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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #543
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Jonathan Burt (University of Louisville)
40. The Effects of Individualized Positive Behavior Support on the Aggressive Behavior and on-Task Behavior of a High School Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
DAEYONG KIM (Busan National University), Eunhee Paik (Kongju National Univ.)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of individualized positive behavior support(PBS) on the aggressive behavior and on-task behavior of a male high school student with Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD). The research questions were whether individualized PBS intervention affects the on-task behavior and aggressive behavior of a high school student with ASD. The subjects of this study showed the self-injurious behavior and aggressiveness toward others physically. The on-task behavior in this study involves following direction, and task performance in classroom. Functional behavior assessment was conducted using direct observation, interview with parents and teachers, motivational checklist and student's personal file. For intervention the antecedent strategies were environmental reconstruction, increasing probabilities of responses, and modifying the task contents. Alternative behavioral strategies were funtional communication training and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Consequent strategies were differential reinforcement. As a research design, this study utilized multiple probe baseline design across settings(cafeteria, gymnasium and classroom). Twenty minutes of observation using a partial interval recording was utilized as a recording system. The results showed that individualized PBS intervention increased the rates of on-task behavior and reduced the rates of aggressive behavior of a student with Autism Spectrum Disorder in 3 settings, cafeteria(lunch time), gymnasium(the P.E. class) and classroom(the Korean language class). Further study need to examine of behavior analyzing the functional relationship between on-task behavior and aggressive behavior across various settings and subjects.
41. Increasing Teachers' Intervention Adherence Through a Multi-Tiered System of Support
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN MCKINLEY (University of Cincinnati), Richard Trent Marsicano (Central Washington University)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: A multiple baseline design across teachers was used to evaluate the effects of a systematic, Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS) approach for decision-making to provide the optimal amount of instructional and intervention support to teachers as they implemented a schoolwide video-modeling social skills program. Participants included 59 students enrolled in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavior disorders and seven teachers. Teachers who did not implement the program with high levels of adherence following schoolwide positive behavior support training for all staff (primary intervention tier) were provided with targeted training support (secondary tier), and, when necessary, more individualized assistance (tertiary tier). Secondary support included direct observations of intervention implementation twice per week and daily feedback meetings with the consultant while tertiary support included daily observations of intervention implementation and daily feedback meetings with both the consultant and a school administrator. Results of this study indicated that providing performance feedback within a MTSS approach is an effective method for improving adherence. In addition, data are being analyzed to examine relationship between adherence and student behavior.
42. Family-Centered Positive Behavior Support Training for Pre-Service Teacher Education Students
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Szu-Yin Chu (National Hsinchu University of Education), CHIH-HSUAN CHEN (National Taitung University)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: This session is to present information regarding the process of practicing family-centered positive behavior support for pre-service teacher education students in Taiwan. Participants in this study are 21 pre-service teachers, 7 children with disabilities and their families. The process included two phases. The emphasis of first phase is to provide foundational knowledge. The second phase is to implement center-based practical trainings. The students received 42 hours of lectures related to behavioral techniques as well as positive behavior support approach. All students received practical trainings to strengthen their professional confidence. The Goal Attainment Scaling and self-made checklists have been utilizing to ensure the outcomes for each stage of trainings. By the end of this session, participants will gain information about: (a) identifying the importance of providing systematic training and support for potential professionals in the field of early intervention; and (b) understanding the needs of developing family-centered intervention program based on evidence-based practices.
43. Evaluation of a Counselor Implemented Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase Compliance in Two School-Based Settings
Domain: Service Delivery
COREY MILES COHRS (Unviversity of Nebraska Medical Center), Ray Burke (Apex Children’s Center), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: Research investigating the use of video modeling has often been limited to highly controlled situations and rarely involved implementation by teachers or other school-based practitioners. We conducted two studies which evaluated use of video self-modeling (VSM) to increase compliance in school settings. Study one was conducted in a general education classroom with a 4th grade male diagnosed with ADHD. Study two was conducted in an alternative education classroom with 4th and 6th grade males, both diagnosed with ODD. A multiple baseline across settings, with an embedded reversal design was used in both studies. The primary dependent variable was compliance with school rules. Additionally, in study two, we assessed VSM distal effects on daily minutes of aggressive behavior directed towards staff and peers. Students in both studies presented low rates of compliance during Baseline, an immediate, marked, and sustained improvement in compliance during VSM, decrease of compliance rates during reversal, and an increase in compliance during second VSM condition. Changes in rates of aggression mirrored compliance results. Results from both studies suggest that VSM can (a) be developed and implemented by licensed school counselors, (b) have positive effects with students with multiple diagnoses, and (c) produce residual effects on non-targeted behaviors.
44. Improving the Transition Behavior of High School Students With a Randomized Interdependent Group Contingency
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
RENEE HAWKINS (University of Cincinnati), Hilary B. Denune (University of Cincinnati), Wallace Larkin (University of Cincinnati), Nathan Fite (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: The current study evaluated the effects of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components on student behavior during the transition from lunch to class. The study was conducted in three high school classrooms in an alternative school setting for students with EBD using an ABAB withdrawal design. During intervention, the teacher informed students that it was time for class to begin and then scanned the room to count the number of students ready (i.e., seated at assigned desk, eyes directed at the teacher/front of room, and not being physically or verbally disruptive). The teacher randomly selected a criterion number of students who needed to be ready to start instruction. If the class met the criterion, the teacher randomly selected a reward. Dependent variables included the percentage of students ready to begin instruction within 5 min of the official class start time and the number of mins past the official start time that class actually began (i.e., teacher directed students to an academic task or explicitly said class was starting). Across all classrooms, results indicated significant improvements in student transition behavior. Discussion focuses on the practical implications for providing intervention supports to students with problem behavior.
45. Using an Online Digital Token Economy Management System to Improve Pro-Social Student Behaviors
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Sara Moore Snyder (University of Georgia), RACHEL CAGLIANI (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: Token economies are widely used within schools as a behavior management tool. Despite widespread use, more evidence is needed to establish token economies as an evidenced based practice. Many token economies utilize physical tokens, such as poker chips. Physical tokens can be cumbersome to administer and susceptible to counterfeit. ClassDojo is a widely used digital token economy system. ClassDojo allows teachers to give digital points to individual students contingent upon demonstration of preferred behaviors. Teachers can give points using the website or the mobile application on any smart device, which allows teachers to give points in any environment with relative ease compared to the effort required give physical tokens. Despite this, no research has been done on the efficacy of a digital token economy management system. The purpose of the current study was to identify the effect of a digital token economy management and token exchange system on student prosocial behaviors. This study was conducted in the general education setting in a public middle school. A multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to evaluate the effect on student behavior. Results indicate that the implementation of ClassDojo increased prosocial student behaviors in the classroom.
46. Effect of Programmed Errors on Skill Acquisition During a Match-to-Sample Task
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NIKKI CONROD (New England Center for Children), Allen J. Karsina (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: Implementing programs at less than full procedural integrity may be detrimental to desired outcomes; however, implementation of programs in practice often includes some degree of errors. We evaluated the effects of programmed errors of implementation of reinforcement, prompting, and error correction on skill acquisition during a Match-to-Sample procedure. Using an alternating treatments design, 8 neuro-typical adults were taught 3 similar sets of stimuli. For all of the participants, 1 set was taught with 100% procedural integrity using an immediate point cue that was systematically faded across sessions, as well as an error correction procedure. The control set and was taught without prompting, reinforcement, or error correction. The test condition set varied across participants, but included prescribed errors of omission/commission in reinforcement, prompting, and/or error correction. IOA and reliability were collected in 25% of all sessions with 100% agreement. All the participants acquired the sets in the test condition as quickly as they did in the 100% procedural integrity condition, though generally with more errors. Acquisition did not occur in the control condition. These results suggest that, for neuro-typical adults, as long as either reinforcement, prompting, or error correction is provided consistently, errors may have little impact on acquisition.
47. Teaching a Preschooler to Share Toys Using a Video-Model
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
SOPHIE REBECCA FURSA (Central Michigan University), Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University), Robert Wyse (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Sarah Pinkelman (George Mason University)
Abstract: Interventions taking little time, effort, and few resources are highly sought after in the schools. Video-modeling, where the student watches a video of someone modeling proper behavior, is cost-efficient and easy for teachers to implement. This study used a video-model to teach a four-year-old boy how to share and respond to sharing requests appropriately. An ABA design was used where the intervention elements were presented and then removed. In intervention, the student was taught directly how to share and respond to requests using a model-lead-test format the first week, and each day he watched a one-minute video showing correct sharing before playtime. Compared to baseline, the students percentage of appropriate sharing increased and frequency of grabbing toys from other students decreased. Additionally, he played appropriately alongside peers rather than alone after the intervention was implemented, although this did not maintain once the video-model was removed. Overall, video-modeling was successful for increasing desired play behaviors and decreasing undesirable ones.
48. An Evaluation of a Three-Component Multiple Schedule to Indicate Attention Availability
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTINA VARGO (Sam Houston State University), Maria Nava (Sam Houston State University), Misti Babino (Sam Houston State University)
Discussant: Paula Chan (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Students may engage in high rates of social approach responses at inappropriate times throughout the school day. One intervention that has been used to teach students appropriate and inappropriate times to access attention is a multiple schedule of reinforcement. A multiple schedule of reinforcement involves two or more independent schedules of reinforcement alternating randomly, each with a unique discriminative stimulus. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a multiple schedule indicative of when attention was available or not available in a bilingual preschool classroom during small-group instruction. This study differed from previous studies in that we used a three component multiple schedule to signal when teacher attention was available for all students, no students, and students located only at a small group work table. Results showed that the intervention was effective in bringing students’ social approaches under stimulus control. That is, students engaged in higher rates of social approaches during periods in which teacher attention was available, and lower rates of social approaches when teacher attention was not available.
49. Systematically Fading an Intervention Plan While Maintaining Low Rates of Target Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICK WINFIELD HAREN (Haugland Learning Center/Western Michigan University), Amanda Fishley (Haugland Learning Center), Alaina C Valentine (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Paula Chan (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Though some research has included variable interval differential reinforcement of other behavior (VI DRO) schedules, and other research has looked at schedule thinning, little has been done to look at thinning the schedule of a VI DRO completely. The participant of this study, a 16-year-old student diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), had previously engaged in high rates of problem behaviors, including aggression toward peers and adults, instigation of peers, elopement, and non-compliance, requiring multiple support staff to maintain safety. Over the course of two school years, implementation of a VI DRO plan led to low levels of the target behaviors. This research aimed to systematically fade the VI DRO schedule for the student in order to remove their individualized behavior support plan. As the participant met predetermined criteria, the components of the intervention were faded through ten different phases. Target behaviors were maintained at low rates, including aggression being maintained at zero levels throughout the duration of the study.
50. Generalized Reinforcer Versus Self-Evaluation Intervention: Effects on Active Responding of Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
SHIRI AYVAZO (David Yellin Academic College), Avner Fraidlin (MATIA Holon-Azur, MATIA Tel Aviv, Israel), Ronit Kankazil (MATIA Holon-Azur, Israel), Shiri Cohen (Niv Elementary School, Holon, Israel )
Discussant: Paula Chan (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Token economy and self-evaluation are behavioral interventions documented in the literature as strategies implemented in special education classroom to promote academic engagement and social interactions. Active student responding (ASR) is a variable linked to increased academic engagement and learning. While each of the aforementioned behavioral interventions could impact students' active responding, the differential effects of each one compared to the other are unknown. The current research used an alternating treatment design to compare changes in ASR under a generalized reinforcer (GR) and a self-evaluation (SE) condition. The study was conducted in a fifth grade special education classroom during language studies over 41 days. Participants were two girls and two boys diagnosed with emotional-behavioral disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ASR was measured using an event recording method and presented as percentage of response. Results show students' ASR improved from an average of 27% during baseline to 48% in the GR condition and 51 % in the SE condition. No clear and sustained differences were inspected between the GR and SE conditions. Discussion will offer suggestions for absence of differences between the two independent variables and discuss implications related to teaching self-evaluation to students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
51. A Comparison of Video Modelling Techniques to Enhance the Social-Communication Skills of Two School Children
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
BRETT EDWARD FURLONGER (Monash University), Veronica Sullivan (Monash University), Maximillian White (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University)
Discussant: Paula Chan (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This study compared video modelling with and without embedded narration on the social communication skills of four typical school children. Target behaviours were appropriate conversational turn taking and correct conversational body posture. The differential effects of the two video modelling procedures were assessed using Alternating Treatments with target behaviours and treatment conditions counterbalanced. Responding on both target behaviours was below normative levels during baseline assessment but improved across the alternating treatments phase, and remained at or above normative levels across an optimal treatments phase and in follow-up. Video modelling with narration was more efficient than video modelling without narration for all four participants and more effective for two. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
53. Disabilities in Children of Saudi Families Studying in the United States
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAYMA QAHWAJI (Webster University)
Discussant: Paula Chan (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore the process that Saudi parents, living in the US with their child coping with varying disabilities, went through in order to determine and help their children’s with disability. The study involves a phone interview after recruiting parents through the social network websites.
53a. The Effects of Scoring Feedback and Verbal Praise on the Acquisition of the Transfer Assistance Technique
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ATSUSHI KISHIMURA (Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Jikei Institute), Itoko Tobita (Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Jikei Institute), Kazuo Yonenobu (Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Jikei Institute), Masato Ito (Osaka City University)
Abstract: Object: The preset study was designed to examine the effects of scoring feedback and verbal praise on the acquisition of the safe transfer assistance technique using a sliding board. Method: Thirty four students were assigned either to the intervention group (n=14) or the control group (n=20). In the former group, an intervention program, consisted of baseline and intervation phases, was provided, whereas in the latter group, only baseline phase was provided. For the baseline phase, verbal instructions and modeling the technique by using a video recording were given, while for the intervention phase, scoring feedback of the evaluation with verbal praise was given. There were two sequences of transfer assistance, that is, the transfer from bed to wheelchair (B?W) and from wheelchair to bed (W?B). The acquisition rate of transfer assistance technique was evaluated based on video scoring by two independent reviewers. Results: The averaged acquisition rates of the baseline phase were about less than 55% for the both groups and both sequences. In the intervention phase, however, it was more than 70% for the intervention group and less than 65% for the control group in the both sequence. Conclusion: These results reveal that the students skill for the safe transfer assistance can be improved by using scoring feedback and verbal praise.


Modifed by Eddie Soh