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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #358
Monday, May 30, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
AUT
Chair: Julie L. Thompson (Michigan State University)
91. Evaluating the Preliminary Outcomes of Clinic Based Behavior Intervention for Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
EVELYN JO HORTON (The Homestead), Samantha Cermak (The Homestead), Lisa Daniel (The Homestead), Martin Ikeda (Heartland Area Education Agency)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of the research was to evaluate the outcomes of behavior intervention program utilizing applied behavior analysis (ABA). The participants include children ages 2-11 that have a primary diagnosis of autism and received services for at least six months. Intervention included 12 hours each week of clinic based ABA treatment with an additional approximate 60 minutes of parent training each week. Multiple intervention strategies were used including discrete trial teaching and natural environment teaching to teach communication, social, cognitive, and behavior targets. Outcome measures included the use of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC; Rimland & Edelson, 1999), conducted through parent interview and the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment (VB-MAPP; Sundberg, 2008), and conducted by the clinic supervisor through direct observation. Scores were taken at intake and reported on annual basis. Results suggest that implementation of treatment resulted in improvement in both ATEC and VB-MAPP scores with largest gains in first two years of service. These outcomes are preliminary measures and suggest socially significant changes occurred.
 
92. Systematic Desensitization to Reduce Problem Behavior Evoked by an Aversive Stimulus
Domain: Applied Research
GEORGE MILLER (Bancroft), Joshua LaForte (Bancroft), Patrick Thulen (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Systematic desensitization, including stimulus fading and positive reinforcement, have been used to help individuals with intellectual disabilities overcome aversive stimuli, including medical and dental procedures (e.g., Conyers et al. 2011, Schiff et al. 2011). This study extends previous research by using desensitization procedures to increase compliance and decrease problem behavior evoked by the presence of an aversive stimulus in a 16 year old male diagnosed with autism and an anxiety disorder. An antecedent only functional analysis showed that problem behavior was evoked by the presence of a vacuum cleaner, suggesting that the vacuum was an aversive stimulus. Reinforcement was provided for gradually moving closer to the target stimulus. Precursor and problem behaviors continued to produce escape from the stimulus. The desensitization procedure was effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing compliance with standing near the aversive stimulus. In a non-concurrent multiple baseline, treatment was replicated for the individual approaching nursing staff. Results will be discussed in terms of the generalization, as treatment effects were established more quickly across a second aversive stimulus.
 
93. Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Effects on Joint Attention and Cognitive Performance in Toddlers With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
CAROLYN WALKER (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children), Diana E. Parry-Cruwys (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare cognitive performance, initiating joint attention (IJA), and responding to joint attention (RJA) in toddlers with autism at entry into Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention and after one year of treatment. This study included 28 1-year-olds, 65 2-year-olds, and 26 3-year-olds. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the Early Skills Assessment Tool that tested imitation, answering social questions, and following directions. Percentage of change was used to evaluate differences in cognitive performance scores. RJA was defined as following a point and following a gaze shift. IJA was defined as gaze shifts, verbalizations, and gestures to books or activation toys. Data was collected on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of responding and was summarized as number correct out of total number of trials. Results showed that cognitive performance, IJA, and RJA all increased after one year of treatment, with 1-year-olds showing the greatest gains. IOA was collected in 75% of cognitive samples and 27% of joint attention samples and averaged 98% (range, 90- 100%) and 95% (range, 67- 100%), respectively. These findings are discussed as they relate to the importance of early identification and treatment for children with autism.
 
94. Effects of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention on Play in Toddlers With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
BRIANNA RACHEL HOLOHAN (Western New England University), Diana E. Parry-Cruwys (The New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of play in toddlers with autism at entry into early intensive behavioral intervention and after 1 year of treatment. This study included 28 1-year-olds, 65 2-year-olds, and 26 3-year-olds. Each of the participant?s play was scored as no play, indiscriminate actions, discriminative actions on single objects, pretend play, or repetitive play. Positive social behavior was also scored. The highest level of play was scored using partial interval recording in 10 s intervals for 5 minutes. A total composite score was calculated for each sample by multiplying the total frequency of play in each category by the value of that play category, then adding the scores together. IOA was collected on 29% of samples and the data averaged 100% for no play; 88% for indiscriminate actions (range, 75- 100%), 88% for discriminate actions (range, 67- 100%); 98% for pretend play (range, 92- 100%), and 91% for repetitive play (range, 75- 100%). Results showed that all participants acquired higher levels of play after treatment, with 1-year-olds showing the greatest gains. The implications of early intensive behavioral intervention on levels of play in toddlers with autism following 1 year of treatment are discussed.
 
95. Examining the Role of Response Effort on the Outcome of a Reinforcer Assessment for an Individual With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
STACY LAUDERDALE-LITTIN (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger), Melanie Erwinski (Rutgers University), Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Meredith Bamond (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: For students with Autism Spectrum Disorder learning tasks and appropriate behavior is often contingent on access to reinforcing stimuli. The rapid reinforcement assessment (RRA; Smaby et al., 2007) alternates between extinction and various reinforcement conditions to evaluate reinforcement effectiveness. Although the RRA has the potential to evaluate reinforcing value of stimuli in less time than other assessments and, thus, has the potential to be an efficient classroom instrument, the choice of task is an often neglected aspect of running reinforcer assessments. Therefore, in the current study we evaluated the role of task selection on the outcome of the RRA for a 12-year-old boy with autism by systematically manipulating response effort across three similar tasks. The tasks, in increasing order of response effort were: a single touch response, a response that required alternation between two large targets, and a response that required alternation between a small and a large target. For the tasks that required the least and most effort responding was suppressed or exaggerated across all conditions (Figures 1 and 2, respectively). However, the task of moderate difficulty (Figure 3) resulted in differentiation of the reinforcing value among stimuli. Considerations when determining the appropriate task will be discussed and implications for using RRA will be presented.
 
96. An Assessment of Caregiver Compliance With Child Mands
Domain: Applied Research
MONICA URICH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In an effort to improve ecological validity, primary caregivers may be asked to serve as therapists within experimental functional analysis conditions (Thomason-Sassi, Iwata, & Fritz, 2013). However, no published studies have used primary caregivers to assess adult compliance with child mands as a function for problem behavior. Adult compliance with child mands was first described in a study by Bowman, Fisher, Thompson, and Piazza (1997). The experimenters hypothesized the function of destructive behavior was to increase the probability that the childs requests would be honored. The current study replicated Bowman et al. (1997) with an 8-year-old male diagnosed with a chromosomal abnormality and moderate intellectual disability, who was admitted to an inpatient hospital. Data were collected on aggression, disruptive behaviors, and child mands. Next, a compliance with mands assessment was conducted with the patients mother as therapist. Frequent prompts and feedback were delivered by experimenters within the session to ensure integrity of session contingencies. Results of both assessments demonstrated adult compliance with child mands as a function for problem behavior. Reliability data were collected for 57% (staff) and 75% (parent) of the sessions. Interobserver agreement averaged 99.2% and 99.8% respectively, across all dependent measures.
 
97. Increasing Choice Responding, Preference, and Consumption in a Child With Autism and Severe Food Selectivity
Domain: Applied Research
Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz), VICTORIA PHAM (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk for food selectivity. Food selectivity is characterized as food refusal by type or texture, limited food repertoire and high frequency single food intake. This study was conducted to observe the effects of escape extinction on choice responding, preference and consumption of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with autism and severe food selectivity. Wade was admitted to an intensive home-based interdisciplinary feeding program. Upon admission he was only eating very limited variety of foods. Prior to this study we were able to increase consumption of different foods; however, he was not choosing to eat foods when presented in a choice paradigm or try new foods. For this study treatment included escape extinction and contingent reinforcement for choice making behavior. Preference assessment prior to and post training trials were conducted. During the pre-treatment preference assessment Wade only choose 2 foods below 80%. Post-treatment preference assessment data showed that choice making behavior increased for a larger array of foods presented. Six different foods were chosen and consumed post-treatment; however choice responding remained below 80% for majority of the foods. Wade was willing to consume more variety of foods post treatment but not consistently. Data are discussed in relation to negative and positive reinforcement, generalization and long-term treatment effects.
 
98. Evaluating the Effects of Mirror Training on the Acquisition of Complex Imitation in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
SATORU SEKINE (Keio University), Soichiro Matsuda (Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often show imitative errors. Though many researchers and therapists taught imitation skills in the face-to-face setting, recent studies used the mirror to provide visual feedback regarding the correspondence between the modeled and imitative response to teach imitation skills (Du & Greer, 2014; Miller, Rodriguez & Rourke, 2015). This study examined whether the mirror promoted the acquisition of motor imitation in two children with ASD (CA: 5;0, 6;5, FSIQ: 56, 49). The method was mainly adopted from Miller et al. (2015). In baseline phase, the experimenter and the child sat facing each other and the experimenter demonstrated the targeted gesture. Training phase included two conditions. In non-mirror condition, they sat facing each other. In mirror condition, the child sat next to the experimenter both facing the mirror. The experimenter first reinforced the correct response and provided physical prompt to incorrect response, then applied 2 second time-delay procedure. The result indicated that children have difficulties in acquiring motor imitation of arm-cross and the palm orientation in both conditions, though they showed all of correct imitations in 0 sec. time delay full prompt procedure. Additional training would be needed for the acquisition of such complex motor imitations.
 
99. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Functional Communication Training Without Extinction
Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN LEFEVRE (Melmark), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark), Lauren Marie Palmieri (Melmark), Amanda Finlay (Melmark)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a frequently used treatment for reducing problem behavior exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities (Hagopian, Fisher, Sullivan, Acquisto & LeBlanc, 1998). The efficacy of FCT without extinction was evaluated because treatment is unlikely to be implemented with perfect integrity in the natural environment (Hagopian et al., 2007; Perry & Fisher, 2001). A reversal design was utilized to determine the effectiveness of FCT without extinction in reducing inappropriate touch maintained by access to vocal and physical attention. Different forms of attention were taught to the individual using picture icons, one for each form of attention. Contingent upon the individual touching or vocally stating a type of attention, the therapist would deliver the specific form of attention. If the individual engaged in the targeted behavior, attention would be delivered in the form of brief eye contact. Results indicated that FCT without extinction was effective in reducing the targeted behavior and increasing functionally equivalent responses.
 
100. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior to Increase Delay Tolerance to Meals
Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN MARIE PALMIERI (Melmark, PA), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A reversal design was utilized to compare the effectiveness of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) to increase delay tolerance and decrease self injurious behavior prior to meal times for one individual. The individual engaged in severe self-injurious behaviors (SIB) while waiting at the table during meal time, which inhibited him not only from eating meals at home but also eating meals in the community. A preference assessment was conducted to determine competing items while waiting for meal time. DRO with edibles and DRA with edibles and preferred activities were utilized to decrease challenging behavior and increase waiting for meals (Wallace & Najdowski, 2009; Hagopian et al.). The edibles delivered for appropriate waiting were thinned for both the DRO and DRA conditions (Hagopian et al., 2005). The treatment was then generalized into the community at various fast food restaurants. The results indicated that the DRO and DRA were equally effective in decreasing SIB and increasing appropriate waiting across both settings.
 
101. Using Stimulus Fading to Facilitate Discrimination of a Multiple Schedule During Functional Communication Training
Domain: Applied Research
Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ashley Fuhrman (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), SOYEON KANG (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melissa Swartzmiller (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Katherine Rousseau (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Multiple (mult) schedules and response restriction (RR) are two procedures that can be used to facilitate reinforcement schedule thinning during functional communication training (FCT). However, some individuals may have difficulty discriminating between the reinforcement and extinction components during mult FCT (Fisher, Greer, Querim, & DeRosa, 2014). Fisher et al. examined the effectiveness of RR FCT with individuals who exhibited difficulty discriminating between these two components of mult FCT. Results showed that RR FCT produced high rates of correct functional communication responses (FCRs), while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. One limitation of Fisher et al. was that when teaching the discrimination, gradual stimulus-fading procedures were implemented in RR FCT, but not in mult FCT. In the present case study, we employed Fisher et al.s stimulus-fading procedures used during RR FCT to facilitate discrimination during mult FCT. The participant was a three-year old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who engaged in aggression and self-injurious behavior. Our results provide some evidence that the gradual stimulus-fading procedures implemented during mult FCT were successful in teaching the successive discrimination of the multiple schedule. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
 
102. Empirically Identifying Alternative Reinforcers Used to Thin Reinforcement Schedules During Functional Communication Training
Domain: Applied Research
Ashley Fuhrman (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), ERIN HOWARD (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melissa Swartzmiller (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Rooker, Jessel, Kurtz, and Hagopian (2013) found that functional communication training (FCT) can be enhanced when alternative reinforcers are provided during periods in which the functional reinforcer is unavailable (i.e., during periods of extinction) and when multiple schedules are used to thin the reinforcement schedule. In the present study, we used a multielement design to compare the efficacy of various alternative reinforcers available during the extinction component of a multiple schedule during FCT. The first participant (Jacob) was a six-year old male referred for aggression and property destruction. The second participant (Alan) was a three-year old male referred for aggression and self-injurious behavior. For Jacob, we compared noncontingent therapist attention or instructions during the extinction component to a condition with no alternative reinforcement. For Alan, we compared noncontingent therapist attention or noncontingent access to alternative tangibles to a condition with no alternative reinforcement. Results for both participants indicated that at least one form of alternative reinforcement led to lower levels of problem behavior. However, not all forms of alternative reinforcement decreased levels of problem behavior, and for Alan, at least one form of alternative reinforcement exacerbated problem behavior. Implications for future research are discussed.
 
103. An Evaluation of High and Low Preferred Tokens During a Time-Based Schedule
Domain: Applied Research
Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Monica Urich (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins Univer), BO KIM (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Research has examined a number of components of token systems to determine the variables (i.e., token production, exchange schedule) that affect responding (Sran & Borrero, 2010). To date, only one study examined the token itself and found that tokens with obsessive items were more valuable than arbitrary tokens (Charlop-Christie & Haymes, 1998). This suggests that preference may be an important factor in token selection. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether or not the preference of a token would affect responding when earned on a time-based schedule (i.e., differential reinforcement of other behavior). The participant was an 8-year-old boy with a chromosomal abnormality and intellectual disability who was admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate problem behavior between the highest and lowest preferred tokens as identified in a paired choice preference assessment (Fisher, Piazza, Bowman, Hagopian, Owens, & Slevin, 1992). Aside from the token earned, sessions were identical (e.g., back-up reinforcers, schedule thinning). Little to no difference was observed across token conditions (over 90% reduction achieved in both conditions). Reliability data were collected for 38.94% of sessions and averaged above 90%.
 
104. The Comparison Between Stimulus Pairing Training and Matching-to-Sample Training in Relational Learning of Children With Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders
Domain: Applied Research
KOSUKE TAKAHASHI (Nagasaki University), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: There are many challenges in language and social cognitive development of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities. Behavior analysts have hypothesized that relational learning are functioned as a basal unit of language and cognitive development. Therefore many training methods that intended to enhance language and cognitive skills in children with ASDs involve the component of relational learning. Most of these training methods are consist of conditional discrimination paradaigm (i.e.Matching-to-Sample training). Meanwhile, recently, Stimulus Pairing training that is consist of observing the paired stimuli to learn the stimulus relations is showed to be effective to establish relational learning in children with ASDs. In this study, we compaired Matching-to-Sample training to Stimulus Pairing training in 19 young children with typical development and 3 children with ASDs and IDs. The results showed that young children with TD tend to learn stimulus relations more effectively in Matching-to-Sample training. However, there were some young children who learned stimulus relations only in Stimulus Pairing training. The result of children with ASDs and IDs was that 1 child learned stimulus relations only in Stimulus Pairing training. We discussed these results in term of stimulus control topography and the applied possibility of Stimulus Pairing training.
 
105. Preparing Students With Autism for the College Transition: A Pilot Study
Domain: Applied Research
HUGO CURIEL (Western Michigan University), Kourtney Bakalyar (Western Michigan University), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: The demands accompanying the transition from high school to college are high and supports are warranted for college students with autism spectrum disorder (Mitchell & Beresford, 2014). Glennon (2001) has proposed that the transition process should be addressed prior to beginning the college experience. In this pilot project we developed and provided to five students with autism spectrum disorder a one-day workshop focused on transitioning to college. The workshop targeted five areas of transitioning: completing a college application, comparison of support services, self-awareness, self-advocacy, and interview skills. Content was presented through lectures, interactive participation, small group interactions, and in-vivo practice. Some lessons were presented using parallel teaching of small groups to allow for more individualized instruction. Pre- and post-workshop data regarding each participants knowledge in each area were collected on all but one content area, completing a college application. Data were collected by having participants answer the same three to eight questions (open-ended and multiple-choice) about each content area prior to and immediately following the workshop and are expressed as the percentage of questions answered correctly. Group results show that for each content area the percentage of questions answered correctly was higher after than before attending the workshop, suggesting that further work to develop and deliver such training is merited.
 
106. Functional Living Skills and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Studies
Domain: Applied Research
SAWAKO KAWAMINAMI (University of Tsukuba), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Kristi Morin (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ninci (Texas A&M University), Leslie Neely (Texas A&M University), Margot Boles (Texas A&M University), Ee Rea Hong (University of Tsukuba), John Davis (Texas A&M University)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the magnitudes of effect of educational interventions for teaching functional living skills to adolescent- and adult-aged individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), differentiated by participant diagnoses, independent variables, and dependent variables. In addition, to identify statistically significant differences based on categories of the evaluated variables, we conducted the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and a Dunn post-hoc test. A total of 32 single-case studies was included in this analysis. Results indicated that interventions to improve functional living skills with individuals with ASD had overall strong effects. Moderate to strong effects were noted across categories for diagnosis. Findings indicated strong effects across categories for dependent and independent variables. Limitations and implications for practice and future research were discussed.
 
108. Implementation of a Small Group Social Skills Training for Children Receiving Center-Based Behavioral Treatment
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DANA F. LINDEMANN (Western Illinois University/Quad Cities Autism Center), Suzanne Johnson (Quad Cities Autism Center), Brittany Williams (Western Illinois University/Quad Cities Autism Center), Kinsey Johnson (Quad Cities Autism Center), Caroline Mather (Quad Cities Autism Center), Michelle Smyth (Quad Cities Autism Center)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: One-on-one direct intervention presents limited opportunities to strengthen and generalize social skills beyond those between the instructor and child. Yet, for many school-aged children diagnosed with autism the need for effective social skills with peers is high, as a social skills deficit can negatively impact a childs successful integration into a school system. This research evaluates the effectiveness of a brief, small group social skills intervention implemented among children concurrently attending center-based behavioral treatment and grade school. Data collection will continue through March 2016. Participants are 2 males diagnosed with autism, aged 7 and 9 years old, receiving treatment services at a VB-based center. Training involves twice weekly, 30-minute small group sessions led by one instructor. Themed sessions incorporate a story read aloud, calendar and weather discussion, and a hands-on group task, such as a craft or joint building activity. Anecdotally, the small group social skills training was easily implemented and integrated into the childrens programming and the data indicate improvement on various social skills, such as social responses (see Figure 1). Upon completion, this research may support the relatively simple implementation of small group social skills programming at VB-based treatment centers.
 
109. Examining Parental Stress in Relation to Evaluations of Behavioral Parent Training Programs
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
BHAVNA KANSAL (Marcus Autism Center), Ashley Baker (Marcus Autism Center), Caitlin H. Delfs (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: As the prevalence of ASD has steadily increased in recent years, with the most recent estimates from the CDC indicating the disorder affecting 1 in every 68 children in the United States (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014), behavioral intervention programs are becoming more necessary for families with a child diagnosed with ASD. Although intensive behavioral interventions are effective, some can be costly and lack the procedural fidelity following the intervention sessions (Jacobson, Mulick, & Green, 1998). An alternative is behavioral parent training (BPT) based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. These programs are relatively inexpensive and place an emphasis on the importance of caregiver involvement, training, and education (Serketich & Dumas, 1996). Existing literature has examined the effects of such BPT programs on parenting skills and stress in a diverse sample of parents of children with autism. This investigation furthers the literature by examining parental stress in relation to caregiver evaluations of such BPT programs. Participants included over 70 families consisting of at least one caregiver and a child with ASD who completed a structured BPT program at a large clinical facility in the Southeast. The BPT program consisted of didactic, role-play, and in-vivo training sessions spread across 12, 2-hour sessions to address language delays, mild to moderate problem behavior, and other issues such as toileting or sleep. The primary dependent variables were pre- and post- assessments of caregiver stress level measured by Parent Stress Index questionnaire, and a program evaluation and caregiver satisfaction survey conducted at the conclusion of the sessions, aimed to measure the social validity of the program. Data was analyzed to determine if participation and satisfaction in BPT programs correlate to a decrease in parental stress by the end of the program, further determining efficacy of the program intervention based on parental goals.
 
110. A Data-Based Protocol for Reducing Pharmacological Restraints in an Adolescent With Autism
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA ZAWACKI (PAAL), Gloria M. Satriale (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Thomas L. Zane (Institute for Behavioral Studies, Endicott College)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Medication is often used solely or in conjunction with behavioral procedures to treat behavior problems in individuals with autism. However, the synergetic effect of multiple medications are known to cause other difficult challenges that must be addressed in addition to the original dangerous behavioral concerns. Data-based decisions and consistent behavioral programming can be used in conjunction with medical oversight and review to systematically reduce medication use so that the individual over time is demonstrating appropriate behavior on the smallest level of medication necessary. This case study demonstrates a formal protocol used when reducing the number and amount of medications used with an adolescent male with autism. He demonstrated such serious self-injurious and aggressive behaviors that he was a danger to himself and others, and that resulted in him being on a cocktail of several different medications to deal with his specific problematic behaviors as well as other alleged psychiatric issues. The number and dosage of these medications were such that he was sedated and interfered with skill acquisition. Close collaboration with his medical neurologist , along with consistent behavioral programming and comprehensive data collection, resulted in gradual reduction and elimination of medications along with continued low-to-no rates of the original target behaviors. The protocol was successful due to the collaboration, gradual pace of medication reduction, consistent implementation of the behavior intervention plans, and the systematic collection of behavior data. The lessons learned and the protocol details will be presented.
 
111. Experiences of African American Caregivers Accessing Services for Their Children With Autism
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
TEMPLE S LOVELACE (Duquesne University), Rachel E. Robertson (University of Pittsburgh)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Research into the experiences of families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been conducted with relatively little participation from African American families, leaving the generalizability of findings to this group largely unknown. The purpose of this poster is to present a qualitative analysis of interviews with African American caregivers of children with ASD regarding their experiences seeking and receiving autism services for their children. Participants were three socioeconomically diverse African American mothers of boys with ASD, ranging in age from 7 to 15. Each mother was interviewed regarding her experiences seeking and receiving services for her child using a semi-structured interview protocol. Interview durations ranged from 20 to 120 minutes. Interviews were transcribed and coded for major themes across families, including Difficulty Getting a Diagnosis, Racial Bias in Service Providers, and Family Resistance to Seeking Treatment. Overall, the data indicate unique aspects to the experiences of African American families seeking and receiving autism services that are not currently addressed in the general autism practice community, however more research is needed to confirm these findings. Implications for improving access to and reception of autism services for African American families are provided.
 
112. Early Intervention for an Infant at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Case Study
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
KIM MOORE (The Portia Learning Centre), Charlene Gervais (The Portia Learning Centre), Amy O’Neill (Queen's University), Vanessa Schell (Queen's University), Rachael Riethman (Connecting Early)
Discussant: Julie Thompson (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Recent advances in early identification of autism symptoms have allowed for intervention with infants as young as 6 months old. This study evaluated the impact of a 12- week parent- training program based on the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on the developmental trajectory of an infant at-risk for autism. The results of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning showed gains in all areas of development with the exception of gross motor skills. The Infant Toddler Checklist revealed a total score in the 4th percentile at 6 months with an increase to the 73rd percentile at the 12- month follow up. Significant improvements were shown in the social composite with a score in the 5th percentile at 6 months with an increase to the 75th percentile at the 12- month follow-up. The results of the study support the notion of early autism screening for infants and a parent-training model for intervention using principles of applied behaviour analysis.
 
113. A Comparison of the Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Schedules on Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JULIENNE FAIRCHILD LEBLANC (New England Center for Children), Jessica L. Thomason-Sassi (New England Center for Children), Ashley McMullen (New England Center for Children )
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) are two schedules that may be used to reduce behavior; however, there are not many studies on the use of DRL to treat problem behavior. This study compares the effects of DRO and DRL schedules on problem behavior for two male students diagnosed with autism. A functional analysis was conducted to determine the variable maintaining the target response, prior to the introduction of DRO and DRL schedules. During DRO and DRL treatment sessions, the maintaining reinforcer was delivered at the end of a time interval, contingent on responding at or below the specified criterion rate (DRL) or the absence of behavior (DRO). A reversal with an imbedded multielement design was used to assess treatment effects. Data were also examined for the possible presence of extinction-induced side effects, such as extinction bursts and emotional responding, as well as the relative reinforcement rate. DRO and DRL both produced similar reductions in behavior, and no extinction-induced side effects were observed for either participant. Interobserver agreement was calculated at 93% for 36% of sessions.
 
114. Water Conservation via Differential Reinforcement of Shower-Taking Durations
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY TRUONG (SEEK Education), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Water conservation, particularly in California, continues to be an increasingly pressing issue. A conventional showerhead typically discharges between seven to ten gallons per minute, with a daily 20 minute shower utilizing between 4,200 and 6,000 gallons per month. This study was a component analysis which evaluated the combined and individual role of a shower timer, differential reinforcement of shower durations, and verbal caretaker prompts. Results show a significant reduction in shower durations after implementation of one of the differential reinforcement components. The performance maintained after differential reinforcement, caretaker prompts, and the shower timer were removed. Results suggest that differential reinforcement of different shower lengths may significantly reduce overall time spent in the shower, thereby conserving large amounts of potable water.
 
115. The Effects of Pairing Procedures on Subsequent Item Engagement and Challenging Behaviors During Operant Play Conditions
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University), Suzanne Mancil (Louisiana Tech University)
Abstract: Several research studies have demonstrated the success of using preferences as reinforcement for children with autism and other developmental disabilities (Roane, et. al., 1998). However, children with autism often become obsessed with just one or small set of items, which can relate to higher levels of challenging behaviors (Mancil, 2009). Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pairing procedures between preferred items and novelty items and the effects on subsequent item engagement and challenging behaviors during operant play conditions. A multi-element design was used to compare engagement time and challenging behaviors between highly preferred items and novelty items. Data was collected via iPad during 5-minute sessions. Prior to pairing procedures, preference assessments were conducted keeping response effort levels equal across items to identify the highly preferred items. A multiple stimulus with replacement and a paired stimulus preference was conducted on each participant. In addition, novelty items were identified for each participant and tested to ensure a zero level of engagement prior to pairing Novelty items were paired with highly preferred items for each participant. Pairing procedures consisted of requiring the participant to engage with the novelty item with the highly preferred item simultaneously. Results indicate that participants engaged in play with novelty items for significantly higher periods of time and challenging behaviors decreased following pairing procedures with highly preferred items. This study potentially impacts planning for individuals with limited preferences and obsessive interests. IOA was 95% across all conditions and reliability with each observers data was 100% across all observers.
 
116. A Component Analysis of the Reinforcing Value of an iPad for an Individual With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ETHAN A. EISDORFER (Rutgers University), Audrey Torricelli (Rutgers University), Zachary Brown (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: One of the core deficits of autism includes restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Therefore, finding suitable reinforcers can be difficult for some learners with autism. James, a 17 year old boy with autism, participated. Classroom staff reported that only the iPad was motivating, but also that James had difficulty making the transition from periods of reinforcement back to work as he perseverated on the iPad. Therefore, in the current study we adapted a rapid reinforcer assessment (Smaby, MacDonald, Ahearn, & Dube, 2007; Cividini- Motta & Ahearn, 2013) to conduct a component analysis of different visual and auditory elements of the iPad by alternating these elements with extinction conditions. In the component analysis we examined the iPad (video and audio), only the video, only the audio, and only the audio played over headphones. Results revealed that the video only condition achieved a comparable rate of responding to the full iPad (video + audio) condition. Music only had some reinforcing value, and music over the headphones had the least reinforcing value. All conditions yielded higher responding than extinction. Implications for incorporating the results of this analysis into Jamess classroom programming will be discussed.
 
117. A Comparison Between Measured Caregiver Investment and Treatment Outcomes
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M. HODNETT (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah J. Miller (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Past research has examined the effects of treatment integrity on the effectiveness of interventions for challenging behavior (Sterling-Turner, Watson, & Moore, 2002; Van Den Hoofdakker et al. 2007). Acceptability is a precursor to treatment integrity (Witt & Elliott, 1985), and acceptability may be thought of in terms of how bought-in a caregiver is to the treatment procedures. However, there has been only limited research on how to best measure acceptability or buy-in. In addition, the studies that have been conducted have used self-report (usually from teachers) and have assessed only pre- or post-treatment as opposed to analyzing buy-in throughout. This study extends the past research by examining caregiver buy-in (assessed by a 6 item, likert-scale questionnaire completed by a therapist observing the caregiver). Data for 2 participants from an intensive outpatient treatment facility will be presented to determine if therapists ratings of buy-in relate to direct observation measures of rates of challenging behavior and outcomes of a function-based treatment for problem behaviors. Interobserver agreement of therapist ratings will also be presented.
 
118. Arranging and Ordering by Individuals With Autism: What, Where, and Why?
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
FANNY SILVA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Frans Van Haaren (Autism Early Intervention Clinics), Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University), Celso Goyos (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with ASD often engage in repetitive behaviors, such as lining up objects. Using an on-line survey, we sought to identify the main variables associated with this behavior, such as type of objects, environmental conditions, and possible social consequences delivered by others. Respondents (n=55, with n = 86 children) identified most often as female (96.4%) and as a parent (94%) of a male child (66.3%). Respondents report that some lined up objects are more frequently used (toys, books, videos, or movies) than others (paper, silverware or erasers). The environmental factors involved when the children line up objects were: (a) mostly at home, but rarely in school; (b) most often in the afternoon or evening; and (c) someone is usually around, and sometimes they help to line up objects. Most respondents did not consider the behavior to be concerning. When the items are disturbed, the child either lines things back up again, may get a little bit upset, or engage in serious problem behavior (tantrums and crying). The results suggest that repetitive behavior in children with ASD may be acquired and maintained through the involvement of social positive and negative reinforcement. Further recruitment and analysis will be required.
 
120. A Consecutive Case Review Looking at the Effectiveness of a Multi-Disciplinary Treatment of Encopresis
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CLARISSA PRIORE (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atlanta/Emory University School of Medicine), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atlanta/Emory University School of Atlanta), Barbara McElhanon (Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Encopresis, or the inability to achieve continence with bowel movements, is a particularly big challenge among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. There are many negative consequences associated with encopresis such as limiting access to community settings, social stigma and hygiene problems. Past treatments for encopresis have used behavioral strategies, medications such as suppositories, laxatives, or enemas, and in a few studies researchers have combined of these approaches. Although these studies have demonstrated some success they have also had weak experimental designs or prolonged treatment. The current study includes a clinical case review of 20 participants, from an outpatient clinic focused on the treatment of encopresis for children diagnosed with ASD or other developmental disorders. Treatment included scheduled sits, glycerin suppository and reinforcement for continent bowel movements. Medication was faded once consistent continent bowel movements were observed. Results show that most participants achieve bowel continence within 10 days of treatment in addition maintain bowel continence at 1 month follow-up.
 
121. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Reduce Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quality Review of Literature
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CELAL PERIHAN (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at greater risk for experiencing higher levels of anxiety symptoms than typically developing children. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) are highly researched evidence-based treatments for anxiety in children (Walkup et al., 2008). However there is a growing body of evidence of CBTs in reducing anxiety in ASD with modifications and additions to CBTs protocol (Attwood, 2004); these modifications and additions may affect the outcomes of studies significantly and can weaken the power of the studies. To address the need for standards of research in special education, the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) categorized and identified essential quality indicators to determine trustworthy intervention studies. The main purpose of this review is applying the rubric that adapted from the CEC (2014) research quality criteria to evaluate the quality of the CBTs studies to reduce anxiety levels of children with ASD. Fourteen group comparison research studies included in the final review. 28 quality components across eight quality indicators categories were coded and analyzed for each study. Results of the review demonstrated that only two of these studies met all components of the quality indicators. Each quality component and future direction will be discussed in detail.
 
122. A Systematic Review of Behavior Analytic Treatments for Food Selectivity of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at Austin, Special Education Department), Becky Penrod (California State University, Sacramento), Colleen Whelan (California State University, Sacramento), David Hernandez (California State University, Sacramento), Hollie Wingate (The University of Texas at Austin, Special Educati), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract: Food refusal (FR) and food selectivity (FS) are pediatric feeding disorders (PFD) with adverse effects on social, developmental, and/or health outcomes. FS is highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Applied behavior analysis is the leading approach to treating FS of individuals with ASD, yet some reviews of the literature pertaining to PFD more broadly have suggested the evidence is tenuous. This study extends previous reviews of the literature by (a) providing a comprehensive, systematic review of behavior analytic treatments for FS of children with ASD, excluding other PFD, and (b) comparing methodological quality and outcomes to the Council for Exceptional Childrens (CEC) standards for evidence-based practices (EBP) in special education. Twenty eight single-subject design studies published between 1984 and 2014 were identified and included. Participant and study characteristics, methodological quality, and correspondence to the CECs standards of EBP in special education were reviewed and summarized. The results suggest (a) behavior analytic treatments for FS of children with ASD are generally effective at improving consumption (e.g., volume or variety of non-preferred foods), (b) evidence for reduction of mealtime challenging behavior to clinically acceptable levels is lacking, and (c) the evidence base as a whole met several quality indicators but fell short of meeting the CECs standards for EBP in special education. A wide range of opportunities for researchers to expand and strengthen the evidence base in a manner that may facilitate dissemination of effective behavior analytic treatments for FS of children with ASD is highlighted.
 
123. Efficacy of Training a Paraprofessional to Implement Video Prompting To Teach a Vocational Skill
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL SEAMAN (The Ohio State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University), Matthew Brock (The Ohio State University/Crane Center on Early Childhood Research and Policy)
Abstract: Very few individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been trained in the vocational skills needed to obtain gainful employment. Subsequently, the costliest repercussions have arisen from the lack of research evaluating transition planning and employment outcomes. Although there has been an abundance of research evaluating the practice of training practitioners of students with ASD to use evidence-based practices to teach a wide variety of skills, there have been few that apply this training to the acquisition of vocational tasks. This study uses a multiple baseline across behaviors design to evaluate the training methods used to train a paraprofessional in the preparation and implementation of video prompting with their student with ASD. Further, the behavior and learning of both the paraprofessional and student are measured. Results indicate that the evaluated training package resulted in increased video prompting implementation behavior for the paraprofessional, as well as corresponding, increased vocational skill behavior for the student.
 
124. The Effects of a Social Skills Program on Initiations, Responses, and Turn-Taking With Two Young Children With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARY ELIZABETH ORTMAN (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University), Megan A. Boyle (Missouri State University), David Goodwin (Associate Professor, Missouri State University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: This single-subject ABAB withdrawal design utilized a social skills curriculum, self-monitoring, and video-modeling to increase the initiations, responses, turns-taken, and total duration involved in social play in two first grade males with autism. Across the 15-minute data sessions, participant ones initiations increased from a mean of 2 during A1 to 28 during B2, responses increased from a mean of 3 to 26, turn-taking increased from a mean of 10 to 29, and duration engaged in a social interaction increased from a mean of 4 minutes and 19 seconds to 14 minutes and 5 seconds. Participant twos initiations increased from a mean of 4 to 24, responses increased from a mean of 5 to 21, turn-taking increased from a mean of 7 to 23, and duration increased from a mean of 3 minutes and 45 seconds to 14 minutes and 16 seconds. Limitations included time constraints and the setting of a busy classroom. It is recommended that future research utilize parent-delivered social skills training programs, lower functioning participants, siblings as peer-trainers, generalization probes, and component analysis.
 
125. Evidence-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies for Learners With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GLEIDES LOPES RIZZI (The Ohio State University), Celine Lopes (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: The current systematic synthesis compiles and evaluates strategies used to improve the reading comprehension outcomes for learners with moderate- to high-functioning autism (M-HFA). The data analysis adopts the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC, 2014) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices (EBP) in Special Education. The purpose of these standards is twofold: (a) to provide eight criteria for the evaluation of a studys quality and (b) to offer a standard for the classification of "methodologically sound" experiments as evidence-based. A multidisciplinary database search rendered 2,761 documents, yielding the inclusion of 27 experiments, from which nine strategies derived. These strategies were implemented with 110 learners with M-HFA from grades 1-12. This synthesis aims to inform teachers, providers of professional development training, teacher preparation programs, and researchers of methodologically sound reading comprehension strategies for the instruction of M-HFA. Implications for practice, alignment with the National Reading Panel (2000), and suggestions for future research are included.
 
126. Self-Management as Treatment for Body Rocking
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LISA MARIE KUTZLEY (Haugland Learning Center, Western Michigan University), Bryan Droesch (Haugland Learning Center), Alaina C Valentine (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Research suggests that stereotypic behavior such as non-functional hand flapping, mouthing, vocalizations, and rocking may occur in one-third to two-thirds of individuals with intellectual disabilities (Shabani, Wilder, & Flood, 2001). The current study used self-management techniques to reduce body rocking, which interfered with appropriate social functioning as well as fine and gross motor skills for an individual with an intellectual disability. The participant was a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism and a seizure disorder. The dependent variable was the number of intervals during which the participant emitted body rocking behavior. The independent variable was self-management training during which the participant monitored the occurrence and nonoccurrence of her own rocking behavior. During baseline, the participant emitted high rates of body rocking. During the self-management intervention, the participant accurately monitored occurrences and non-occurrences of rocking behavior, decreased body rocking, and generalized the behavior to a social setting. These results suggest that self-management may be an option individuals with developmental disabilities who are affected by pervasive stereotypic behavior.
 
127. Further Evaluation of the Displacement of Leisure Stimuli by Food During Preference Assessments
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LUIZA ANDAKYAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles), Kimberly Benjamin (Behavioral Learning Center, Inc/ The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysts have developed and researched a number of methods to identify preferred stimuli, and also examined the extent to which those stimuli then function as reinforcers during subsequent reinforcer assessments. One area that has received relatively little attention in the research literature is the displacement of leisure stimuli by food during stimulus preference assessments. While early research on the area has shown that food stimuli reliably displace leisure stimuli when they are combined in preference assessments, this body of research is small, and has been conducted with adults with developmental disabilities. Given that applied behavior analysts increasingly work with children with autism spectrum disorder it seems prudent to examine the extent to which displacement occurs during preference assessments with this population. This poster presents data which evaluate this phenomenon with four children with autism spectrum disorder. For 2/4 children food reliably displaced leisure stimuli, for 1 child leisure stimuli reliably displaced food stimuli, and 1 child had mixed results throughout.
 
127a. Effects of Video Modeling With a Script on the Behavior of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DAISUKE NAGATOMI (University of Tsukuba  ), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: We used two procedures, Video Modeling (VM) and Video Modeling with a script (VM+Sc), to teach a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder to initiate question asking and answer questions. We compared the effect on his verbal versus non-verbal behavior. In the video, an adult modeled how to pose a question by asking, Where is X? 1. Approaching the teacher, 2. Making eye contact with the teacher, 3. Calling for the teacher, 4. Asking the teacher using Where? (e.g., Where is it?), and 5. Asking the teacher using an items name (e.g., Pen?). After an adult set out some items, the child was asked, Where is X? The childs role was to answer the question. 1. Looking at the place where the item was, 2. Pointing to the place where the item was, 3. Answering verbally with information about the place, and 4. Answering with a preposition. We used a multiple treatment reversal design (A-B-C-B-C). After the child watched VM+Sc, his verbal and non-verbal behaviors increased in both initiating and answering questions, compared to after he watched VM only. We showed that VM+Sc increased both verbal and non-verbal behavior, and encouraged generalization.
 
129. Treatment Evaluation for Decreasing Automatically Reinforced Arranging and Ordering
Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL FREDERICKS (New England Center for Children/Western New England University), Kaitlin Andrews (New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Arranging and ordering is frequently observed among individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (Bodfish, Symons, Parker, & Lewis, 2000). However, there is little research on the assessment and treatment of this behavior. In the present study, we conducted a treatment evaluation of automatically reinforced arranging and ordering in an individual with an autism spectrum disorder. A functional analysis indicated that arranging and ordering was automatically reinforced. An indirect assessment was conducted with caregivers to identify socially acceptable punishers. During the treatment evaluation, noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) treatment components were evaluated first. If NCR and DRA were ineffective, five potential punishers, informed by the indirect assessment, were evaluated in the NCR + DRA context using a multielement design. A variety of dependent variables were measured, including arranging and ordering behavior, emotional responding, and appropriate item engagement. Punishment, in the form of product disruption, combined with NCR + DRA was the most effective treatment for decreasing arranging and ordering. Interobserver agreement data were collected in 32% of sessions and averaged 91% across all measures.
 
130. Cross Price Elasticity in Stereotypy
Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA KWOK (New England Center for Children), Allison Josephine Castile (Western New England University; New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Reinforcing items are often used in skill acquisition and behavior management programming for children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to evaluate the generality of preference assessment outcomes across an array of unit prices. Second, to evaluate cross price elasticity between each item tested and stereotypy. Cross price elasticity refers to the degree of sensitivity of a reinforcer as price increases. Duration of motor and vocal stereotypy was calculated across a variety of work requirements (FR3, FR12, FR24, and FR48) in a concurrent schedule. Participants were required to stuff envelopes in the context of a paired stimulus preference assessment. If the participant did not respond within one minute, it was scored as a no response. Results showed an increase in the duration of stereotypy as price increased. The results have implications for identifying reinforcers that are substitutable for, or compete with, the reinforcer maintaining stereotypy. Interobserver agreement data were collected for 92% of sessions, averaging 98% for percent selection of items and 35% of sessions, averaging 70%, for motor and vocal stereotypy.
 
131. The University of California, Los Angeles Early Learning Measure: Does Early Performance Predict Later Clinical Outcome?
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AINSLEY B. LEWON (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno), Daylee E. Brock (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Developed by Ivar Lovaas and his colleagues at the University of California, Los Angeles, the Early Leaning Measure (ELM) is an instrument designed to evaluate child behavior in four domains: following simple instructions, imitating motor movements, vocally labeling common objects, and imitating sounds and words. The ELM is sometimes used in early intensive behavioral intervention programs both to assess a child with autism at intake and to periodically measure the child’s progress through the early parts of a curriculum. Ten young children diagnosed with autism enrolled in the University of Nevada, Reno Early Childhood Autism Program participated in the study. The ELM was administered at intake and again every three months throughout treatment until a score of 90% or above was achieved in each of the four domains. Results show that the number of ELM administrations was positively correlated with pre- and post-treatment changes in scores on both the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale as well as whether or not a child was receiving special education services at discharge. The results show that early mastery of the ELM may be related to favorable clinical outcomes.
 
133. An Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes Across Home and Community Settings
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY DIGGS (The Autism Community Therapists), Kevin J. Schlichenmeyer (TACT, LLC ), Kara LaCroix (The Autism Community Therapists)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: An abundance of empirical demonstrations offer support for the use of functional analyses (FAs) in guiding function-based intervention. Despite this, very few studies have garnered such support in community settings, perhaps due to ethical and logistical constraints. Recent advances in behavior analytic research (e.g., trial-based and latency based FAs) have mitigated some of these limitations, making it more feasible to conduct functional analysis and treatment in community settings. This study extends current research by comparing functional analysis outcomes when similar antecedent and consequent stimuli are included in test and control conditions across home and community settings for one individual displaying challenging behavior. First, a pairwise functional analysis was conducted in the participant’s home including putative reinforcers identified via an open-ended indirect assessment. Second, a trial based functional analysis was conducted in the community emulating conditions similar to those in the home setting. Because functional analysis outcomes were identical across settings, an effective function based-intervention was conducted primarily in the home-based settings, making transfer to community settings more efficient, limiting intervention time in the community. This research suggests a practical and efficient model for developing function-based intervention in the community. Interobserver agreement data were collected for greater than 36% of sessions and exceeded an average agreement of greater than 80%.
 
134. The Use of Animal Assisted Intervention to Increase Activity Levels in Children With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Basic Research
Henrietta Hand (Applied Behavior Center for Autism), RACHEL DYAL (Applied Behavior Center for Autism)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to collect empirical data based on the paper, Integrating Therapy Dog Teams in a Physical Activity Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, which only provided anecdotal findings. The paper proposed that the introduction of therapy dog teams increased the participants compliance with and enjoyment of the activities. This study looked at a single indicator of effectiveness as an intervention: the length of time the subject will engage in three phases of activity independently compared with the duration of activity in the three phases with the introduction of a therapy dog. The three phases are individual: the dog is simply present for the activity, competitive: the subject competes against the dog, and cooperative: the subject and dog work as a team. The focus looked into extending the duration each child is active during a 30-minute activity session. The total duration and the duration of each subjects participation in each phase will be evaluated. It is hypothesized, based on the information in the paper, that the presence and interaction with the dog will function as a reinforcer for engaging in physical activity and therefore increase the duration of activity.
 
135. Behavior Analysis’ Beliefs in Population Specific Treatment Effects
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA GONZALES (Penn State University), Kimberly A. Schreck (Penn State Harrisburg), Thomas L. Zane (Institute for Behavioral Studies, Endicott College)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: Behavior analysts are often called upon to help those with autism (ASD). Schreck and Mazur (2008) show evidence of behavior analysts using fad (non-scientifically based) interventions for the treatment of ASD. Schreck et al. 2015, a five year follow up, found that believes in effectiveness, ease of implementation, and persuasion by other there the top three reasons behavior analysts chose the treatments they did. The purpose of this manuscript is to determine BCBA’s and BCBA-D’s beliefs in what treatments work for specific (e.g., ASD, ID, severe behavior, only children, only adults) and general populations (e.g., no one, all people). It was found that BCBA’s and BCBA-D’s had similar beliefs concerning ABA for specific and general populations. Unfortunately, less than one in five behavior analyst believe that ABA is an effective treatment for ASD and less that three fourth of behavior analysts believe ABA to be effective for all people. Keywords: behavior analysts, autism, treatment effectiveness
 
136. Treatment of Self-Injury to the Head Through Evoking an Incompatible Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
REBECCA HOLDEN (Bancroft), Renjason Patulot (Bancroft)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: Previous research has proven that targeting precursor behavior can lead to a reduction in other high intensity problem behavior, however only one study investigates targeting a precursor behavior for automatically maintained self-injury (Fahmie & Iwata, 2013). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a treatment to decrease rates of low-intensity self-injury which due to the high frequency have caused injury. The participant, an adolescent male diagnosed with Autism, has had limited success with other evidence based treatments including, noncontingent access to competing items, contingent physical restraint, and differential reinforcement of other behaviors. A trial based functional analysis determined self-Injury to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. An alternating treatments design was used to control for variable rates while evaluating the effectiveness of response blocking, wearing a hat, and wearing a hat combined with response blocking. The incompatible precursor behavior of removing the hat combined with response blocking of the Self injury led to Low and stable rates were observed during the hat and blocking condition. The efficacy of blocking was increased as the removal of the hat led to an increase in latency of self-injury. Reliability data was collected for 58% of sessions across conditions with an average agreement of 71%.
 
137. Rapid Assessment via Latency-Based Functional Analysis and Treatment for Behavioral Inpatient Hospitalization for Children and Adolescents With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN E. STAUBITZ (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Sarah Marler (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University), Michelle Hopton (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Kathleen Simcoe (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Jessica Torelli (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: Latency-based functional analysis (LBFA) may be a viable alternative to traditional functional analysis when evoking and reinforcing high rates of problem behavior is not advisable, or when client time, appropriate and safe assessment space, and/or staffing are limited. Embedded within a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess for potential cost-benefit of behavior analytic services within typical inpatient hospital settings, we conducted latency-based functional analyses of problem behavior of 18 children and adolescents diagnosed with autism in inpatient hospital settings. Therapists also tracked latency to occurrence of non-targeted problem behavior during functional analyses. Because latencies for these topographies were obtained within the context of highly controlled antecedent manipulations, we conceptualized this secondary analysis as a structured descriptive assessment (SDA), with latency to unconsequated problem behavior as its dependent variable. For patients assigned to the treatment group, assessment-informed ABA treatment was delivered within the hospital unit by behavior analysts. Despite considerable resource constraints, functional relations were successfully identified during 38.9% of these brief assessments. Four latency-based SDAs were simultaneously conducted on the secondary responses of four subjects. Differentiated response patterns emerged for two patients. Data that reflects various aspects of this project and its outcomes are shared.
 
138. Application of Response Interruption and Redirection in an Intensive Behavioral Intervention Setting
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA ANN ISAAK (Bethesda Services), Alison Cox (Hamilton Health Sciences), Jo-Ann M. Reitzel (McMaster Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: There are a few different methods practitioners may use to reduce vocal or motor stereotypy, which can often impede learning. Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is a procedure where demands are delivered contingent on stereotypy. An alternative strategy includes presenting preferred stimuli that apparently match or do not match the sensory by-product produced by the self-stimulatory behavior. We conducted a modified multiple baseline across settings for one child with autism spectrum disorder to evaluate the impact of RIRD variations on vocal stereotypy. None of the variations of RIRD were effective in reducing vocal stereotypy, even though agency instructor therapists were able to implement RIRD procedures with acceptable levels of treatment fidelity. RIRD was discontinued and preferred matched and unmatched stimuli were evaluated on their impact in reducing vocal stereotypy. The clinical implications, social validity and treatment feasibility of implementation in an applied setting are discussed.
 
139. The Effects of the “Self & Match” System on Vocal Stereotypy Maintained by Attention and Automatic Reinforcement During Independent Work Time
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH SCHMITT (Western Michigan University), Andrew Bulla (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: The vast research database within applied behavior analysis is lacking in the area of reducing vocal stereotypy that is multiply maintained. The current intervention was designed to help reduce vocal stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement and attention. The “Self & Match” system (Salter & Croce, 2013), a self-monitoring intervention, was utilized to address both functions. The participant was a 9-year-old male student placed in an autism spectrum disorder classroom. After a specified length of independent work time, both the participant and the researcher would record whether target behavior occurred, and the student could receive a preferred item if enough matches were recorded. The intervention was eventually faded out, and the behavior remained at low levels during normal classroom management practices. The results suggested that the self-monitoring procedure helped the student to acquire proper self-monitoring skills. This intervention could be a useful tool for future practitioners that work with individuals presenting similar needs.
 
140. Promoting Derived Symmetrical Responding Through Fine Arts: An Application of the PEAK-E Curriculum
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CALEB STANLEY (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Allison Ribley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: A common criticism of behavioral instructional approaches include possible limitations in promoting creativity in the topographies of behaviors that are taught. The purpose of the present set of analyses was to evaluate the efficacy of two discrete-trial-training procedures in promoting the emergence of symmetrical relational responding using fine arts-based activities. In the first study, three participants with autism were taught to provide names for fictional characters created by the experimenters, and were subsequently tested for their ability to draw the fictional characters when provided the name without direct training. The results suggest that the participants were both able to name the characters, as well as draw the characters, following direct training of the character to name relation. In the second study, participants were taught to identify an emotion when provided a musical composition, and were subsequently tested for their ability to produce the musical composition when provided an emotion. The results of the second study also suggested that the participants were able to demonstrate the symmetrical music production response following direct training of the musical composition to emotion relation.
 
141. The Effect of Tact Training on the Emergence of Listener Responding Among Children With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MAHMOUD AL SHEYAB (Shafallah Center for Persons with Disablities), Hani Ahmed Sayed (Ahafallah Center for Children with Special Needs), Hakam Abu Al-Khair (Shafallah Center for Children with Special Needs), Mohammad I. Al-Attrash (Shafallah Center for Individuals with Disability), Moyyad Al-Tamimi (Shafallah center for Persons with Disablities), Faten Saleh (Shafallah center for persons with disabilities), Mossab Osman (Shafallah center for persons with disabilities), Karam Mohamed (Shafallah center for persons with disabilities)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of tact training on the emergence of listener behavior (receptive labeling) using a pre-post treatment design, for four children with autism. Before tact training began, all participants exposed to baseline probes of their ability to receptively label (non-verbal responding) a five-stimulus set. During tact training session participants learned to accurately tact (expressive labeling) five novel stimuli (i.e. participants were unable to receptively label these stimuli). Then we assessed whether participants could accurately responded non-verbally (i.e. receptively label) to the same five stimulus set. After Tact training, all participants accurately selected (i.e. touch, gave, and point to) the correct stimulus when asked to do so. The results suggest that tact training may be an efficient way to produce appropriate listener behavior in children diagnosed with autism. in other words, expressive before receptive protocol may be superior for receptive before expressive, further research should be done to explore more on this topic.
 
142. Teaching a Four-Year-Old Child With Autism to Mand for Information by Contriving Existing Establishing Operations
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: Teaching manding for information by contriving and manipulating establishing operations (EO) as an independent variable is highly effective in language development in children with autism. (Sundberg, Loeb, Hale and Eigenher, 2002; Williams Donley & Keller, 2002). In the current study a 4 year old boy with autism with grabbing behavior was taught to mand using What is it ? followed by Where is it? when the establishing operation was contrived. Different coloured and sizes of boxes were used to teach. A within subject mutiple baseline across behaviors suggested the participant acquired manding skills for missing items within five teaching trials. The study was extended to novel materials like poleythene bags, plastic containers, wooden boxes across different people and generalisation of mand using What is it? and Where is it? was achieved within two trials. 100% IOA was observed in 50% of the sessions across both behaviors. The results suggest despite an existing establishing operation trainers of children with autism might need to contrive situations to teach language.
 
143. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities: Predicting Phonological Awareness Acquisition Among Learners With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
TERYN BRUNI (Central Michigan University), Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities-Revised (ABLA-R) measures the ease with which a learner acquires simple discrimination tasks in a limited number of learning trials. There has been limited research however on the relationship between discrimination ability and early reading skills, particularly the role of auditory discrimination in learning such skills. This study evaluated the ability of the ABLA-R and additional AAIM/AANM tasks to predict acquisition of phonological awareness skills among learners who demonstrated different levels of auditory discrimination learning ability as assessed by the ABLA-R. Participants included 34 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) sampled from four Early Intensive Intervention (EIBI) programs across Michigan. Using prediction accuracy statistics, it was found that ABLA-R Level 6 best predicted early phonological awareness tasks (i.e., compound word blending) and was a better predictor of learners who would easily acquire such tasks than those who would have difficulty. The more advanced auditory tasks better predicted the more advanced phonological awareness skills (i.e., sound blending and compound word and sound segmenting) and similarly predicted positive performance better than negative performance on these tasks. Results suggest that auditory discrimination may be an important component skill to consider when teaching early reading skills to children with ASD.
 
144. The Role of a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NADIA ABOUZEID (UQAM), Natalie Mongeau (UQAM), Malena Argumedes (UQAM)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: Introduction. According to best practices, interdisciplinary teams are favoured when diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The See Things my Way Assessment Center has chosen to include a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst (BCBA) on its team. Considering BCBAs training in Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA), we would argue that their involvement in the evaluation process of ASD is beneficial. Objective: This exploratory study aims to describe the BCBAs role and impact in the context of an ASD evaluation. Method. 42 children's charts and families' reports were collected and submitted to qualitative and quantitative analyses (ongoing data collection). Results. Results reveal that the BCBAs expertise and knowledge in specific intervention strategies facilitated the administration of assessments. Also, behavioural observations by the BCBA contributed to greater understanding and helped inform practitioners clinical judgement and decision-making. All families (n=42) appreciated the BCBAs suggestions, modeling and written recommendations throughout and after the evaluation. Some parents (n=10) followed-up with the assessment team, seeking additional recommendations to target areas not previously addressed, or for modifications to a previously suggested approach. One family inquired about the availability of other strategies, such as training, that would assist parents in optimally interacting with their child. Conclusion. Including a BCBA on an interdisciplinary evaluation team for ASD is beneficial as her behavioural analysis enhances clinicians comprehension, facilitates the management of behaviours during the evaluation process and helps families implement intervention strategies while waiting for much needed ABA services. Further research should assess the impact of ABA-based recommendations to parents post-evaluation on their child's behaviours as well as on the family's stress, quality of life and coping strategies. Further studies could measure the specific impact of BCBAs involvement on the process and outcomes of ASD assessment.
 
145. A Comparison of Parent Training Intervention Outcomes for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in English-Fluent and Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Families
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE MARTINEZ (Vanderbilt University Medical Center/ Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt University Medical Center/ Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt University Medical Center/ Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Kathleen Simcoe (Vanderbilt University Medical Center/ Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Discussant: Kimberly Berens (Fit Learning: New York)
Abstract: Quality early intervention programs highlight the caregivers role in skill acquisition required for child development of communication, play, and daily routines. These programs can often be difficult to access, particularly for non-English-fluent families. Research, primarily focused on English-fluent families, suggests caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder have the ability to learn and implement evidence-based intervention strategies. In order to provide equal-quality services to monolingual Spanish-speaking families, language interpreters may be required. In this pilot study, we compare the impact of caregiver training services delivered across five to ten English-fluent families and an equal number of monolingual Spanish-speaking families, requiring interpreter services. Preliminary data on service delivery to English-fluent families suggest caregivers are confident implementing strategies taught within training services, and report generalizability of their skills across needs and routines. Importantly, child outcome improvements across service delivery are also reported. Preliminary data collection will continue through April, 2016 for service delivery to monolingual Spanish-speaking families. We predict monolingual Spanish-speaking families will report similar outcomes as English-fluent families, including improved child outcomes. We will also report a cost analysis of services delivered across both groups, as well as challenges and limitations to implementation of services to monolingual Spanish-speaking families.
 
145a. Assessment and Treatment of Mand Compliance: A Replication
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MAYRA PEREZ (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Ana Ramirez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Kattie Guerrero (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to replicate assessment and treatment procedures for problem behaviors maintained by mand compliance. The researchers attempted to identify a strategy for determining function of problem behavior (aggression, disruption, and elopement) when a standard functional analysis proved to be inconclusive. When the standard FA produced inconclusive results, the researchers used procedures first conducted by Bowman and colleagues (1997) to identify the function as mand compliance. A token system was then used to treat problem behaviors using a multiple baseline design across behaviors, following procedures similar to Eluri, Andrade, Trevino, & Mahmoud (in press). This poster will describe the study in detail and discuss the need to broaden our assessment procedures to help better identify alternative functions of problem behavior and to assist in the development of more effective treatments.
 

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