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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #65
Sunday, May 29, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
AUT
Chair: Nicole Heal (Biddeford School District)
97. Hear It From the Experts: Western Michigan University's Practitioner Resources for Behavior Analysts
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ALISSA ANNE CONWAY (Western Michigan University), Lilith Reuter Yuill (Western Michigan University), Richard Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: Dr. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D., BCBA-D and Dr. Stephanie Peterson, Ph.D., BCBA-D are co- investigators of the Autism Center of Excellence (ACE) grant funded by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services to enhance services for children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder. The field of applied behavior analysis continues to emphasize the need for finding effective training methods for behavior analytic practitioners (e.g. RBT, BCaBA, BCBA) in evidence-based practices. As part of the grant initiative, Western Michigan University has developed a series of video interviews with supplemental materials from national experts in applied behavior analysis (ABA), autism, and behavioral pediatrics. These practitioner resources are designed to enhance the ability of practitioners and students in training them to better understand and implement behavior analytic assessments and evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBBIs). Viewing data from the practitioner resource video interviews will be reported.
 
98. A Partnership Between School-Based and Clinic-Based Behavior Analysts: An in Depth Analysis Following Undifferentiated Results
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DEVA CARRION (University of Iowa), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Sean D. Casey (The Iowa Department of Education)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: The Challenging Behavior Service (CBS) is a 6-year project in which the Iowa Department of Education contracted with experienced behavior analysts at the Center for Disabilities and Development (CDD) at the University of Iowa Childrens Hospital to consult with and train school-based challenging behavior specialists to independently conduct experimental analyses and preference assessments. Across the years of the project, trainees have increased their use of these assessments. Given the increase in valid behavioral assessments in the schools, school referrals to CDD behavior clinics often involve more complex analyses of problem behavior that go beyond standard functional analyses. We present a case example to illustrate. Lucy, an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with autism and intellectual disability, exhibited self-injurious behavior (SIB). A structural analysis and a functional analysis conducted by the CBS Team yielded undifferentiated results. She was then seen at the CDD BioBehavioral Day Treatment clinic for an extended analysis. A four phase functional analysis was conducted to determine the specific environmental variables mediating Lucys SIB. Results indicated that Lucys SIB was automatically maintained, however, physical attention modulated the rate of SIB. This case provides an example of the partnership occurring between school-based consultants and clinicians following an extensive state training initiative.
 
99. Systematic Fading of a Long-Term Behavior Reduction Procedure in an Adolescent With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LEIGH COOPER (NYC Autism Charter School), Nicole Pearson (NYC Autism Charter School), Mel Romualdez (NYC Autism Charter School), Nathara Bailey (NYC Autism Charter School), Emily Borden (NYC Autism Charter School)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: While there is substantial research on various interventions to reduce maladaptive behavior in individuals with autism, fewer studies focus on how to successfully fade such interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systematically fading the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL) component of a multi-component behavior reduction procedure on the rates of noncompliance in an adolescent with autism across his school day. This procedure was initially teacher-monitored and required the use of a rule board containing three stickers and a timer which were visible to the student at all times. Low rates of the target behavior were reinforced with access to a highly preferred activity at the end of each time interval. Data were collected in three-minute partial intervals across the school day. Over the course of more than 24 months, the DRL procedure was successfully faded to a student-monitored system in which the student wears a watch containing a single sticker and the time interval has been incrementally increased while target behavior has maintained at near zero rates. Data suggest that systematic strategies can be used to successfully fade a restrictive behavioral intervention in a school setting.
 
100. The Use of PECS in Classrooms: Review of the Literature and List of Essential Competences for Special Education Teacher Preparation
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
RASHED ALDABAS (University of Northern Iowa)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AACs) have been used to support communication abilities of children with severe communication impairments. The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) as an element of AAC. Discussion indicates that PECS is a supportive and meaningful technique for increasing communication skills for children with limited functional communication skills. Finally, this paper discusses how educators can support the use of PECS and other AACs.
 
101. Investigating the Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress in Fathers of Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
CLINTON SMITH (University of Tennessee at Martin), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis), Robert Williamson (Simon Fraser University), Susan Elswick (University of Memphis)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: The prevalence of autism has risen significantly with as many as 1 out of 68 children are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The underlying cause of stress or post-traumatic stress symptoms experienced by parents is not clear but some evidence of these symptoms can be found in reports of strain, pressure, and tension revolving around the task of day to day parenting a child with autism, a lack of support by professionals, receiving a diagnosis, communication difficulties with the child, inappropriate behaviors exhibited by the child, and an over reliance on maladaptive coping strategies incorporated by parents can also impact the amount of stress. The participants in this study consisted of 83 fathers of children diagnosed with autism from across the United States. The current study isolated respondents to only fathers in an effort to determine if the results of the 2012 Casey et al study (1 in 5) would hold true with a larger N consisting of only fathers. Such clarification may help to potentially differentiate therapies for such fathers and to examine the methods used to provide services, education, and therapies to them. To ensure replication, the LASC was the selected instrument, recruiting efforts, and on-line format was utilized so that comparisons could logically be made from this study to the 2012 study. Data specifically on how the diagnosis impacts fathers may help to potentially differentiate therapies and increase the quality and/or scope of the treatment methods used to provide services, education, and therapies to the dads in the childs life. Results from the LASC show that seventeen (21%) of the fathers scored moderate to extreme in all three subscales: re-experiencing trauma (Category B), avoidance and numbing (Category C), and increased arousal (Category D). Results also show that twenty-two additional fathers (27%) experienced moderate to extreme stress in at least two of the categories mentioned above. The findings from the study noted that fathers in the non-stress group have difficulties keeping a job, exhibit pervasive disgust, are easily fatigued, show marked self-consciousness, have difficulty with keeping friends of the same sex, and show signs of depression. Implications for practice for caregivers, therapists, and medical personnel are discussed to further help fathers of children diagnosed with autism who maybe experiencing stress or post-traumatic stress symptoms.
 
102. Comparative Investigation of Differences Between Special and General Education Teachers' Perceptions About Students With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MUHAMMED KARAL (The Pennsylvania State University), Paul Riccomini (The Pennsylvania State University)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: Increased rates of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are documented throughout the world. In Turkey, there are currently 100,000 students under the age of 14 with ASD and increasing each year by approximately 5,000 students. As a result of the current population and increased prevalence, special education and general education teachers are providing educational services and supports to increasing numbers of students with ASD. The purpose of this study is to examine teachers perceptions of students with ASD. The Autism Attitude Scale for Teachers (AAST) was administered to 117 general education (n= 53) and special education (n= 63) teachers in 19 Education Centers for Children with Autism in Turkey. Results indicate that both groups are receptive to students with ASD, but special education teachers have more positive perceptions of students with ASD. Implications for teacher certification programs and continued professional development initiatives are presented.
 
103. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Restaurant Skills to Young Adults With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CHRISTOPHER MORGAN (Florida Institute of Technology; Faison School for Autism), Byron J. Wine (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: It is apparent that society views employment as a highly valued outcome. Being able to provide for your self and add meaningful work to a community is viewed as a key component to being an independent individual. Despite the apparent need for tactics and procedures to teach quality job skills to individuals with autism there is a paucity of empirical data. This study evaluated behavioral skills training, in a multiple baseline across behaviors design, for teaching four employable restaurant skills to an 18 year old individual diagnosed with autism. The restaurant skills were taught in the natural environment of a fully functioning and open restaurant. The four skills including setting up and running a commercial dishwasher, polishing and rolling silverware, cleaning a bathroom, and bussing a table were selected based on feedback provided from the restaurant as being the most difficult skills to teach. The present study demonstrated that behavioral skills training was immediately effective in teaching the participant all four restaurant skills.
 
104. Statewide Assessment of Teachers' Perceptions Related to Educating Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SARAH BLUMBERG (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Lauren A. Weaver (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Whitney Loring (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Heartley B. Huber (Vanderbilt University), Emily Kuntz (Vanderbilt University), Victoria Knight (Vanderbilt University), LaTamara Garrett (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: Federal legislation calls for educators serving students with autism spectrum disorder to use evidence-based practices, however it is increasingly demanding for educators to access capacity-building professional development required to implement such strategies with high fidelity. The assessment in the current study evaluated the perception of 535 special educators in preschool through high school settings on the importance and level of preparedness across instructional areas, use of instructional practices, access to training or resources on evidence-based practices, and perceived comfort implementing these practices before and after professional development. A survey was emailed on the frequency of usage of evidence-based practices as defined by the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder, sources of training on these practices, factors influencing the selection of practices, and instructional skills. The preliminary results indicate educators recognize the importance of instruction in core content and non-academic areas for students with autism spectrum disorder, but indicate inadequacy in preparation and access to training and resources. Reported levels of confidence decreased immediately after receiving training indicating educators may not be implementing with fidelity or accurately understand implementation of strategies. Results strongly indicate the need to provide ongoing training and support is crucial.
 
105. Teaching Foundational Skills to Students With Autism: Evaluation of a Targeted Curriculum
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
TIFFANY NEGUS (New England Center for Children), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: A within-subject multiple baseline probe design across skills was used to evaluate the efficacy of lesson plans designed for teaching foundational skills. Nineteen students at a behavior-analytic school for children with autism served as participants. Three skills were selected for each participant from the New England Center for Children-Core Skills Assessment (NECC-CSA), and corresponding lesson plans were sourced from the Autism Curriculum Encyclopedia (ACE). Lesson plans specified teaching formats (e.g., discrete trials, task analysis), contexts (location and stimuli), and steps for implementing and fading prompts. Weekly probe sessions were conducted over approximately 15 weeks. Daily teaching sessions for the 3 skills began in weeks 2, 6, and 10. Performance improved in 2 or 3 skills for 16 participants. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the teaching strategies employed and the study serves as a potential model for experimental evaluation of curricula. Approaches for troubleshooting areas of slow progress are discussed.
 
106. Early Learning Support for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders (ELSA): Bridging Clinical and Educational Models
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LERA JOYCE JOHNSON (Easter Seals DC|MD|VA)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: This report chronicles lessons learned in the integration of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), early childhood education, special education, and early intervention paradigms for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Social Communication Disorder (SCD). Early Learning Support for Children with Autism (ELSA) emerged as Easter Seals Childcare Development Center in the District of Columbia harmonized their ongoing inclusive program with early intervention services (under IDEA Part C) for their children with autism. Easter Seals added ABA to their in-house therapeutic services to provide 2:1 ABA support for children with autism 6 hours per weekday to reap the benefits of inclusion. ELSA children access the general curriculum rather than have 1-on-1 pull-out sessions to address skill deficits or be placed in special segregated classrooms. ELSA combines evidence-based therapies for Naturalistic Teaching Strategies, Pivotal Response Training, transdisciplinary delivery, multidisciplinary collaboration, and parent coaching under the early intervention paradigm that emphasizes routine-based intervention and capacity building among caregivers. This hybrid approach uses push-in strategies to encourage functional communication, engagement with activities, social interaction with others, and achievement of smooth transitions. Intervention program outcomes are measured through aggregate and individual success, anecdotal comments indicating generalization of skills, and improvements across therapies and domains.
 
107. An Evaluation of the Model Me Kids' Curriculum for Teaching Social Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA MCCOY (National University of Ireland, Galway), Jennifer Holloway (National University of Ireland, Galway), Olive Healy (Trinity College Dublin)
Discussant: Catia Cividini-Motta (The New England Center for Children/Western New En)
Abstract: An impaired development in social skills is one of the core-defining characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In clinical practice, behavioral interventions are widely used as a treatment for increasing social skills for successful everyday interactions and the development of meaningful friendships. The current study employed a multiple-baseline design across behaviors to evaluate the use of Model Me Kids' to teach social skills to five children with a diagnosis of ASD. Model Me Kids' is a social skills curriculum that employs video modeling and role-play to teach behaviors imperative to a child's social development. Results of the current study show increases in knowledge and demonstration of targeted social skills across all five participants, with some evidence of generalization to natural contexts. The findings of the current study indicate that, in clinical practice, supplemental procedures that program specifically for generalization may be necessary to enhance the practice of acquired skills in the natural environment. Such procedures could increase the attainment of individuals who avail of the curriculum.
 
108. Comparison of Peer Communication of Children With Autism During iPad, Shared Active Surface, and Analog Art Activites
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JASON TRAVERS (University of Kansas), Molly Pomeroy (KidsTLC), Molly Pomeroy (KidsTLC), Zhe An (University of Kansas), Margaret Williamson (University of Kansas)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Two Dyads comprised of one child with autism and one typically developing peer were exposed to three conditions in order to observe effects on communication and engagement. Preschool age peers were trained using a peer mediated intervention protocol and paired with a child who had autism. Three conditions were employed to observe the relationship between the materials and communication of the dyads. The first condition involved a shared active surface, which functions like a large tablet for multiple and simultaneous users. The device uses touch point user interface and can accommodate 40 simultaneous touches (i.e., 4+ users). The shared active surface device allows for multiple children to simultaneously interact with digital content in ways that traditional tablets and mobile devices do not. The device was set to run an art application that allowed for free/non-directive exploration and expression by the users. The second condition involved giving each participant in the dyad a tablet computer and seating both children immediately next to each other. Both apps were set to run an art application similar to the app used in the shared active surface condition. Controls were customized to prevent users from leaving the app during the session. The third condition involved peers standing at a kidney table with art materials (paint, oversized paper, brushes, water) that allowed for free painting. Dependent variables were operationalized and sessions were video recorded for 10s partial interval data collection. Results indicated participant 1 had higher rates of communication during the shared active surface condition, but engagement during shared active surface and tablet conditions were similarly higher than during traditional paint. Participant two showed no differences in engagement across the three conditions, but the tablet condition yielded lower communication when compared to the remaining two conditions. The main finding is that a self-directed art activity on a tablet correlated with lower peer communication. One implication is that tablet computers may interfere with social communication of children with autism, even when peer-mediated intervention is activated.
 
109. Parent-Implemented Self-Management Intervention to Increase On-Task Time for Students With ASD During Independent Home Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (University of Georgia; Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Scott P. Ardoin (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Parents homeschooling children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) largely do not implement evidence-based practices and reported concern with increasing their childs on-task time and independent work completion (Simmons & Campbell, 2014). No published study has applied self-management for on-task behavior with individuals with ASD in the home or included parents as interventionists. This study employs a single-case A-B-A-B withdrawal design across three participants to evaluate the effect of a self-management intervention implemented by homeschool-parents, including participant self-monitoring and self-evaluation, on on-task time during independent work. The intervention addresses an established difficulty for individuals with ASD and an identified challenge to homeschooling this population. Furthermore, this study extends the use of live video technology for parents to collect data during intervention. Correspondence between caregiver and participant ratings is assessed. Results indicate that parents implemented intervention procedures with high fidelity, intervention led to increased on-task time across participants, parents and children rated procedures as high in social validity, and video technology resulted in high correspondence between parent and child ratings. Visual analysis methods were modified to incorporate a mechanism to control for Type I error (i.e., masked visual analysis) to increase the internal validity and scientific credibility of this single-case design study.
 
110. Alternative Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evidence-Based Practice Review
Domain: Basic Research
KRISTINA BROOKSHIRE (Northern Arizona University), Monica Beals (Northern Arizona University), Amanda Bermudez (Northern Arizona University), Sarah Guinea (Northern Arizona University), Christen Maher (Northern Arizona University), Felisha Stead (Northern Arizona University), Matthew Valente (Northern Arizona University), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: A literature review of studies targeting the effects of diverse alternative therapies, including animal-assisted, music, sensory integration and art therapy, on the behavior of children with ASD was conducted. Accessible databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles using specific key terms. Only data-based articles identified were scored according to the 21 quality indicators outlined by Horner, et al (2005) for single-subject design studies. The search resulted in over 120 articles identified as data-based and specifically related to animal assisted therapy, music, sensory integration, art and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Only 85 of these articles could be scored for quality indicators with 100% agreement by two independent reviewers. Reviewers scored and compiled the articles into a database with reliability and were deemed acceptable if the article included between 18 - 21 quality indicators (including all internal validity criteria). Articles that did not meet these criteria were deemed not acceptable (i.e. 17 or fewer quality indicators). The results varied for each therapy; only three empirical articles investigating animal assisted therapy, 12 articles investigating music therapy, 24 articles investigating sensory integration, and two articles investigating art therapy with individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder were found to be acceptable, according to the Horner, et al. guidelines for evidence-based practices. These results suggest that there is some emerging empirical support for some of these therapies with individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, there are many issues that need to be addressed in future research including; issues in diverse methodologies, what constitutes therapy versus an activity, and similar dependent variables.
 
112. Preference Assessment of Teacher Behaviors for Students With Autism and Resulting Student Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
DIANE GRZEBYK (Long Island University), John C. Neill (Long Island University)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Preference assessments have been extensively researched for children with autism. Less research has been conducted regarding childrens preferences for staff. Since children with autism spend a large part of their day with teachers in school or therapeutic environments, it seems fitting that they would develop a preference for teachers. If this occurs, it would also make sense that these preferences may have an effect on the students behavior. Two students with autism and their everyday teachers participated in this study. A multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment using pictorial presentation established a hierarchy for the students preference for particular teachers. Teachers were ranked as either high or low preference for each student. The effect of each student's preference for a particular staff member on the students behavior was compared in an alternating treatment design. Participants worked in a 1:1 instructional setting for 5 minute intervals. A 10-second partial-interval recording method was used to document the occurrence of problem behavior. As hypothesized, both students engaged in lower rates of problem behavior while working with their highest preferred teacher. Further research is necessary to elucidate the cause of this relationship.
 
113. The Effects of Functional Analysis Session Length on the Determination of Function Utilizing Within-Sessions Data
Domain: Applied Research
REBEKAH HINCHCLIFFE (Melmark), Timothy Nipe (Melmark), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to extend the research investigating the impact of session length on the outcome of functional analyses. Hanley, Iwata and McCord (2003) indicated conducting brief functional analysis with10 minute sessions, is considered best practice within the field of applied behavior analysis. Wallace and Iwata (1999) showed that the efficiency of functional analyses could be increased with little loss of clarity when conducting sessions as brief as 5 minutes in length. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the within session data from functional analyses conducted using 10 minute sessions. The within session data was analyzed to determine whether conducting 1 minute, 2 minute or 5 minute sessions could establish the function of the target behavior more efficiently than 10 minute sessions. The data from the tangible and escape conditions that had previously been determined to serve as the function for the target behaviors were utilized for the purpose of this study. This study extends previous research by utilizing reversal and pairwise designs, in addition to data from standard functional analysis. The results of this study indicate functions of the target behavior could be determined using session of lengths of less than 10 minutes.
 
114. Discrete Trial Teaching: A Comparison of Acquisition Rates and Response Maintenance in Young Children With Autism Under Three Different Instructional Arrangements
Domain: Service Delivery
TEAL MCALLISTER (University of Nevada, Reno), Ainsley B. Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno), Kimberly Henkle (University of Nevada, Reno), Kristen Green (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Discrete trials teaching (DTT) is one of the most commonly used teaching technologies in early intensive behavior intervention (EIBI) programs. Despite the clinical utility of DTT and their use in the research literature, surprisingly little is known about the relative efficacy of different DTT teaching methods (e.g. massed-trial and task interspersal). The present study adds to the literature by conducting an analysis of the archival data for two young children with autism enrolled in an EIBI program. Specifically, trials to acquisition and performance in maintenance and generalization programming will be evaluated for responses taught using three different DTT methods: 1) Progressive, in which a single target response passes through three phases of instruction that gradually introduce increasing amounts of mastered responses, 2) Modified, in which multiple target responses are taught simultaneously to accuracy before adding mastered responses, and 3) Distributed, in which single target response is taught in isolation and then presented randomly and unpredictably throughout the treatment session. The terminal mastery criterion was the same across methods. Preliminary results suggest that the Progressive method consistently required the most trials to mastery while Distributed required the least. Additional analysis on archival maintenance and generalization data will be conducted.
 
115. Teaching Deictic Verbs in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Domain: Applied Research
HIROSHI ASAOKA (University of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) find it difficult to acquire deictic verbs. Recent research in Relational Frame Theory has developed an analysis of deictic relations in regards to I-You, Here-There, and Now-Then. The purpose of this study was to examine whether training based on complexity of deictic relations promotes acquisition of deictic verbs. The participant was Kena 5- years- and 10- months- old boydiagnosed with ASDs. He was required to walk to a teacher, and give or receive the object in response a certain type of sentence; the sentences were classified by three levels of relational complexity. For example, Ken gives/receives an apple to the teacher. was presented as simple relations. The teacher gives/receives an apple to Ken. was presented as reversed relations. Reversed relations reverse the relations between verbs and Kens behavior. Moreover, sentences used in simple and reversed relations were randomly presented as multiple relations. ABCDA design was used, with A representing pretest/probes of multiple relations, B representing training of simple relations, C representing training of reversed relations, and D representing training of multiple relations. The results demonstrated that the participant learned all types of complexity of deictic relations.
 
116. Reduction of Rapid Eating in an Adolescent Female With Autism
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN GRIFFITH (California State University, Sacramento), Scott Page (California State University, Sacramento), Becky Penrod (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Rapid eating is exhibited by both typically developing persons as well as individuals with developmental disabilities and is considered to be a potentially dangerous and socially inappropriate behavior (Favell, McGimsey, & Jones, 1980). The rather limited behavior analytic research on rapid eating has demonstrated that the use of verbal prompts and vibrating pagers (MotivAider) may be an effective intervention package in the reduction of eating pace (Anglesea, Hoch, Taylor, 2008; Echeverria & Miltenberger, 2013). This study evaluated the effectiveness of a vibrating pager combined with a rule for reducing the pace of eating in one adolescent female diagnosed with autism in a multiple probe design across two different settings (clinic and home). The primary dependent variable was inter-response time between bites. Results indicated that inter-response time did not increase from baseline levels until after a verbal prompt was introduced. The participants pacing quickly came under control of the vibrating pager and prompts were naturally faded from the treatment package. Implications for promoting autonomy in individuals with developmental disabilities are discussed.
 
117. A Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention Improves Sleep in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Whitney Loring (Vanderbilt University Medical Center/Vanderbilt Kennedy Center), Rebecca Johnston (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center and the Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Laura Gray (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Suzanne Goldman (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Beth Malow (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), AISLYNN KISER (Vanderbilt University Medical Center - TRIAD  )
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Sleep problems affect many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little has been researched regarding its behavioral treatment in adolescents with ASD. In this study, 20 adolescents, ages 11-18 years with sleep onset delay and/or night wakings received intervention through 2 sessions and 2 follow-up phone calls. Sessions focused on antecedent strategies of researched components of successful sleep, relaxation, and distraction, and consequence-based strategies of extinction and differential reinforcement. Through actigraphy data, significant improvement was observed in sleep latency (p=0.007) and efficiency (p=0.030). In parent and adolescent reports of the Adolescent Sleep Wake Scale, significant improvement was seen in total score (p<0.001 and p=0.006) and all subscales. In parent and adolescent reports of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, significant improvement was seen in total score (p<0.001) and 4 of 5 subscales. Significant improvement in total score was seen in adolescent report of the Modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p=0.002). 50% of the sample was contacted 3 months later and gains were maintained for all based on verbal report. Parents reported high satisfaction, understanding, and comfort regarding the intervention. Findings offer promising results in improving sleep for adolescents with ASD through a brief intervention.
 
118. The Introduction of Applied Behavior Analysis and Picture Exchange Communication Systems to Mothers of Children With Autism in Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIN MORAN (University of Cincinnati), James Hawkins (University of Cincinnati), Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: April Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: With ABA services unavailable or misunderstood in many parts of the world, it is of great importance that accurate and updated information is disseminated to allow for effective interventions for all individuals with autism. To address the lack of services, specialists and information available in Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan, the primary researched completed a two month service project on site. The objectives of this trip included training the parents in the basics of ABA and providing a framework to addressing problematic behaviors. PECS was introduced and after a 4 hour group training session, nine mothers successfully taught their children to communicate with PECS. A nine question 5 point Likert Scale Social validity questionnaires demonstrate a high satisfaction rate with PECS and indicated that the mothers will continue to use and promote this intervention in the future. This project revealed that despite cultural and language differences, ABA was accepted by the parents and very successful in application.
 
119. Imitation Training Promoted Speech Intelligibility in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YUKA ISHIZUKA (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Previous studies have examined training effect for speech intelligibility in children with autism. Further studies, however need to evaluate the effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether nonvocal child with autism improved speech intelligibility through using imitation training. Participant was one boy who was 8 years 11months old (MA: 2years 4months old). We used multiple baseline design across behaviors to evaluate treatment effect for speech intelligibility. Target behaviors were (1) widely mouth open, (2) speech loudness, and (3) sustained sound. In baseline, experimenter modeled target behavior and provided verbal praise and some snacks after child all response, regardless of correct or incorrect. In training, experimenter conducted shaping and was taught to imitate target behaviors. When child response correctly, experimenter provided verbal praise and some snacks. Follow up was same procedure as baseline. Prior to training and post, experimenter showed picture cards to child and elicited to say the name of the card. The result showed that correct responses of training and follow up were increased compared to baseline phase. Child also improved speech intelligibility in post assessment. The result suggested that three of target behaviors were the necessary conditions for promoting speech intelligibility in child with autism.
 
120. The Effects of Differential Observing Responses on the Acquisition of Observational Learning
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Carolyn Page Willke (The Ohio State University), ZIWEI XU (The Ohio State University), Mary Sawyer (Aubrey Daniels Institute), Marnie Nicole Shapiro (The Ohio State University), Nancy A. Neef (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Observational learning occurs when one demonstrates noval operants by observing others engaging in a behavior and contacting the contingencies. Without attending to the critical aspects of the live model, observational learning cannot occur. Existing literature has suggested that teaching differential observing responses can prepare individuals with autism to acquire new skills via observational learning. In the current study, we compared the effects of two differential observing responses within an observational learning procedure on the state name identification skills of two children with autism. The differential observing responses being taught were a) vocal imitation of a peer with a matching to sample response, and b) vocal imitation of a peer with a pointing response. An alternating treatment with an embedded reversal design showed that for one participant, both observing responses resulted in the acquisition of states’ names. For the second participant, the vocal imitation plus pointing response resulted in faster acquisition of see-say state naming. Both participants acquired the skill of observational learning when the differential observing responses were removed. We also discussed the limitations, implications for practitioners, and directions for future research.
 
121. Comparing Behavioral Assessment Methods for Children With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA DETRICK (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Linda J. Cooper-Brown (The University of Iowa), Todd G. Kopelman (The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Scott D. Lindgren (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Functional analysis (FA) procedures have become the gold standard of behavioral assessment of severe and challenging behavior (Vollmer, Roane, and Rone, 2012). With an increasing demand to identify evidence-based practice through randomized clinical trials, a multi-site NIH-funded study is currently underway to determine the efficacy of FA procedures for reducing problem behavior in children with autism. The main objective of this study is to establish the most efficient way for families to reduce problem behavior in their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by establishing validity of FA procedures. Participants are children, 18-83 months of age, with a confirmed ASD diagnosis, and have severe and/or challenging behavior. Participants in this study are randomly assigned to receive an FA and functional communication training (FCT) tied to the FA results or a pragmatic assessment with corresponding FCT. This poster presents a preliminary comparison between the standard FA and the pragmatic FA results for one of the sites. Both packages were implemented by parents in their homes within multi-element designs. Coaching was provided via telehealth. IOA was collected on 30% of sessions and averaged 80%.The results of this comparison will be discussed, as well as future implications of the assessment of children with autism.
 
122. Systematic Fading of Caregivers Into Treatment to Facilitate Generalization of Treatment Effects
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SARA BETH RAWLINGS (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Individuals who engage in severe problem behavior may engage in differentiated rates of problem behavior depending on the caregiver that is present. Previous research has indicated that higher and more clearly differentiated rates of problem behavior may be observed when the primary caregiver is present compared to times when clinical staff members are present (Kurtz et. al, 2013). It may be difficult to generalize treatment effects to the primary caregiver when the individual engages in significantly higher rates or more intense levels of problem behavior in their presence. The current study includes 2 participants, a 5 year old male diagnosed with Autism and a 4 year old female diagnosed with Smith-Magenis Syndrome. For each participant, rates of problem behavior increased significantly each time the primary caregiver was introduced in to the treatment evaluation sessions. Thus, caregiver fading procedures were initiated so that the primary caregiver implemented treatment procedures for systematically increasing durations during the sessions. Lower and more stable rates of problem behavior were observed when the primary caregiver was gradually and systematically introduced into the treatment sessions across time.
 
123. Teaching a Functionally Equivalent Response With a Competing Item and Response Interruption and Redirection to Reduce Mouthing Inedible Objects
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Rachel Davis (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University ), Erica M. Dashow (Rutgers University), MIKALA RAE HANSON (Rutgers University), Jennifer Krych (Rutgers University, Douglass Developmental Disabil), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often engage in stereotypical behavior, such as mouthing or consuming inedible objects. The empirical literature has indicated that the use of competing items and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can be effective for addressing these forms of behavior (e.g., Horner et. al., 1991; Piazza et al., 2000; Zhou et al., 2000). In the current investigation, we assessed the use of an alternative item (bracelet) and RIRD for a 15 year old adolescent male diagnosed with ASD using a reversal design. The student engaged in high levels of object mouthing throughout his school day during baseline. During intervention, the student was given continuous access to an alternative source (silicone bracelet) and was taught an alternative response (biting the bracelet) with RIRD in place in the event that mouthing occurred. The implementation of the alternative item reduced mouthing non-edible objects to approximately 80% from baseline.
 
124. A Comparison of No-No Prompting and Errorless Learning on Errored Responding of Previously Taught Skills Within Discrete Trial Training With Children Having Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CASEY GREGORY (University of West Florida), D. Reed Bechtel (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: This study compared no-no prompting (delayed prompting) and errorless learning (simultaneous prompting) error correction methods on maintenance responding of previously taught skills with three children on the autism spectrum. An alternating treatments design (ATD) with baseline and best treatment was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of each prompting system on maintenance responding. Previously acquired skills that had dropped below acquisition criteria due to off-task behaviors were used as training targets during discrete trial training sessions. IOA averaged 98% (range=95-100% for both occurrence and non occurrence) for all three participants. Treatment fidelity also was high averaging above 98% across all participants with TF IOA also averaging near 100%. Results indicated that both prompt methods increased independent correct responding; rate of acquisition was varied across participants. No-no prompting resulted in more independent correct responding without any response prompts provided as well as more stable correct responding on future trials. Off-task behaviors were decreased more significantly with the use of no-no prompting for all participants. Staff and participants reported a preference for the use of no-no prompting with previously taught skills except for one participant who reported a preference for errorless learning.
 
125. Assessment and Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Maintained by Attention in a Classroom Setting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AIMEE SUE ALCORN (Children's Hospital Colorado), Patrick Romani (University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: We present data from a 13 year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder referred to a partial-hospitalization program for the assessment and treatment of inappropriate vocalizations occurring at school. Inter-observer agreement was calculated for 16% of sessions and was 100%. A functional analysis of inappropriate vocalizations showed attention as the maintaining variable for inappropriate vocalizations. Within an ABAB reversal design, we evaluated the effectiveness of a functional communication training (FCT) program. During baseline, inappropriate vocalizations were reinforced with adult redirection and, often times, peer attention, in the form of laughter. During FCT, a functional communicative response (FCR) for attention was reinforced following a period of appropriate behavior. That is, the participant would need to participate in independent or group activities for a predetermined period before the FCR would result in reinforcement. Results showed elevated rates of inappropriate vocalizations during baseline sessions and near zero rates of inappropriate vocalizations during FCT. We gradually thinned the schedule of reinforcement for the FCR to 20 minutes. Results will be discussed in terms of their influence on the treatment of problem behavior in a classroom setting.
 
126. Reducing Unhealthy Eating Habits in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder With Novelty Stimulus Introduction
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), BRITTANY NICHOLE BELL (Claremont Graduate University), Jenna Gilder (Claremont Graduate University)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Children who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to be at higher risk for obesity than the general child population (Hill, Zuckerman, & Fombonne, 2015). This pattern may be due to children with ASD having selective eating habits and the therapists and parents use of food as a reward (Hudson & DeMyer, 1968). In the present study, a multiple baseline design across nine participants was used to assess the effects of stimulus novelty introduction upon childrens snack choices. Baseline consisted of a presentation of typical snack choices based on child and parent desirability reports (chips, cookies, juice, etc.). Intervention included healthy snacks (i.e., butter free popcorn, graham crackers and water) embedded in the presentation of the previous snack choices on the snack tray. During baseline, participants were consistent in their choices and did not request a healthier selection. To date, preliminary results indicate that one child displayed an increase in healthy choices following the introduction of healthy options. This study will be concluded by the time of the conference. The observed shift in choice may be due to stimulus novelty. With obesity on the rise, it is important to provide and promote healthy alternatives to high risk groups.
 
127. Using Discrete Trial Training With Progressive Time Delay Prompting to Teach Phonics to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KATIA HAINES (Edith Cowan University )
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Although international best practice guidelines state that phonics instruction should be, in part, direct and systematic in its delivery, current Western Australian educational curricula and practise does not reflect this in relation to teaching phonics to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As such, there exists a large reading gap between children with ASD and their same age neurotypical peers; a gap that may start off relatively small at school entry but widens significantly over the course of primary schooling. It was therefore of interest to investigate whether children with ASD could learn phonics when taught using well evidenced direct, systematic techniques based on the principles of applied behaviour analysis. A multiple baseline with multiple baseline across participants (with concurrent measurement). 10 primary school children aged between 5-13 were recruited and split into three groups: Phonics, Numeracy and Control. 4 children were allocated to the phonics group and received discrete trial training (DTT) with progressive time delay prompting (PTD) over an 8 week period to teach phonics, while 4 children were allocated to the numeracy group and taught numerals in the same manner. 2 children were allocated to the control group and received treatment as usual (exposure to the pre-existing classroom curricula to learn phonics or numerals. Results indicated that all participants in the numeracy and literacy groups acquired stimuli as a function of exposure to DTT and PTD, as evidenced by change in level and trend during intervention following a stable low level baseline period. Further, 3 our of 4 participants in the literacy group also demonstrated an ability to transfer their mastered phonemes to the ability to blend consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words. All skills mastered spontaneously generalised to people, time and place during probe sessions, and skills were maintained over a 4 week period. Participants in the control group acquired significantly less stimuli over a significantly longer period of time, and were not able to transfer their learned stimuli to blending CVC words. These results indicate that a) current classroom curricula is not effective in teaching core literacy and numeracy skills, b) children with ASD are capable of learning core literacy and numeracy skills when taught in a systematic, evidence based manner and c) learned phonemes can transfer to the ability to blend CVC words in children with ASD.
 
128. Evaluating the Efficacy of a Parent-Implemented Autism Intervention Program in Northern Brazil
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ADRIANO ALVES BARBOZA (Universidade Federal do Pará), Álvaro Silva (Universidade Federal do Pará), Romariz Barros (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: The shortage of opportunities to access effective intervention to autism in developing countries is a major concern. The advancement of parentimplemented intervention seems to be critical. We evaluated the efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention program offered to low-income families in Northern Brazil. We systematically tracked the evolution of childrens performance and integrity of implementation by their parents. The data show positive impact of the program on skill acquisition by the children and confirms the potential for parent-implemented autism intervention programs.
 
129. Building Social and Employment Outcomes for Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Integrated Employment
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CARLA T. SCHMIDT (University of Cincinnati), Kate Doyle (University of Cincinnati), Christina R. Carnahan (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: For individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and significant communication and behavior challenges, finding and sustaining community-based employment is a daunting challenge. Traditional pathways to employment that have proven successful for individuals with other developmental disabilities are not able to meet the challenges faced by those with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We describe an inclusive program designed to systematically build social and employment skills for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in community settings. The goal of this program is permanent integrated employment for all participants. Data will be presented on the impact of the inclusive program on targeted social skills for one adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Program elements include video-modeling, task-analyses, and prompting hierarchies. We will use a multiple baseline across settings to evaluate the effects of the intervention on verbal initiations, responses, and continuations. The findings from this study will contribute to the growing body of evidence for best practice in the support of adults with autism in inclusive employment settings.
 
130. Decreasing the Inappropriate Sexual Behavior of Students With Intellectual Disability and Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH SIMONS (The Aurora School; George Mason University), Olivia Caro (The Aurora School), Emily Vidt (The Aurora School)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Research exists reporting the prevalence of inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB) by people with autism and intellectual disability. Currently, a lack of research exists suggesting how to manage this problem behavior in school settings. This problem behavior creates a barrier in accessing the community, and ethical considerations in treatment should be considered. Consistent with the field, reinforcement based strategies should be implemented first. At a private day school, two students were selected to participate in the current study. Both students were diagnosed with intellectual disability and one was also diagnosed with autism. Both students engaged in ISB in the form of masturbation frequently throughout the day. Blocking and redirection were unsuccessful and represent the baseline in this study. After the implementation of a differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) program, ISB decreased substantially. Staff were able to systematically lengthen the DRO interval while maintaining low levels of problem behavior. Staff report that the procedures were easy to implement and effective. This study shows a reinforcement-based approach to decreasing ISB in school settings.
 
131. Analysis of an Errorless Compliance Intervention With Students With Severe Developmental Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI FISHER (Central Michigan University), Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Noncompliance is one of the most frequent and troublesome behaviors exhibited by students. Students who are noncompliant with teacher directions are at risk of not benefiting from academic instruction. In addition, teachers must spend valuable instruction time redirecting students who do not comply with directions and rules. Schools and teachers need proactive, success based strategies to increase the rate of compliance in noncompliant students. One such strategy is Errorless Compliance Training (ECT). Unlike other strategies that use punishment to decrease compliance, ECT focuses on establishing and strengthening compliance with reinforcement only. Although previous research demonstrates that ECT can increase the rate of compliance in formerly noncompliant participants, generalization to individuals other than the trainer does not always occur and generalization to other settings has not been assessed. The current study used a multiple baseline across subjects design to examine the impact of ECT on compliance and to assess generalization of the intervention to non-training settings. ECT was administered to four participants with severe developmental disabilities. Overall, compliance and consistency of compliance to previously low-probability requests increased. Results were mixed with respect to the generalization of the ECT intervention to settings other than the training setting.
 
133. Effect of Incremental Rehearsal on Number Identification of a Child With Multiple Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHENGTIAN WU (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Early numeracy skills (e.g. numbers, counting, and simple addition) are crucial for higher math skills and generalization of math skills to life settings. However, children with autism may often have limited early numeracy skills (Jimenez & Kemmery, 2013). The flash card is a convenient, and popular format for presenting discrete stimulus items (e.g. numbers) (Kupzyk, Daly, & Anderson, 2011). Among the flash cards interventions, the Incremental Rehearsal (IR) was the most effective one (Varma & Schleisman, 2014). However, there is limited research that has examined the effectiveness of IR on letter recognition of children with autism as well as other disabilities, such as ADHD and Intellectual Disabilities. Thus, the purpose of this is to examine the effect of the IR on number identification of a child with autism, ADHD, and ID. The intervention results showed that the IR improved participants number identification dramatically. The percentage of nonoverlaped data was 100%, which indicated that the intervention was very effective. As for the progress monitor, the student achieved mastery level in his instructional level.
 
134. Voices From the Field: Children With Autism Reflect on General Education Experiences
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
JACQUELINE KELLEHER (Franklin Pierce University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: What are some challenges faced by children and youth with an autism spectrum disorder attending public school? What causes heightened senses of anxiety in the school setting? What can teachers do to be proactive in setting up their classroom or transition times to best support those with an autism spectrum disorder? This poster provides an opportunity to learn from a sample of verbal youth experiencing this world on a daily basis. This qualitative study investigated the perspectives of 10 children in middle and high school concerning what causes sensory arousal in the general education environment. Children were interviewed about their experiences and then data were coded for themes and trends. Findings revealed those on the spectrum struggled the most with sights, sounds, noises, smells, and dealing with the behaviors of typical peers. Specific episodes and occurrences are expanded upon in this study and will be presented on the poster. Participants were also eager to share effective practices that have helped them in the school setting.
 
135. Instructional Method Comparison to Teach Chained Tasks
Domain: Applied Research
Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), ANDREW SODAWASSER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber Godsey (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Physical guidance is a common component in many instructional strategies; however, for some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), physical guidance may be aversive, thus evoking problem behavior that may directly compete with skill acquisition. The current study evaluated three strategies to teach chained tasks to an eight-year-old male with ASD in a day treatment clinic for individuals with severe problem behavior. A multiple baseline across tasks was used to compare: (a) a multiple opportunity probe with noncontingent reinforcement, (b) three-step guided compliance with differential reinforcement, and (c) a single opportunity probe with noncontingent reinforcement. Tasks were equally matched in number of steps, difficulty level, and completion time. Data were collected on percentage of steps completed independently, completion time, and frequency of problem behavior. Preliminary results indicated that the multiple opportunity probe was the only strategy that led to task acquisition (i.e., 3 out of 4 sessions >80%). When this procedure was applied to the other two tasks, similar trends in acquisition were observed. Performance maintained with both acquired tasks. The current evaluation demonstrated: (a) an efficient procedure for evaluating alternative strategies for acquisition and (b) showed that alternative strategies may be preferable for clients when physical guidance evokes aggression.
 
136. Replication of Synthesized Functional Analyses for Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
Alexandria Boisvert (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University), Stacy Mahoney (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Erin Boylan (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Amanda Soles (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Nicholas Vanselow (Salve Regina University; Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Mackenzie J. Milner (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University), MATTHEW CLIFFORD (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) proposed functional analysis procedures in which multiple contingencies, based on interviews and observations, are tested in a single pair of test and control conditions. The purpose of the current series of analyses was to systematically replicate the assessment procedures in different settings and with a range of problem behavior. Ten participants who engaged in problem behavior participated in the study. Participants were nine to 14 years old and were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. All sessions were conducted in the participants typical daily environments. An experimenter delivered the putative reinforcers for problem behavior during test conditions. Reinforcers were different for each participant depending on the outcome of the interview and initial observation (e.g., unique tangible items or escape from experimenter interaction). Reinforcers were delivered non-contingently during control conditions. Each analysis was conducted quickly (average of 8 five-minute sessions) and all analyses demonstrated control over problem behavior. This study supports the procedures proposed by Hanley et al. (2014) and extends the generality of these procedures to additional settings, problem behavior, and types of reinforcers.
 
137. Use of a Bracelet Reinforcement Procedure to Decrease Motor Stereotypy in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
LISA TERESHKO (Beacon ABA Services), Lauren Frazee (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Repetitive and stereotypic motor movements or vocal behavior are one of diagnostic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Motor stereotypy can interfere with the acquisition and demonstration of many adaptive skills. Additionally, the occurrence of repetitive motor behavior in young children with ASD may socially stigmatize individuals and limit the development and maintenance of peer relationships. The current study evaluated the effects of a differential reinforcement procedure used to establish control over motor stereotypy in one instructional context in a childs home. The child was given a bracelet to signal that reinforcement was available only if motor stereotypy did not occur during the specified activity. Once control over motor stereotypy was established in the training condition (playing with an IPad while wearing the bracelet), its use was then expanded to non-training conditions. The data indicate that the procedure was effective in decreasing the occurrence of motor stereotypy across all evaluated settings. However, motor stereotypy continued to occur at a low level and was not completely eliminated by the procedure. The findings are discussed in terms of function of behavior as well as establishment and transfer of stimulus control.
 
138. A Comparison of Alternative Oral Stimulation to Decrease Rumination in a Child With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AIMEE DECKER (Florida Institute of Technology; The Faison School for Autism), Byron J. Wine (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Rumination is defined as the chronic regurgitation, rechewing, and reswallowing of previously ingested food and is estimated to occur in 6 to 10% of individuals with developmental disabilities (Rast, Johnson, Drum, & Conrin, 1981). Rumination that occurs over long periods of time can result in serious health risks including, malnutrition, weight loss, dehydration, tooth decay, choking, gastrointestinal bleeding, and even death (Starin & Fuqua, 1987; Winston & Singh, 1983). Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of non-contingent juice, supplemental feeding, gum, flavor spray and chew rings as a treatment for rumination in children with developmental disabilities. The current study compared these interventions as treatment for a 9-year old boy diagnosed with autism who exhibits post-meal rumination. The results suggested that the majority of these treatments effectively decreased rumination to lower levels. However, juice was shown to increase rumination up to 50%. This study not only discusses the effectiveness of these treatments, but also their social significance.
 
139. Mitigation of Reactivity Via Telehealth: A Case Study
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY DIGGS (The Autism Community Therapists), Kevin J. Schlichenmeyer (TACT, LLC ), Ashley Pizzoferrato (TACT, LLC )
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: Reactivity occurs when the behavior being assessed is altered by the presence of the assessor. This can be particularly problematic when conducting a Functional Analysis, (FA) because the presence of a therapist can compete with the contingencies responsible for problem behavior. In this study, we conducted an indirect assessment in the form of an open ended parent interview in person and used this information to design FA conditions. However, during the initial FA conditions where therapists were present, inconclusive outcomes were obtained, and we hypothesized a reactive effect. Because of this, we completed the FA via telehealth (Wacker et al., 2013). During these conditions, the greatest level of differentiation occurred, indicating a conclusive outcome, and thus an appropriate evocative condition to teach replacement behavior. Treatment consisted of Functional Communication Training (FCT) and Delay - Denial Tolerance training (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow & Hanratty, 2014). Treatment was completed entirely via telehealth with the participants’ Mother as the primary therapist. Substantial reductions in problem behavior were observed concurrent with elevations in appropriate replacement behavior. This study replicates and extends the Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow & Hanratty, 2014), approach to treating problem behavior, as its implementation was conducted entirely without having to require the therapist’s presence. Interobserver agreement was collected for 55 of FA sessions, with a mean of 100% and for 44 of treatment sessions, with a mean of 97%.
 
140. A Consecutive Case Review of Token Systems Used to Reduce Problem Behavior in Individuals with Developmental Delays
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY MAUZY (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Tom Cariveau (University of Oregon), Hailey Ormand (The University of Texas at Austin), Seth B. Clark (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children/Western New England University)
Abstract: The current poster describes the use of token systems in a behavioral day-treatment unit for severe problem behavior using a consecutive case review spanning three years. Experimenters evaluated 96 cases, 24 of which implemented some token system as a component of the treatment package. Aspects of each token system (including schedules of token delivery and exchange; inclusion of token training and response cost; and types of back-up reinforcers delivered) and participant information (including age, race, diagnosis by history, topographies of problem behavior, and function of problem behavior) were coded. Token systems were most frequently employed during differential reinforcement for alternative (DRA, most commonly for compliance) or differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedures and were most common in a demand context. Several commonalities were identified between cases (e.g., restriction of back-up reinforcers between token exchanges, initial dense schedules of reinforcement). Treatment packages including token systems resulted in a reduction in problem behavior for the majority of participants. Our findings suggest that token systems may be a beneficial component of treatment plans used to address problem behavior. Some common components should likely be included in all token systems and specific client variables may guide decision related to more idiosyncratic components.
 
141. Tolerating Aversive Stimuli By Fading In Fear Evoking Stimuli
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
VANESSA MONTANO (Easter Seals Southern California), Stephanie Bettencourt (Easter Seals Southern California), Shu-Hwei Ke (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Stimuli related to television have been identified as fear evoking stimuli for a young participant diagnosed with Autism. These fears also evoked a number of maladaptive behaviors (i.e., elopement, aggression, and property destruction) and became distracting to the participant’s environment and learning. Aversive stimuli were faded in gradually using DRO and Extinction procedures to build the participant’s tolerance level. The participant was exposed to EXT procedures where an aversive stimuli was presented for 30 seconds. Latency to protest was recorded and that was used as the starting point for DRO. DRO was then gradually increased by a few seconds in each trial. The participant was able to tolerate multiple stimuli related to television through the use of DRO and EXT procedures.
 
142. Development and Implementation of Tier I Interventions Within a Residential and a Day Program Setting for Individuals With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
WERONIKA POWERS (May Institute), Shannin Seamans (May Institute), Amy Gorman (May Institute), Gordon A. DeFalco (May Institute), Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Positive behavior support (PBS) is an applied science that uses educational and systems change methods (environmental redesign) to enhance quality of life and minimize problem behavior. (Carr, Dunlap, Horner, Koegel, Turnbull, Sailor, Anderson, Albin, Kern Koegel, & Fox, 2002). The objective of this multi-tiered support system (MTSS) is to arrange the environment to be conducive to teaching and learning (Sugai, 2015). PBS consists of three tiers and the present study was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of a Tier 1 system in reducing behavior problems and teaching adaptive social and life skills to 4 adult females with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder living in a community residence and 2 females and 7 males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder working in a day habilitation program. Behavior expectations unique to each setting were established based on baseline observations of the individuals problem behaviors (e.g., physical aggression) and general requirements of the setting (e.g., wash hands after going to the bathroom). A motivation system was established in each setting for adhering to behavioral expectations and all staff persons were instructed in behavior skill training to teach replacement behaviors to individuals when they did not display behavior expectations. Finally, person centered input is provided through scheduled meetings at the residence and the day program with individuals and staff to discuss problematic issues among the individuals, encourage choice making decisions, and improve peer relations. Interval data collected on behavioral expectations are reviewed by the full PBS team monthly. Initial results indicate an increase in the individuals adherence to behavior expectations and a decrease in problem behaviors in the Day Program but considerable variability in the Residential Program(see attached graph). Since this is the first attempt at a PBS intervention with adults with autism in a residential setting and a day setting additional interventions will be explored in both settings
 
143. Using Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors to Improve Rock-Paper-Scissors Skills in a Child With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MASASHI TSUKAMOTO (Meisei University)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: The rock-paper-scissors game (RPS) is a zero-sum game that is widely played by children in Japan. Although most children acquire the skills of playing RPS before school age, some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show certain peculiar responses in RPS beyond the school age. For example, once children with ASD form a certain shape with their hand, they change their shape to match that of the other person. This study aimed to reduce this inappropriate imitation in RPS in a 10-year-old boy with ASD, by differentially reinforcing certain incompatible alternative behaviors (DRA). First, the participant was required to discriminate among the three RPS elements by interacting with two hand shapes presented on a computer. After the participant acquired some basic skills of RPS (e.g., participant could respond appropriately after being presented with scissors and paper and asked, "Which is the winner?"), backward chaining and DRA were introduced to actual RPS behavior. Finally, the RPS-matched contingency was introduced to a RPS game between the participant and the therapist. The interim results show that reducing inappropriate imitations in RPS games requires more than understanding the rules of the game and that it is necessary to modify the actual behavioral chain.
 
144. Expressive Language as a Potential Predictor for Effort of Assessment Required to Evoke Challenging Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NEALETTA HOUCHINS-JUAREZ (Vanderbilt University), John E. Staubitz (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Kathleen Simcoe (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Jessica Torelli (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Michelle Hopton (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Johanna Staubitz (Vanderbilt University), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Valid assessments are needed to develop individualized behavioral treatment. The latency-based functional analysis is an expedited functional analysis of challenging behavior. Length of the latency-based functional analysis is predicated on the amount of time required to evoke and reinforce challenging behavior until differentiation is replicated between one or more test conditions and the control condition. Within a randomized controlled trial assessing for potential cost-benefit of behavior analytic services within inpatient hospital settings, we conducted latency-based functional analyses of the challenging behavior of 18 children and adolescents diagnosed with autism exhibiting varying communicative abilities. Patients utterances were rated based upon observations by behavior analysts during interviews, assessments, and informal observations within the hospital. Patient expressive language was sorted into two categories: limited vocal or fully vocal. We evaluated the degree to which expressive language rating predicted the number of series needed to evoke challenging behavior within the functional analysis using a point-biserial correlation. Results indicated expressive language rating was positively correlated with the number of series needed to evoke challenging behavior (rpb = .58). Higher verbal ability predicted a higher number of series, although these findings represent preliminary evidence that further inquiry may be warranted. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
 
145. Derived Responding, Autism Severity, and Intelligence: The Relationship Between the PEAK-E Assessment, the GARS-2, and the WISC-IV
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
BRIDGET MUNOZ (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Deficits in derived relational responding experienced by individuals with autism may explain some of the behavioral and intellectual deficits that are co-morbid with this neurodegenerative disorder. The present study evaluated the derived relational abilities of 46 children with autism and compared the assessment results with participants autism severity and intelligence. Each of the participants were assessed using the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Equivalence pre-assessment as a measure of their relational abilities, the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale Second Edition (GARS-2) as a measure of autism severity, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) as a measure of intelligence. The results of the study suggest a strong correlation between the PEAK-E pre-assessment, the GARS-2, and the WISC-IV, suggesting that there is a relationship between derived relational responding, autism severity, and intelligence. The results have implications for the treatment of both problem behaviors and intellectual deficits experienced by this population.
 
146. Telehealth Applied Behavior Analysis Practice for Underserved Regions in Georgia-Sakartvelo
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
ANA BARKAIA (Children of Georgia), Trevor F. Stokes (James Madison University), Tamari Mikiashvili (Children of Georgia)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: The NGO Children of Georgia in the country of Georgia-Sakartvelo, together with James Madison University in the USA, examined the effectiveness of communications technology for distance training and coaching of ABA therapeutic skills. Within a multiple baseline design across participants, it was demonstrated that distance coaching increased the use of therapeutic skills by the therapists and improved verbal operants by children with autism. With grant support from the Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis and the Georgia-Sakartvelo Ministry of Science and Education, this research became a model for developing ABA services in underserved remote areas in the country of Georgia-Sakartvelo. Three teachers in two public schools in a small town in western Georgia received training where they learned the basic principles of Applied Behavior Analysis. Subsequently, these teachers were supervised and coached on practice skills via communications technology incorporating classroom-based tablets and internet connections with Children of Georgia consultants in Tbilisi.
 
147. The Interdependence of the Verbal Operants: A Principal Component Analysis of the VB-MAPP
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
JORDAN BELISLE (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: A growing body of literature has evaluated whether the elementary verbal operants proposed by Skinner in his book Verbal Behavior are independent or interdependent, with differing results. If independent, the distinct verbal operants would be likely to develop separately as their development is not dependent on the development of the other operants, and if interdependent, the operants would be likely to develop together. The present study expanded upon this body of literature by evaluating the verbal behavior of 92 individuals with autism between the ages of 5 and 22 using the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). The results of a principal component analysis suggest that the verbal operants included in the analysis were correlated, and the identified factor loadings differed only in the complexity of the skill rather than the type of verbal operant. The results lend support to the interdependence of Skinner’s verbal operants, as well as the construct validity of the VB-MAPP.
 
148. Parent Satisfaction With Two Adjunctive Parent-Implemented Interventions for Young Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
JACQUELINE EGGINK (Rowan University), Bianca Pizzo-Coleman (Rowan University), Michelle Ennis Soreth (Rowan University), Mary Louise E. Kerwin (Rowan University)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Parent-implemented interventions are cost-effective and ecologically valid means of increasing access to evidence-based intervention for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Parental satisfaction is critical for treatment fidelity and the subsequent success of parent-implemented interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate parent satisfaction with two adjunctive, parent-implemented treatments for ASD, Applied Behavior Analysis/Verbal Behavior Approach(ABA/VB) and Relationship Development Intervention (RDI). Eleven parents received 16 in-home sessions in which they were taught to implement the assigned intervention. Parents were provided with a survey that contained 29 questions using a 5-point Likert scale to evaluate their satisfaction with the intervention and the outcomes for their child. At the end of treatment, parents reported moderate satisfaction with both RDI (range 3.6-4) and ABA/VB (range 2.8-3.8) with parents receiving the ABA/VB intervention reporting slightly lower and more variable ratings. After the 3-month follow-up, parents in the RDI condition reported an increase in satisfaction (range 3.8-4.4) while parents in the ABA/VB condition reported lower ratings than parents in RDI and from the previous assessment with the exception of an increase in use of and speed of learning spontaneous speech. All parents reported that they would recommend the study to other parents.
 
150. Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Lower Intensity (DRLi) and Higher Intensity (DRHi) on Vocalization Decibel Levels in Children With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University), Suzanne Mancil (Louisiana Tech University)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of lower intensity (DRLi) and higher intensity (DRHi) are procedures developed to address problems in decibel levels of vocalization in individuals with autism. A reversal design was used to test the effectiveness of each of the developed protocol across six children with autism. Protocol involved a visual decibel meter (VDM) that measured the decibel level of speech. Red marks were placed on the VDM to indicate appropriate range. Prior to baseline, researchers demonstrated and modeled how the meter worked. In addition, the researchers modeled reinforcement procedures. The reinforcement procedures consisted of access to preferred items when vocalizations were within the appropriate decibel range per vocalization. Preferences were identified using a multiple stimulus without replacement assessment and confirmed during free operant observations. Data were gathered and the mean vocalization decibel level per 30-minute session was plotted. Data indicated that the implementation of the DRL resulted in a decrease of the vocalization decibels to within the range of typical conversations. In addition, the DRH procedures resulted in an increase of the vocalization decibels to within the range of typical conversations.
 
151. The Effects of Video Modeling on Pretend Social Play for Pairs of Children With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MELINDA CHERIE WRIGHT (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Frampton (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Robert Isenhower (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by repetitive behaviors and lack of symbolic play. For children with ASD, video modeling is a promising method for promoting symbolic play, often with an adult or typically developing play partner (MacDonald, Sacramone, Mansfeld, Wiltz, & Ahearn, 2009; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2007; Reagon, Higbee, & Endicott, 2006; Taylor, Levin, & Jasper, 1999). However, there is a limited research on the utility of video modeling training when all participants have ASD. The current study employed a multiple probe design across behaviors (pretend play scenarios) to evaluate the effects of video modeling training for two pairs of children diagnosed with ASD. During all sessions, thematically relevant vocalizations and play actions were scored for both participants in the pair. Following baseline, video modeling treatment was simultaneously provided to each pair. Maintenance probes were conducted to evaluate play in the absence of video modeling. Results indicate that video modeling led to an increase in scripted and unscripted play for all participants. Further, video modeling led to increased variety in unscripted vocalizations for all participants. These results extend the video modeling research by demonstrating that the intervention can successfully be simultaneously provided to two children with ASD.
 
151a. Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on the Treatment Fidelity of Behavior Intervention Plans
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NATHAN BISHOP (Haugland Learning Center; Western Michigan Univer), Bryan Droesch (Haugland Learning Center), Denise Ross (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The goal of this study was to prevent the occurrence of treatment drift during implementation of behavior plans by increasing treatment fidelity for staff. Participants were two teaching assistants who implemented behavior plans for a young adult with autism. The dependent variable was the number of steps correctly implemented by the staff member as measured by a fidelity checklist. The independent variable was a behavior skills training (BST) package comprised of that uses instructions, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback to teach new behaviors or skills to staff. Using this procedure, participating staff members were trained to implement intervention procedures and reinforcement strategies as detailed in a student’s behavior intervention plan (BIP). Fidelity ratings were determined by conducting weekly fidelity checks with a checklist that highlighted the critical features of the BIP. Results showed that the BST training package increased the percentage of correctly implemented steps of an individual behavior plan when compared to the didactic training that was in use during baseline. The findings of this study may help promote further use of BST during staff training for a BIP and increase fidelity of staff implementation.
 

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