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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #357
Monday, May 30, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
79. A Component Analysis and Generalization Assessment of Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Parents to Implement Escape Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Compliance
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA KRABBE (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Noncompliance is a common childhood behavior problem leading to referral to behavior analysts and pediatric psychologists that has been effectively treated using three-step prompting and differential reinforcement of compliance. Researchers have successfully taught parents to implement this intervention package using behavioral skills training (BST). Although effective, BST is an intensive teaching strategy and the generality of the effects of training on parent and child behavior have not been assessed. The current study conducted a component analysis of the elements of BST (written instructions, modeling, and rehearsal with performance feedback) to determine the sufficient and necessary elements of training needed to teach parents to implement three-step prompting and DRA. Further, we assessed generalization of these skills across multiple instructional contexts with their children. The results indicated that the full BST package was necessary for all parents to reach mastery levels of correct implementation, but generalization was seen across untargeted tasks.
80. Preferences for Distributed and Accumulated Reinforcer Delivery: Effects of Task Difficulty and Schedule Arrangements
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN FALLIGANT (Auburn University), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often allocate behavior to simultaneously available schedules of reinforcement as a function of the magnitude, frequency, and quality of reinforcement associated with each schedule (DeLeon et al., 2014). Delays (or lack of delays) to reinforcement are also important schedule features, as individuals with IDD are more likely to show preferences for smaller, sooner reinforcers than for larger, delayed reinforcers (e.g., Dixon et al., 1998). Interestingly though, individuals with IDD demonstrate preferences for delayed reinforcement--relative to immediate reinforcement--when the reinforcer is enhanced by continuity of access (DeLeon et al., 2014), such as television time. The purpose of the present study is to assess preferences for delayed and immediate reinforcer delivery as a function of task difficulty and schedule arrangements in children with IDD using an ABAB withdrawal, multielement design and concurrent-chains preference assessment. Preliminary results replicate findings from DeLeon et al. (2014), suggesting that accumulated schedules promote a greater rate of work completion than distributed schedules, and are preferred when completing easy tasks.
81. Using Self-Directed Video Prompting to Teach Vocational Skills to Students With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
IRENE JONES (University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Deanna Longino (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Employment is an influential factor in the quality of life for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (Lewis, 2011), but securing and maintaining gainful employment is difficult. Kaye and colleagues (2011) found that employers are reluctant to hire and retain workers with disabilities due in part to the cost of accommodations, need for supervision, the lack of skills, and the ability to perform a quality job. The importance of improving the vocational skills of students with disabilities has been highlighted in the provision of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) which stipulates the use of scientifically-based practices to address skill deficits during transition planning. This research examined the use of self-directed video prompting (SDVP) strategies to increase the acquisition of vocational skills for transition-age individuals with autism and mild intellectual disabilities through the use of a multiple probe across tasks design replicated across four participants. The results indicate all four participants acquired and maintained novel vocational skills, independently operated a handheld device from beginning-to-end, and transferred prompt dependence from the trainer to a handheld device. Results further showed that all participants assessed 10-weeks after intervention termination, successfully generalize newly acquired skills to untrained settings and materials at 100% accuracy.
82. Parents' Perception on Use and Effectiveness of Naturalistic Behavioral Communication Teaching Strategies
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
YUSUF AKAMOGLU (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Children with developmental disabilities may experience delays and impairments in their ability to speak and communicate with their parents, peers, and others. These children often benefit from evidence-based naturalistic behavioral communication strategies (NBC) aimed at alleviating the impact of their delay or disability on their communicative interactions with others and at to leading a more socially interactive life. Fortunately, many NBC strategies with strong empirical evidence of effectiveness exist (e.g., Kaiser, Hancock, & Trent, 2007; Meadan, Angell, Stoner, & Daczewitz, 2014). Some of these NBC strategies include, environmental arrangement, modeling, mand-modeling, and time-delay. These strategies all share the following basic components. First, teaching occurs in the natural environment during ongoing interactions between the child and the adult, typically during play or daily routines. Second, the child initiates the teaching episode by indicating interest in an item or activity, at which point teaching occurs around the childs expressed interest (e.g., snack). Third, the adult explicitly prompts the child to produce the target behavior (e.g., saying "more"). Fourth, the childs production of the target behavior is reinforced with the item or activity of interest (e.g., giving snack) (Delprato, 2001; Kaiser, Yoder, & Keetz, 1992). In our study, we sent parents of young children with communication delays or disabilities (e.g., Autism, Down syndrome) a survey to answer three research questions: (1) parents reported use of specific NBC strategies such as environmental arrangement, modeling, mand-modeling, and time delay, (2) parents perceptions about the effectiveness of their own NBC strategies, and (3) the influences on parent practice such as where and how they learned using NBC strategies. We will report on parental use of different NBC strategies, their perceptions on the effectiveness of these strategies, and their reports on where and how they learned to use NBC strategies. In this poster, we will further elucidate the NBC strategies that parents report using and contribute to extant literature by expanding our understanding of what parents of children with disabilities and language delays do to support the communication skills of their young children.
83. The Effects of Train-the-Train (TTT) Model to Disseminate ABA-Based Early Intervention Strategies
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ATSUKO MATSUZAKI (Keio University/CREST, JST), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University/CREST, JST)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that effective training programs can be successfully inherited with a train-the-trainer (TTT) model. The TTT model is a system in which trainers who have completed a training program educate new trainees. The authors examined the effects of the TTT model for three cycles to disseminate ABA-based early intervention strategies. The training program consisted of a didactic lecture, role-playing, performance feedback, and video feedback. In the first cycle, the authors served as the trainers, and six practitioners participated as trainees. In the second cycle, four practitioners who had participated as trainees in the first cycle served as trainers, and seven practitioners participated as trainees. In the third cycle, four practitioners who had participated as trainees in the second cycle served as trainers, and four practitioners participated as trainees. Trainees intervention skills were assessed with a 50-item fidelity list, and trainees knowledge level were also examined. The results showed that (a) all participants improved their fidelity and knowledge scores after the training, and (b) there was no significant differences on the scores among the cycles. The study showed that the TTT model was effective to train practitioners effectively and efficiently in the community settings.
84. The Use of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in an Early Childhood Setting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE BARTELMAY (Vanderbilt University), Monica Rigor (Vanderbilt University), Erin E. Barton (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University), Kate Tygielski Chazin (Vanderbilt University), Kristen Stankiewicz (Vanderbilt University), Erin Sweeney (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Trial-based functional analyses were developed as a modification of traditional functional analysis procedures that can be conducted in applied settings by teachers and caregivers. Trial-based functional analyses might be as useful as traditional functional analyses for identifying maintaining consequences of problem behaviors and informing behavioral interventions. Trial-based functional analyses have been effectively conducted with young children in early childhood settings; however, this line of research is burgeoning and a limited number of published studies exist with young children with disabilities. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of trial-based functional analyses conducted in early childhood settings with two young children who engaged in severe, persistent problem behaviors in collaboration with their teachers. One participant was a 34 month old boy with multiple disabilities who engaged in self-injurious behavior; the other was a 41 month old boy with autism who engaged in frequent tantrumming and object throwing. A trial-based functional analysis and a variation of the control-test ordered trial-based functional analysis were used to determine the functions of their problem behaviors. Results indicated maintaining functions of the problem behaviors for both children, which were used to develop and conduct interventions to reduce problem behaviors.
85. Assessing the Correlation Between Sensory Impairment and Repetitive Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA FISHER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: A number of research studies have indicated that repetitive behaviors (RRB) may create barriers to social and communicative opportunities by limiting access to educational and social opportunities (e.g., Boyd, Conroy, Mancil, Nakao, & Alter, 2007). Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are likely to engage in RRBs; however, individuals with sensory impairments (e.g., blindness) may be more likely to engage in RRBs due to reduced stimulation from the external environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the occurrence of RRBs among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities who did and did not have sensory impairment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale (RBS-R) was used to assess the RRBs of 52 individuals (10 with impairment and 42 without impairment) admitted to a hospital in patient unit for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Results indicate that children with sensory impairment had significantly higher scores on the RBS. These results suggest that individuals with sensory impairment may be more likely to engage in more severe RRBs due to the lack external stimulation, and that sensory impairment may be a risk factor for the development of RRBs.
86. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Brief Mindfulness Exposure to Increase Work Productivity in Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN FULTS (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), William Root (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mariela Castro (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Ruth Anne Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The current study serves an importance as it may provide individuals with disabilities a portable method for contacting the present moment during their work routines. To add, this method may allow individuals to therefore increase their work productivity and as a result, increase their pay. The present study aims to identify the role brief mindfulness, a component of Acceptance and Commitment Theory, plays on work productivity using a reversal design. The number of permanent products created by three participants diagnosed with intellectual disabilities and who held jobs at a rehabilitation site, were recorded. These data were recorded by counting the number of products created for a duration of one hour. During the intervention, a researcher will provide a mindfulness session that is specific to the type of job each participant engages in for 15 minutes, immediately before the participant reengages in their job task. The mindfulness package will include the participant being asked to notice five things in their work environment and then participate in a guided mindfulness session of completing one of their work products. Preliminary baseline data are included. Intervention will first begin with participant number two and data collection is expected to be completed within 3 months
87. Teaching a Mother to Train Her Autistic Child to Use an Alternative and Augmentative Communication Device
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
PEI-FANG WU (National Kaohsiung Normal University)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The current study examined whether a mother of a 7 year-old autistic girl could be taught to train her daughter to use an alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) device to communicate. In Study 1, a multiple treatment design (A-B1-B2-B3 design) was used to increase the child's communication spontaneity using pictures. The mother provided verbal prompts and extinction with different amount of communication opportunities across the intervention phases. In Study 2, a multiple treatment design (A-B-BC-D1-D2-A') was used to teach the child to use a communication app on an iPad to communicate. Verbal prompts, response blocking and least-to-most prompting were applied in different phases. Results showed the child succesfully taught by her mother to use an AAC device to communicate basic needs. The child's communication behaviors were also generalized to a different communication partner, and maintained for a month.
88. Evaluation of a Variable-Momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior in the Treatment of Attention-Maintained Aggression: A Replication
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MADELYNN LILLIE (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Variable Momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (VMDRO) schedules involve delivering reinforcement for the non-occurrence of problem behavior at variable "check-in" intervals (i.e., if problem behavior is absent at the moment of check-in). The current data set describes a replication of this procedure with a single participant receiving treatment for high-rate attention-maintained aggressive behavior. The VMDRO procedure began with an initially dense schedule of reinforcement delivery and was gradually leaned up to 10-min intervals while maintaining nearly zero levels of aggression. These data add to the limited literature supporting the efficacy of these procedures.
89. Analysis of Home and Work-Based Behavioral Interventions to Support an Adult With Mental Illness
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BETHANY DEITZ (Shenandoah University), Brandon Greene (Shenandoah University)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Two analyses were conducted with a 34-year-old male who presented multiple mental health diagnoses and a history of repeated psychiatric hospitalizations following disruptions in his vocational placements and capacity for independent living. The first analysis was conducted in his home and focused on garbage disposal associated with the accumulation of food and food products. A system to measure the accumulation of such material was adapted from studies of homes involving child neglect. A token-based reward system was used in a changing criterion design to encourage his disposal of such material. Tokens were exchangeable for items the participant requested. The results indicated a change in this aspect of household management and these results were maintained in a follow-up phase. The second analysis was conducted at the participant’s workplace and involved his interactions with co-workers whom he had alienated by making threatening and rude comments. This analysis employed a multiple baseline across behaviors(greetings, smiles, waving) and included a limited component analysis of the effects of in-situ coaching, social praise for socially appropriate greetings, and physical prompts (a wristband) to "remind" him to greet peers in a friendly manner. Coaching and prompts were gradually faded and normative data on his peers' engagement in these "friendly behaviors" were gathered. The results indicated significant levels of improvement in his social behavior which, according to his employer, enabled the participant to retain his job.
90. Using Differential Reinforcement and Prompting to Increase Showering Skills of a Girl With Multiple Diagnoses
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
HAYLEY SEDGWICK (St. Lawrence College), Gary A. Bernfeld (St. Lawrence College, Behavioral Psychology)
Discussant: Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Deficits in adaptive behaviour are commonly shown by children with developmental disabilities (Ase et al. 2012). Stokes et al. (2004) stated that hygiene skills affect ones quality of life and social relationships. Differential reinforcement is an effective method of promoting appropriate behavior (Petscher & Bailey, 2008). In addition, prompting is a commonly used and effective in teaching new skills to children with developmental disabilities (Grow et al., 2009). Using indirect assessment and direct observation the factors relevant to the accelerate target behaviour of shower hygiene routine were identified, for a 14-year-old girl in a residential treatment program, diagnosed with a developmental disability and ADHD. A changing-criterion design was used, and a task analysis of the target identified its key components DRA and prompting was implemented to increase the showering target behaviour. The participant gained immediate points in the residential programs existing token economy and received backup social reinforcement. The data showed that the target behaviour increased 170.60% from baseline. A visual analysis, using PND, of the intervention designed to increase all components of the shower hygiene routine, showed that it was effective. The data showed an increasing trend, as the behaviour improved throughout the intervention, and it demonstrated social validity.



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