|Recent Advancements in Activity Schedule Research
|Monday, May 30, 2016
|8:00 AM–8:50 AM
|Grand Ballroom EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
|Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: Jessica Akers (Utah State University)
|CE Instructor: Jessica Akers, Ph.D.
|Abstract: Activity schedules consist of visual and/or auditory supports that function as discriminative stimuli to engage in an activity or a series of activities. Lately, the utility of activity schedules has been extended beyond teaching individuals with autism to complete basic tasks, and this symposium highlights three examples of such innovation. The first study assessed whether four 15 to 17- year old individuals diagnosed with autism remained on-task and completed tasks independently when using self-reinforcement compared to teacher-delivered reinforcement in the presence of an activity schedule. The second study examined the effectiveness of an activity schedule, embedded within an iPad, in promoting varied engagement with academic applications. The final study used activity schedules to train children with autism to play hide-and-seek in a group with typically developing peers. Researchers were able to fade several components of the activity schedules, and responding maintained in a novel environment and during a 2-weeks follow-up session.
|Keyword(s): activity schedule, script training, technology
|Self-Reinforcement Compared to Teacher-Delivered Reinforcement During Activity
Schedules on the iPod Touch
|BRITTANY BEAVER (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
|Abstract: The present study assessed whether four 15 to 17- year old individuals diagnosed with autism remained on-task and completed tasks independently when using self-reinforcement compared to teacher-delivered reinforcement in the presence of an activity schedule. The three conditions were teacher-delivered reinforcement, self-reinforcement, and a control. An adapted alternating treatments design with a control condition was used. The participants followed a text-based activity schedule on the iPod touch to complete a vocational, daily living, and, leisure task. To promote independence, the proximity of the instructor was increased until the instructor was completely removed during self-reinforcement. Results of this study demonstrated high percentages of on-task behavior and schedule completion for both conditions. Overall, during the self-reinforcement condition, proximity of the instructor was increased in the same number or fewer sessions than during the teacher-delivered reinforcement condition. The results of this study established a novel method for implementing self-reinforcement and expanded upon past research on activity schedules and the use of portable technology by presenting schedules on an iPod touch.
An Evaluation of Group Activity Schedules to Train Children With Autism to Play Hide-and-Seek With Their Typically Developing Peers
|JESSICA AKERS (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University), Kristina Gerencser (Utah State University ), Azure Pellegrino (Utah State University)
Children with autism often avoid engaging in play activities with typically developing peers. The purpose of this study was to identify the utility of photographic activity schedules, with embedded scripts, to teach three children with autism to play a complex social game. In this study we used activity schedules to train children with autism to play hide-and-seek in a group with typically developing peers. Once the activity schedules were introduced all of the participants were able to play hide-and-seek. A secondary purpose of this study was to systematically fade the activity schedules to the least intrusive version necessary. We were able to fade all of the scripts and several components of the activity schedules. The participants were able to continue to play hide-and-seek with the faded versions of the schedules, in a novel environment and 2-weeks after treatment concluded.
The Use of an Electronic Visual Activity Schedule to Promote Engagement and Varied Application Play With Children With Autism
|WILLIAM TIM COURTNEY (Little Star Center), Matthew T. Brodhead (Purdue University), Jackie Thaxton (Little Star Center)
Children with autism often engage in repetitive behaviors and often have restricted interests. In the classroom, these features may inhibit a child's ability to vary the types of academic games they engage in. This may be particularly difficult for a child when he or she has access to items that are more preferred than academic games, such as an iPad. The purpose of this study was to embed an activity schedule within an iPad and examine the effects of that activity schedule on promoting varied application engagement with three children with autism. During baseline, participants engaged in only one application and did not vary their play. When participants were taught how to follow the activity schedule, which was embedded within the iPad, they varied their play between four applications. When the activity schedule was removed, all three participants engaged in responding that was similar to baseline. Responding increased and maintained when the activity schedule was re-introduced.