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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Symposium #119
Equivalence Class Formation and Additional Measures
Sunday, May 29, 2016
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Zurich AB, Swissotel
Area: EAB/VRB
Chair: Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: In the first paper, Ayres-Pereira and de Souza present a study on establishment of equivalence classes using photos of objects, and evaluate if children would include the objects into the classes, without any direct training. Then main findings were that all participants performed the generalized identity matching tasks and learned the arbitrary conditional discriminations. Finally, all of them formed equivalence classes between the photos. In the second paper, Hansen and Arntzen present an experiment on ocular observing response measures. Preliminary results suggest differences in observing response measures, such as duration, rate, and sequence as a function of order of learning conditions, and in eye-movement speed as a function of not only order of learning but also variation in motivation.
Keyword(s): attending behavior, emergent relations, measures, stimulus equivalence
Inclusion of Objects in Equivalence Classes Formed by Photos in Preschoolers
VANESSA PEREIRA (HiOA), Deisy das Gracas De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: Adults commonly use pictures of objects to establish equivalence relations, and suppose that children generalize the relations to the objects itself. The purpose of this study was to establish equivalence classes using photos of objects, and evaluate if children would include the objects into the classes, without any direct training. Participants were six four years old children. They trained arbitrary conditional discriminations between photos of abstract objects. Multiple probes evaluated effects of the training over learning, maintenance and emergence of relations between the photos. After the emergence of equivalence relations between the photos, tests of arbitrary matching between the objects, and between the photos and the objects assessed the classes expansion. Throughout the procedure, tests evaluated childrens performance on generalized identity matchings of photos to photos, objects to objects, and photos to objects and vice versa. All participants performed the generalized identity matching tasks, learned the arbitrary conditional discriminations and formed equivalence classes between the photos. However, only three participants demonstrated the expansion of the equivalence classes from photos to objects. The results suggest that, generalization of stimulus cannot be the only relevant process to produce the expansion of an equivalence class between similar two-dimensional and three-dimensional stimuli.
Fixation and Speed Measures Across Training Structures in a Within-Participant Research Design
STEFFEN HANSEN (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The analysis of eye-movements, obtained with Eye-tracking Technology, during Matching-to-Sample learning, extends and enriches our behavioral attempts to understand complex human behavior (Hansen & Arntzen, 2015). The analysis of eye-movements, obtained with Eye-tracking Technology, during Matching-to-Sample Performance, extends and enriches our behavioral attempts to understand complex human behavior (Hansen & Arntzen, 2015). Previous group studies from our eye-tracking research lab suggest that topographically different eye-movement and observing response measures, such as duration, rate, variability, pattern, and speed, emerge during the establishment of stimulus equivalence classes that are formed using different training structures (e.g., Hansen & Arntzen, 2013, October; Hansen & Arntzen, 2014, May). In a systematic replication, introducing a within-participant design, we intend to establish five 3-member classes in a concurrent training format by exposing all participants to one of three conditional discrimination training sequences that involve the Many-to-One, One-to-Many, and Linear Series training structures. Preliminary results suggest differences in fixation measures, such as duration, rate, and sequence as a function of order of learning conditions, and in eye-movement speed as a function of not only order of learning conditions but also variation in motivation. itions, and in eye-movement speed as a function of not only order of learning but also variation in motivation.
 

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