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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #354
Monday, May 30, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
EDC
Chair: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado)
45. The Autism Knowledge Survey Pilot Project
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIC JOSEPH BIENIEK (Slippery Rock University), Ashlea Rineer-Hershey (Slippery Rock University), Jessica Hall (Slippery Rock University), Matthew Erickson (Slippery Rock University), Natalie Rugg (LaRoche University)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: What do teacher's really know when it comes to supporting the needs of students having Autism Spectrum Disorders? Over the recent decades a multitude of post secondary training programs, professional development and similar learning opportunities have become available to educators. This survey is designed to begin to capture what practicing educators are taking from these learning experiences and applying to the their student's day to day learning experiences. Specific areas of focus will include: Role of Reinforcement, Academics, Social Skills, Communication, Behavioral Supports, Sensory needs, Trauma Experiences and Motor Development. The subject group for this pilot study includes over 100 graduate level students described as a mixture of pre-service, post baccalaureate professionals and practicing teachers. Results will be presented with a focus on identifying trends across a variety of demographic variables including urban versus rural schools, socio economic status, professional experience and types of teaching environments. Specific data trends will also be identified in regards to the knowledge of and application evidenced based practices across the domains outlined earlier. Data collection for this survey is currently underway.
 
46. The Reinforcing Effects of Preferred Videos Over the Acquisition of Simple Discrimination of Children With Intellectual Disabilities and Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FERNANDA CASTANHO CALIXTO (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Liliane D. S. Oliveira (Federal University of São Carlos), Celso Goyos (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: The reinforcement is a central mechanism in the development of operant behaviors. The research evaluated the reinforcing effects of preferred videos over the acquisition of simple discrimination of children with intellectual disabilities and autism. Participants were students aged 8 to 10 years from a school of a city in S?o Paulo. Data collection was held in the school where participants were recruited. The experimental stimuli involved two geometric forms, videos of children's animation series and their representative photographs. Following the interview, familiarization and preference assessment phases, upon selecting a target geometric form (the discriminative stimulus in the simple discrimination), participants were given an opportunity to watch videos. After reaching the criterion, the discriminative reversal phase was introduced. The dependent measure was the percentage of times the participant chose the target geometric form. The results demonstrated that videos were efficient as reinforcing consequences for children with intellectual disabilities and autism. The preference assessment effectively identified these videos more quickly and with low cost of response. The implications of these results for digital stimulus preference assessments are discussed. This study can highlight practices and instructional programs for handicapped and contribute with the research in the fields of Education, Psychology and Special Education.
 
47. Accepting Finished: Decreasing Problem Behaviour and Increasing Compliance to Handover Preferred Tangible Items
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH PHILPOTT (Bangor University ), Marguerite L. Hoerger (Bangor University)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: Compliance with instructions to handover preferred tangible items and transition to the next activity is a required skill in education settings. Problem behavior and non-compliance with the instruction finished can lead to disruption to classroom routines and reduced instructional time. The following study aims to extend Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) methodology on delay and denial tolerance training to teach two participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to accept finished. The study taught participants to handover preferred items (tolerance response) following the instruction its finished (termination cue) and transition to and complete a less preferred activity without engaging in problem behavior. Initially the tolerance response resulted in immediate access to the reinforcer. Gradually and systematically a delay to reinforcement was introduced and during the delay the participants were required to comply with adult instructions including academic demands. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Following high rates of problem behavior at baseline the intervention was introduced and problem behavior immediately reduced to zero levels for both participants consecutively. Furthermore compliance with adult instructions following the tolerance response increased for both participants.
 
48. Using Differential Reinforcement Without Extinction to Decrease Aggression in a Classroom Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEANNE ABUSHAR (University of Cincinnati), Nicholas Bowland (HOPE Group, LLC), Sarah Gentry (Gentry Pediatric Behavioral Services), Brianna McCarthy (Arizona Autism Charter School)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: The education environment is not always conducive with extinction bursts, as they can be dangerous and are typically disruptive to the milieu of the classroom and surrounding classrooms and to the student displaying maladaptive behaviors. The student in the current study was an 8 year old 3rd grader in a self-contained Autism classroom. He displayed aggressive and self-injurious behaviors. To avoid further disruption and danger, this research team used a differential reinforcement without extinction procedure and placed the above stated behaviors on a Fixed Ratio 1 schedule. This procedure and schedule was set up so that staff provided corrective attention to precursor and aggressive behaviors and provided a Fixed Ratio 1 schedule attention to rule-following behaviors. Aggressive behaviors reduced to zero over five consecutive days. During generalization phases the aggressive behaviors increased. However, following fidelity checks and training, the aggressive behaviors decreased to zero once again. As the research team looked at the data, they were able to determine that it was possible to run a differential reinforcement procedure without extinction to decrease problem behaviors in the classroom setting.
 
49. Using Stimulus Equivalence to Train English-Spanish Stimulus Relations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LOURDES LOPEZ (California State University, Los Angeles/Special Education for Exceptional Kids), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: A growing number of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder receive early and intensive intervention based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis. However, some of these children reside in homes where the family primarily speaks one language (e.g., Spanish), while therapy services are primarily provided in another language (e.g., English). In these situations it is possible that, while children are learning language skills, the social validity of those skills is compromised. Moreover, families may deem learning a second language to be a socially important skill more generally. Using three multiple-probe across stimulus sets designs, the current study used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to evaluate the extent to which English-Spanish stimulus relations emerge with three children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In addition, once establishing equivalence relations, the extent to which stimulus relations generalize to interactions with parents in the childs natural environment and maintain over time was also assessed. Finally, the social validity of the instructional intervention was also evaluated.
 
50. Assessing Student Work Ethic Using Choice Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN PARKHURST (Children's Hospital of Wisconsin/Medical College of Wisconsin ), Christopher Skinner (The Univesity of Tennessee), David Woehr (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: Self-report measures suffer from numerous limitations including biases of reference and social desirability. However, these measures continue to be relied upon to provide within-respondent information. This poster outlines the use of behavioral mechanisms to assess a newly developed academic work ethic scale. 171 fifth- through eighth-grade students completed the Academic Work Ethic-Student (AWE-S) measure that was developed using the empirically-supported Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (Miller et al., 2002). This measure was designed to assess dimensions of academic work ethic for upper elementary and high school-level students in order to better evaluate traits that support school success. Partial Assignment Completion (PAC) procedures were applied to assess the relationship between student choice and self-reported academic work ethic. Step-wise logistic regression revealed that specific AWE-S dimensions (Hard Work and Self-Reliance) were significantly related to student behavior, accounting for 10% of the choice variance. The discussion details the utility and future directions of behavioral mechanisms, including the Partial Assignment Completion Procedures, to develop self-report measures of academic work ethic.
 
51. Training Kindergarten Students Lockdown Drill Procedures Using Behavioral Skills Training
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTINA VARGO (Sam Houston State University), Misty Dickson (Sam Houston State University)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: School shootings are detrimental events that directly affect students, faculty and staff, families, and the broader community. A proactive approach of teaching students to respond correctly during lockdown drills may decrease the number of injuries and deaths that occur during a real lockdown. In this study, we used a multiple baseline design across participant groups to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral skills training to teach 32 typically developing kindergarten students how to respond during lockdown drills. Students were provided instructions of what to do when a lockdown drill was called followed by a model of the behavior by the experimenter. The students then rehearsed the behavior until mastery with the experimenter while receiving feedback on their performance. Results showed that the participants responded correctly only after behavioral skills training was implemented, as demonstrated by increases in correct steps and decreases in noises/vocalizations from baseline levels. Correct responding maintained following training for all participant groups.
 
52. Family Questionnaire on Educational Inclusion: A Pilot Study
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICIA PLANCARTE (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Patricia Ortega Silva (National University of Mexico), Hugo Romano Torres (Universidad Nacional Aut�noma de M�xico), Alfonso Valadez Ramírez (National University of Mexico)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: Inclusive education is a key strategy for achieving Education to all. These aspects imply changes in the culture, organization and school practices, which minimizing the barriers to learning and promoting the participation of the entire school community. The main objective was to collect the first indications for the content validation of a Questionary that measure inclusion Index in Families Inclusion Index and identify the perspectives of a group of mothers on their children's educational inclusion. Eight mothers of children with specific language disorders (TEL) between 2 and 5 years old participated in this study. The questionnaire is part of Index for Inclusion developed by Booth and Aincow (2002); it is divided into three dimensions: culture, politics and practices. The results showed: 1) All children were accepted at schools, besides encourage their participation; 2) Mothers had good communication with teachers and authorities about the progress of their children and changes in school. In conclusion, it can be noted this instrument is useful for identifying the culture, policies and practices within schools. However, it recognizes the need to increase the population sample to validate the questionary.
 
53. Effects of Video Modeling Training on Teacher Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL SEAMAN (The Ohio State University), Matthew Brock (The Ohio State University/Crane Center on Early Childhood Research and Policy), Andrea Ranney (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC)
Abstract: Current practitioner training research has focused heavily on behavior skills training and the individual element of performance feedback. However, this method of staff training is both time and resource intensive, requiring the trainer to make multiple site visits to provide feedback. By utilizing an antecedent-based training method such as video modeling, the trainer only visits the classroom once to consult with the teacher and observe the student. Following, an individualized video model is made and delivered to the teacher. This study uses a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the use of individualized video models as a training tool to train teachers in the implementation of evidence-based practices with their students. Further, the behavior and learning of both the teacher and student were measured. Results indicate that exclusively using video modeling as training tool resulted in increased evidence-based practice implementation for the teachers, as well as, corresponding increased skill acquisition for the students.
 
54. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Subsequent On-task and Challenging Behavior in Young Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KATE TYGIELSKI CHAZIN (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University), Kirsten Osborne (Vanderbilt University), Sarah Reynolds (Vanderbilt University), Natasha Patel (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Antecedent exercise is a treatment with emerging evidence for increasing appropriate behaviors and decreasing challenging behaviors, though a limited number of published studies exist with young children. This study evaluated the effectiveness of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on increasing appropriate behavior and decreasing problem behavior during subsequent large group activities (i.e., “circle time”) for two 5-year-old children. A single-case, alternating treatments design was used to evaluate on-task behavior, challenging behavior, and out-of-seat behavior during “circle time” following randomly sequenced conditions. Conditions included (a) baseline in participant’s typical classroom setting, (b) one-on-one, outdoor seated activity, and (c) one-on-one, outdoor exercise activity. Both participants showed increases in on-task behavior following the exercise condition, and one participant showed decreases in out-of-seat behavior and challenging behavior following the exercise condition. A simultaneous treatments design was employed to evaluate participant preference between seated and exercise conditions, and both participants preferred exercise activities to seated activities. A normative peer comparison was used to evaluate ecological congruence following each condition, and results indicated an increase in ecological congruence for one participant following the exercise condition only. Results indicated that antecedent exercise may be an effective intervention for increasing on-task behavior and decreasing challenging behavior for some young children.
 
55. An Evaluation of Praise as a Reinforcer for Preschoolers' Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA SENN (Jacksonville State University), Makenzie Williams Bayles (Jacksonville State University), Jennifer Lynne Bruzek (Jacksonville State University), Amanda Riley (Jacksonville State University)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Descriptive praise statements are widely recommended for use with preschoolers by psychologists and educators, despite little scientific evidence to support this stance. The purposes of this study were to first evaluate the effectiveness of praise as a reinforcer for engagement in maintenance tasks using a concurrent operant arrangement, and subsequently, compare the effectiveness of descriptive and general praise for facilitating skill acquisition using a multielement design. Three boys diagnosed with developmental delays and four children of typical development, two boys and two girls, participated in the first part of this study. For five of the seven participants, praise statements did not function as a reinforcer for engagement with maintenance tasks. These results suggest that praise may not widely function as a reinforcer for maintaining preschoolers behavior. To date, the relative value of descriptive and general praise for increasing behavior during an acquisition task has been evaluated with one of the participants of typical development. For this participant, skills were acquired faster under prompt-only and prompt + neutral statement conditions, compared to descriptive and general praise conditions. These results suggest that prompting may be the primary component necessary for skill acquisition.
 
56. Developing Math Fact Fluency in a College Student With Calculator Accommodations
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KALIE BIBLE (Jacksonville State University)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Over thirty years of evidence based teaching and research, Morningside Academy, a non-profit behavior analytic school in Seattle, WA has found that most students with an Individualized Education Plan can perform multiplication and division facts at high rates without the aid of a calculator. Disability Support Services at Jacksonville State University typically specifies a calculator accommodation for any student with an Individualized Post-Secondary Plan. The Morningside Math Fact Fluency curriculum was implemented with a college freshman who has an Individualized Post-Secondary Plan to determine if the student could improve his rate correct per minute of written answers to single-digit multiply-divide facts. Using the material and protocol of the Morningside Math Fact Fluency curriculum, rate correct per minute was graphed on a Standard Celeration Chart. After each short, timed practice, direct instruction and error correction was implemented as needed. Weekly probes were given to assess maintenance and generalization. Across twenty-six 30-min sessions, the students rate correct per minute improved from 12 to 27 and reached criteria of 40- 50 correct per minute on all materials practiced. After maintenance was measured the student continued to perform with automaticity of 40-50 correct per minute.
 
57. Effects of Video Self-Modeling Procedure on the Out-of-Seat Behaviors and Activity Participation for a Preschooler
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Jinhyeok Choi (Pusan National University), YOON SEON HAN (Pusan National University)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: We tested the effects of the video self-modeling strategy on increase in class participation and decrease in out-of-seat behaviors. The dependent variables were participants out-of-seat behaviors and class participation emitted by the participant across three experimental settings: free-play, transition, and lunch time. The independent variable was the implementation of the video self-modeling strategy to increase participants class participation and decrease his out-of-seat behaviors. For the video self-modeling, participants appropriate participation behaviors were videotaped in the three target settings. During the intervention, the participant was required to watch the recorded appropriate behavior for 1.5 min before each intervention session started. Additionally, he was also required to watch the self-modeling video everytime when he emitted out-of-seat behaviors. The video self-modeling intervention was run three times a week for approximately seven weeks. A multiple baseline design across settings was employed to identify a potential functional relation between dependent and independent variables. Results demonstrated that the video self-modeling intervention would be effective to increase the preschoolers out-of-seat behaviors and class participation.
 
58. University Research Competencies
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
SEBASTIAN FIGUEROA-RODRIGUEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Dora Granados (Universidad Veracruzana), Gloria Olivares (Universidad Veracruzana), Ana Figueroa (Universidad Veracruzana), Laura Castañeda (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: The practice of research evaluation as a generator of knowledge resources, which consequently leads to the transformation of the training strategies in the undergraduate and graduate programs is an issue that requires more attention of university academics. Research competencies are the skills, abilities and attitudes that are implemented to generate new knowledge as observing, reading, expression, construction and problematization. The aim was to describe the research competencies in the first semester students of the faculty of psychology at a public University in Veracruz, Mexico. A prospective, observational, descriptive study with 133 participants (77 women and 56 men), average age 19 years (SD 1.6) was performed. Participants signed a letter of informed consent. The self-evaluation of abilities and research competencies instrument that assesses six dimensions. The instrument of self-assessment skills and competencies for research that assesses six dimensions used investigation. The instrument consisted of 40 questions with a Likert scale. The scores were pooled in low, medium and high levels. The responses were similar in men and women. 12% of students were placed in low range, 35% medium and 53% high. It is important to encourage the development of research competencies since the beginning of the formation of the psychologist
 
59. The Effects of Observing Errors on the Acquisition of Skills via Observational Learning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIA BAIRES (California State University, Los Angeles), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Inclusion in general education settings is often times the goal for children with autism spectrum disorder and related developmental disabilities. In most learning environments, educators model a behavior or skill, which students observe and engage in themselves at a later time. Thus, it is important to examine factors that influence learning from observation with this population. While previous research has evaluated the role of consequences during observational learning, researchers have not examined the impact of observing errors during observational learning. Participants of the current study observed an adult engage in receptive discrimination skills that the participant was not familiar with where 50% errors were made during the teaching of one stimulus set, and no errors during the other stimulus set. Participants were then asked to engage in the same skills to measure progress regarding their learning new skills via observation with and without errors, by utilizing a multiple-probe across participants and alternating treatments design. No learning occurred during either observation condition; both children were taught skills directly using differential reinforcement. Generalization and maintenance probes showed both generalization and maintenance of skills taught. Implications for more thorough analyses of pre-requisite skills and factors influencing behavior during testing conditions are provided.
 
60. Functional Assessment and Function-Based Treatment in High School Students With Developmental Disabilities Exhibiting Perseverative Speech
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ERICA RANADE (Ivymount School), Brittany Frey (Ivymount School), Lauren Lestremau (Ivymount School)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder may engage in perseverative speech that interferes with skill acquisition and social interaction (Dunlap, Dyer, & Koegel, 1983; Jones, Wint, & Ellis, 1990). The present study examines practical applications of clinical procedures for the assessment and function-based treatment of perseverative speech in two students enrolled in a non-public, special education school-based setting. Both students exhibited unique vocalizations that severely impacted their ability to access the educational curriculum and interact with peers and teachers. A functional analysis was conducted in the classroom setting for one of the students, revealing that vocalizations were maintained by attention from teachers. Functional assessment and data collection were conducted for the other student, revealing that vocalizations were maintained by automatic reinforcement. Differential reinforcement of lower rate behaviors (DRL) and differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) procedures addressing each function were implemented, and treatment effects were evaluated using a reversal design. This study demonstrates the importance of function-based treatment in applied school settings.
 
61. The Role of Tact Training on the Emergence of Categorization and Listener
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Daniela M. Ribeiro (Universidade Federal de Alagoas), Rayssa Cavalcante (Universidade Federal de Alagoas), Maria Thaís Bandeira (Universidade Federal de Alagoas), ANA CAROLINA SELLA (Universidade Federal de Alagoas), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may exhibit discrimination deficits, such as those required in categorization tasks. There is evidence that behaving as listener and as speaker towards an object or event may facilitate the emergence of categorization. The present study replicated Miguel and Kobari-Wright (2013) with Brazilian children. Thus, our purpose was (1) to evaluate whether tact training would produce categorization and listener behavior and (2) to determine whether naming (both tact and listener behavior) is necessary for the emergence of categorization as measured via visual-visual matching to sample. Two seven-years old children diagnosed with ASD participated. We used a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate the effects of tact training on categorization and listener behavior. Participants were taught to tact the category of nine pictures corresponding to three different categories. Both participants learned to tact the pictures with few errors, and they also categorized and emitted listener behavior. Results replicated those obtained by Miguel and Kobari-Wright (2013), suggesting that tact training may produce categorization and listener behavior in children diagnosed with ASD.
 
62. Respondent and Operant Influences in Military Training
Domain: Service Delivery
ABIGAIL B. CALKIN (Calkin Consulting Center), Kent A. Corso (NCR Behavioral Health, LLC)
Discussant: Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: The MilVet SIG continues to pursue gaining more traction in the use of applied behavior analysis within the military. The primary areas of use continue to be Tricare's ECHO program for autism and small portions of the Department of Veteran Affairs. For millennia, with or without the use of behavioral terminology and deliberate planning, the military has practiced the tenets and technology of operant and respondent behavior conditioning and concepts while training troops. Through an analysis of the military's use of respondent and operant techniques, this poster examines ways in which the military of various countries across time have employed these principles. The authors provide a summary and analysis of how these principles change the behavior of service members, while also summarizing the existing use of practices and terms. The authors include a potential method for re-training service members who have suffered trauma based on the military's current training models. This could reduce the incidence of the personal, military, and financial cost of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide.
 

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