Achievement of Second Graders With Reading Risk
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ABDULRAHMAN ALSULTAN (The Ohio State University), Ralph Gardner III (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Proficient reading is essential for school success. This poster will present data from the OSU, Special Education Reading Clinic that is housed in an inner-city elementary school. The student population is 75% African American, 13% Caucasian, 4% Hispanic, and 4% Multi-racial. The children are primarily from low SEs families. The school's children typically score below the state mean on standardized reading assessments. Therefore, many children could benefit from supplemental biweekly reading instruction. Tutoring sessions are one hour in length. The clinic targets children (with or without a disability label) who are first and second graders and who are recommended by their teacher due to poor reading skills. The clinic is a service-learning opportunity for pre-service special education students. Our special education students are trained to implement reading instruction using direct instruction strategies. OSU students assess children's progress using both standardized tests and curriculum-based measures. Children often double their reading fluency, increase decoding skills, and demonstrate improved comprehension. End of the semester assessments indicate that many of the children have reduced risk for reading failure as measured by the standardized test (e.g., DIBELS). This poster will provide individual data for children on reading fluency and comprehension using Standard Celeration Charts.
 
53. A Review of Meta-Analyses and Literature Reviews of Reading Interventions for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ARGNUE CHITIYO (Tennessee Technological University)
Abstract: Meta-analyses and literature reviews are important for synthesizing research on a topic, assessing trends in a field, and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions research. Calls for adoption and utilization of evidence based practices in special education warrants the need for methodological rigor in research practices to inform policy and practice. Recent efforts have also been aimed at improving the methodological quality of reviews and meta-analyses, as well as replicability of reporting procedures. Meta-analytic studies have previously excluded studies conducted using single case designs (SCD) owing to absence of standard measures to aggregate effect sizes across studies. The purpose of this review is to examine the characteristics of literature reviews and meta-analyses of reading interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The paper examines the extent to which previous meta-analyses have included SCD studies, and examine effect size measures that have been used in assessing efficacy of the interventions. A brief review and discussion of a novel effect size measure for SCD is provided.
 
54. Effect of White Noise on Attention in College Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Brian Davis (Central Michigan University), CARL MERLE JOHNSON (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: The most common treatment for Attention-Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) currently is stimulant medication. Medications can have side effects and are not always effective. White noise is an alternative to medication for children diagnosed with ADHD to decrease off-task behavior in classrooms. Continuous white noise was used in this study to examine off-task behavior in college students diagnosed with ADHD. In a single-subject reversal design two students performed an academic task while listening to no noise or 75 dB white noise through headphones for 15 minutes sessions. Results indicated a moderate decrease in off-task behavior for one participant and a negligible change in the other. Being that the nature of the intervention is simple to implement and no known adverse effects, white noise is worth exploring for reduction of off-task behavior in college students with ADHD.
 
55. Pilot Study: Effects of Technology Breaks on Media Multitasking With College Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KENDRA GUINNESS (Regis College), Lauren Beaulieu (Regis College), Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
Abstract: Media multitasking involves alternating between completing academic tasks and using technology for nonacademic purposes and has detrimental effects on task performance (Wood et al., 2012). We used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of technology breaks on media multitasking during independent study with two undergraduate students. During baseline, we observed the participants studying independently and recorded the frequency and duration of media multitasking. The intervention involved teaching participants to implement noncontingent technology breaks. The initial schedule of breaks was determined by the participants media multitasking during baseline, and then the schedule of breaks was gradually thinned. During breaks, the participants were instructed that they could check their text messages, e-mails, or social media. There were no programmed consequences for media multitasking. The results showed that the technology breaks decreased media multitasking for both participants even though there were no programmed consequences for media multitasking or on task behavior. In addition, the participants implemented the technology breaks with a high level of fidelity. Our findings demonstrate the utility of an antecedent-based self-management strategy for decreasing media multitasking with college students.
 
56. Cultural Adaptation and Validation of One Academic Procrastination Scale in a Mexican Sample
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
HITOMY EDITH MATSUDA WILSON (University of Guadalajara), Maria Antonia Padilla Vargas (University of Guadalajara), Cristiano Dos Santos (University of Guadalajara), Carlos Martínez (University of Guadalajara), Claudia Vega (Iteso), Porfirio Gutiérrez (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Academic procrastination implies a tendency to put off important academic task until their deadline approaches. A study of nursing students in Mexico indicated that 100% of participants reported procrastinate in their academic activities. Previous researches on this phenomenon have linked academic procrastination to higher levels of stress and poorer well-being among university students. To date, only a few studies have analyzed procrastination in a Mexican context; furthermore, there is no one scale that specially measures academic procrastination in a Mexican population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Academic Procrastination Scale by McCloskey & Scielzo (2016) which consists of 25 items Likert-type scales (5 point). As a first phase of the study, translation and cultural adaptation was done according to recommendations and guidelines for validating and cross-cultural adapting research. In a second phase, the scale was administered to 600 students of a public university. The third phase, a factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) was used to estimate the validity and reliability using the internal consistency method (Cronbachs a). The results support that the adaptation of the scale is a valid and reliable measure of Academic Procrastination in university students.
 
57. Interdependent and Individual Group Contingencies in College Classrooms
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN M. LIONELLO-DENOLF (Assumption College), Marcelo Frota Lobato Benvenuti (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil)
Abstract: In college classrooms, group contingencies have increased performance of weaker students, reducing variability on assessment scores. Forty-nine undergraduates completed multiple unannounced, in-class quizzes; scoring 80% or better resulted in extra-credit. In baseline, students studied individually for 5 min prior to each quiz, and during the experimental conditions, they studied with an assigned group. Two conditions were compared within-subjects: group study/individual reinforcement (i.e., extra credit based on the student's score) and group study/group reinforcement (i.e., extra credit based on the group's mean score). For one class, the conditions alternated regularly throughout the semester, and for two other classes, the conditions were blocked (students completed multiple quizzes in each condition prior to experiencing the next condition; the order of conditions was counterbalanced). Figure 1 shows the percent of students who scored below 40% in each condition; there was a decrease in very low scores in the individual reinforcement condition. Results from a social validity assessment indicated aversion to group work; students indicated group extra credit was unfair because group members varied in the quality of their contributions. These latter results contrast with those for school-age children, suggesting the need to better understand social contingencies before implementing cooperative strategies with this population. Keywords: group contingency, variability, college classroom, undergraduate students
 
58. Interteaching: Effects of Preparation Guide "Checks" and Random Partner Assignment
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW E. ANDRZEJEWSKI (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Ryan Powers (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Nate David Popodi (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater)
Abstract: Interteaching (Saville et al. 2006) is an empirically-derived and validated teaching method using a dyadic interviewing method that revolves around questions given in advance on a "Preparation Guide." Two students query each other in class, filling in gaps, and offer feedback on the material to the instructor that informs subsequent class periods and lectures. The format of interteaching allows for a more intimate relationship between student and instructor, reduces lecture fatigue, and flows more flexibly than traditional courses, but it requires substantial preparation for a significant number of class periods on the part of the student. However, the relationship between preparing prior to class and course success has not been assessed. In addition, it is presumed that conducting an interteach session with different partners each class improves performance, another hypothesis that has not been tested. In this experiment, three conditions were applied to three sections randomly of the same course during the same semester. In one section, preparation guide "checks" were completed by a trained graduate assistant. In another section, partners were randomly assigned every interteach period. The third section served as the control condition. Performance on quizzes ("probes"), final exams, and attendance will serve as dependent measures. Grading was completed by the course instructor, although they were blinded to condition.
 
59. Impact of Elaborate Feedback on Learning: Can Emerging Technology in Media Communication Enhance Our Impact?
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RITA OLLA (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Jose Ardila (University of Nevada)
Abstract: For educators and education institutions, it is always an important concern to insure adequate level of students' learning. This concern is even more important in large enrollment courses as the return on investment in terms of student learning become more apparent for the university administration. This importance should be examined at the social and consumer levels to highlight the value adding nature of behavior analytic approach to learning in college settings. Chase and Houmanfar explored the effect of basic feedback (simply correct or incorrect answer) and the elaborate feedback (basic feedback + information on the topic addressed in the question) on the students' performance when taking the weekly assessment quizzes, demonstrating a significant effect, above all, in the case of "hard questions." By drawing upon the recent literature on feedback plus the follow-up data pertaining to the implementation of Chase and Houmanfar's methodology in a large enrollment course, we will discuss ways by which eye-tracking technology can be used as an assessment technique for selection of effective feedback in an on-line training process.
 
60. Is it Errorless: A Replication and Extension of Terrace (1963) With Humans
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MAASA NISHIMUTA (University of North Texas), Sarah Sumner (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Two procedures that are often used by practitioners to reduce errors during teaching are superimposition and fading. Early research by Terrace (1963) showed that these procedures could be used with pigeons to transfer stimulus control from a color discrimination to a shape discrimination with zero responses to the s-delta. The present study first attempted to replicate Terrace's superimposition and fading procedures with college students. Unlike Terrace's pigeons, our participants made some errors during the procedure, often during the final fading step. For several participants, when the shape stimuli were presented for the first time without the colors, the individual performed at chance level. During the second part of this study, another fading phase was added, in an attempt to further reduce errors. This included slowly reducing the size of the colored circles. However, some participants still continued to make errors. Further variations are currently being tested with additional participants.
 
61. When Should You Provide Prompts: An Investigation Using PORTL
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
JESSICA WINNE (University of North Texas), Mary Elizabeth Hunter (The Art and Science of Animal Training), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Tosti (1978) described two types of feedback. Motivational feedback should be given immediately after the learner makes a response. Formative feedback should be given immediately before the learner makes the next response. Tosti suggested that instead of correcting errors when they occur, the teacher should wait and provide formative feedback during the next opportunity to respond. This study compared these two types of feedback using college student participants. Participants learned to name symbols using nonsense words. In both conditions when a participant responded correctly, reinforcement was provided. In the formative condition, the experimenter began each trial by modeling the correct response and then allowed the participant to perform the response. No consequences were provided for incorrect responses. In the motivational condition, the experimenter first allowed the participant to respond. If the participant made an incorrect response, the experimenter said "no" and then modeled the correct response. In the formative condition, participants responded faster, reported that they were learning, and said that they felt good. In the motivational condition, participants took longer to respond, reported feeling frustrated, and said that they were not learning.
 
62. Comparing Numbered Heads Together With and Without Peer Led Opportunities to Respond
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Carla T. Schmidt (University of Cincinnati), TODD HAYDON (CECH, University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: This case study compared the effects of a Numbered Heads Together, a cooperative learning strategy with and without peer led opportunities to respond. The study took place at a University in an undergraduate classroom management class. The participant was a college student with Autism who took the class as part of his post secondary course work. During the Numbered Heads Together condition students were assigned to small groups and responded to teacher questions. During the Numbered Heads Together plus peer led opportunities to respond sessions, in addition to teacher questions, the peers asked the participant questions at a rate of at least 3 per minute. Questions for the quizzes were taken from a book on Applied Behavior Analysis. The results of an alternating treatments design indicated that the student had higher percentage of intervals of on-task behavior and weekly quiz scores during the Numbered Heads Together condition with peer led opportunities to respond. Student satisfaction ratings suggested that Numbered Heads Together with peer led opportunities to respond was a preferred strategy to Numbered Heads Together alone. Data in the form of graphs, a discussion of study limitations, implications, and future research directions will be presented.
 
63. Decreasing Impulsivity and Improving Performance of College Students Using Mindfulness and Values-Based Strategies
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DANA PALILIUNAS (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Impulsive choice behavior and poor academic performance in college can have lifelong negative effects on college students. Behavioral scientists who also teach college courses have a unique opportunity to utilize contemporary advances in our science to improve the performance of students. In a first study, we implemented a randomized control trial evaluation of the influence of a brief, 5-minute mindfulness activity on the momentary impulsivity of college students in a classroom setting. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in the mindfulness group compared to the control participants on a standard monetary delay discounting measure. In a second study, we implemented a randomized control trial evaluation of an 8-week values-based intervention, in which the experimental participants completed 8 activities that took approximately 30-minutes to complete each week. Our results showed improvements in academic performance and psychological flexibility for the experimental group, and the same improvements were not observed for a control group that received study tips. Taken together, results have implications for the instruction of behavior analysts in college, to improve impulsive and inflexible behavior, as well as academic performance.
 
64. Teaching College Students to Identify Logical Fallacies Using Equivalence-Based Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY ROUGHGARDEN (University of the Pacific), Carla Burji (University of the Pacific), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The importance of critical thinking for effective decision-making is emphasized by educators and practicing professionals in many fields. However, critical thinking skills are not usually directly taught in traditional educational settings. A subset of these skills, identifying logical fallacies, could be amenable to direct instruction using procedures that establish conditional discriminations, such as equivalence-based instruction. Equivalence-based instruction procedures have been shown to be effective and efficient when teaching a variety of skills, including the identification of 5 logical fallacies. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness and efficiency of a web-based equivalence-based instruction program for teaching students to identify 13 logical fallacies by comparing the outcomes of equivalence-based instruction to a self-instruction and a no-instruction control group. Thirty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: equivalence-based instruction, self-instruction or no-instruction. Using a pretest-train-posttest design, performance on multiple-choice tests that target relations among logical fallacy names, descriptions, and examples were compared. Results showed that equivalence-based instruction was more effective and efficient when compared to both self-instruction and no instruction control groups. Results from this study might inform future strategies used to teach critical thinking.
 
65. Using Precision Teaching to Increase Component Skills in Preparation for College Algebra
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KELSIA LAUREN KING (Jacksonville State University), Caitlyn Taylor (Jacksonville State University), Chandler Noelle Brock (Jacksonville State University), Paris Coleman (Jacksonville State University), Courtney S. Peppers-Owen (Jacksonville State University), Mary Kathryn Reagan (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Alabama State Department of Education (2016) reports that 82% of Alabama tenth graders are unprepared for college math. Those students will need some form of remediation. Beckett (2015) has shown that deficient component skills in multiplication, division, and fractions remain a hurdle to success in algebra. The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (MMGI) is an evidence-based curriculum which uses precision teaching to increase student math performance. This study's purpose was to increase the frequency of see/write math fact performance and to increase correct answers on MMGI's diagnostic and prescriptive approach (DnP) to fractions. In this study, researchers implemented MMGI fraction and math fact fluency sheets. Participants were three undergraduate students enrolled in a college algebra preparatory emporium. Sessions lasted between six and 32 minutes and occurred one to three times per week across eight weeks. Student performers were required to achieve a predetermined curricular criterion on two successive timings before advancing. Data is presented using the Standard Celeration chart. Scores increased on the DnP, and with the exception of one sheet for two students, see/write performance on all cumulative math fact sheets increased among all participants. This research contributes to a growing area focused on assisting college students with algebra.
 
66. Evaluation of Alpha and Beta Commands on Latency to Comply During Transitions With Young Children: A Preliminary Analysis
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SHELBY WOLF (Oklahoma State University), Meredith Weber (Oklahoma State University), Gary Duhon (Oklahoma State University), Kelly M. Schieltz (The University of Missouri)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of different types of teacher commands on response latency for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students. Two different types of commands were assessed alpha commands and beta commands. Research on instructional time in schools shows that loss of instructional time during transition periods may result in decreased academic achievement (Berliner, 1990). The current study evaluated the effects of both alpha and beta commands within a multiple baseline design across participants on response latency for students who did not respond adequately to teacher-led transitions. Results indicated that both alpha and beta commands were effective for all participants for reducing response latency, including a participant with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Initial results also demonstrated generalization of response latency to non-targeted commands in the classroom.
 
67. Effects of the Number of Training Pairs and the Integration of Conventional Morphology Segments in Transposition Responses in Literate Children
Area: EDC/DEV; Domain: Basic Research
ALEJANDRO LEON (Universidad Veracruzana), Isiris Guzman (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Anahi Luna (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: An experiment investigated the role of different segments of conventional morphology (CMS): (a) known, (b) not known-consistent, (c) not known-not consistent, and (d) control-without CMS; and the number of training pairs (one pair vs three pairs) in transposition responses. 24 literate children, between 8 and 9 years of age, randomly assigned to one of eight conditions participated. An A-B design was used, with a matrix comparison scheme between conditions (number of training pairs and conventional segments). The results show, with respect to the number of pairs, that exposure to three pairs facilitated transposition in training, but not in tests. Regarding CMS, condition (a) facilitated transposition in training with one pair, while condition (c) interfered in training with three pairs. The results are discussed in relation to the differential integration of the CMS based on the variation (i.e. different pairs) in the training.
 

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