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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #255
Monday, May 30, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University)
76. An Analysis of Protective Equipment and Blocking on Self-Injurious Behavior and Self-Restraint
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA R. YOUNG (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lauren Veirs (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Molly K Bednar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: Protective equipment is often used to keep individuals who engage in severe self-injurious behavior safe. Previous research has shown that the use of protective equipment during a functional analysis can suppress responding (e.g., Borrero, Vollmer, Wright, Lerman & Kelley, 2002; Moore, Fisher & Pennington, 2004; Le & Smith, 2002), and the systematic removal of specific forms of protective equipment can lead to increased rates of specific topographies of self-injury (Moore, Fisher & Pennington, 2004). The purpose of the current study was to systematically evaluate the effects of protective equipment on self-injury while blocking versus not blocking self-restraint for two individuals admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. The current study replicated previous research by demonstrating the suppression of responding following the application of protective equipment, and the emergence of specific topographies of self-injury following the removal of specific forms of protective equipment. Results extended previous research by demonstrating that a social function could be identified during a functional analysis with protective equipment, and showing that blocking self-restraint did not lead to increase in self-injury for these two individuals.
77. Instructional Programming to Prepare Children With Multiple Disabilities to Take a Hearing Test
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CAROL CUMMINGS (The University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (The University of Kansas), Dean C. Williams (University of Kansas), Yusuke Hayashi (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: The purpose of this technology-transfer research program is to develop instructional programming for teaching nonverbal children with intellectual disabilities to complete a behavioral audiometric evaluation in an audiology clinic. The training is designed to teach children who are unable to follow spoken instructions to press a button only when they hear a tone (a successive discrimination). The end goal is to produce a program that can be used outside the clinic to prepare children prior to an audiology appointment. The computerized program guides the operator in the presentation of tones and reinforcers, and collects data on performance. The poster describes the process of development, and presents data from participants exposed to the most refined version of the procedures. The participants were six nonverbal boys with intellectual disabilities; four were of unspecified origin, one had Down Syndrome, and one had additional handicaps including blindness and motor control problems. All had suspected hearing loss but were unable to complete a behavioral hearing test. Training occurred over four to seven sessions across children. Three of the children subsequently generalized to the clinic when tested by an audiologist each successfully completed a standard exam.
78. An Evaluation of Response Fading Combined With Positive Reinforcement on Consumption of Non-Preferred Foods
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
VALORI N. BERENDS (Seattle Children's Hospital and The Autism Center), Danielle N. Dolezal (Seattle Children's Hospital and The Autism Center; College of Education & Department of Special Education at The University of Washington ), Amber Persons (Seattle Children's Hospital and The Autism Center)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: One approach to the treatment of feeding difficulties in community settings is gradual exposure to target food types, often embedded within play, targeting an increase in acceptance. Though commonly employed, the mechanisms underlying this approach and its utility in achieving desired outcomes have not been systematically evaluated in children with restrictive eating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a response fading procedure of successive bite approximations, with and without positive reinforcement, on the acceptance of novel food types in a young man with restrictive eating. A multielement with reversal design across measures of food refusal, acceptance and mouth cleans was utilized to evaluate the different approaches. The participant was a young male with diagnoses of autism, avoidant restrictive food intake disorder and disruptive behavior disorder. He consumed a very narrow range of food types. Target foods were selected by parents using items commonly available at home and nutritional evaluation. Foods were categorized by preference using parent report and child consumption. Results indicate that response fading alone was successful in increasing consumption of medium preference foods only. When response fading was combined with positive reinforcement, acceptances of low preference foods increased. Advantages and outcomes of the approach are discussed.
79. Identifying Response Class Members Using a Progressive Lag Schedule of Reinforcement
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE LIOLLIO (Georgia State University/Marcus Autism Center/Chil), Sarah J. Miller (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atla), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atla), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center/Children's Healthcare of Atla)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: Lalli and Mace (1995) conducted an analysis to identify behaviors maintained by the same source of reinforcement (i.e., within the same response class). After identifying that one topography of problem behavior was maintained by escape, the authors ran a series of sessions in which escape was provided for one topography of problem behavior while other topographies were placed on extinction. After varying which behavior was reinforced, they demonstrated that each behavior occurred when it was the only behavior reinforced with escape. Although the procedures were successful, it took a total of 155 sessions to identify all members of the response class. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by increasing the efficiency of the procedures through a trial-based approach. A progressive lag schedule of reinforcement was utilized in which the first instance of a topography was reinforced and subsequently placed on extinction for the remainder of the trial. Data were collected on the latency from the start of the session to the occurrence of each topography. Results showed that several topographies were in the same response class for both participants, and this was identified efficiently in a total of three hours for both participants.
81. Impacts of Quality Assurance Measures (O. Reg. 299/10) for Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Outcomes of a Community Partnership on the Use of Intrusive Interventions
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Karen Chartier (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), Maurice Feldman (Centre for Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Melissa Legree (Social Edge Training for Life Inc.), Tanya Makela (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), Olivia Ng (Grandview Kids), NICK MCGOWAN (Lake Ridge Community Support Services)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: The Province of Ontario (Canada) recently legislated quality assurance measures governing the design and implementation of Behavior Support Plans for challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual disabilities receiving residential and day supports. The purpose of this presentation will be describe key features of the quality assurance measures and present preliminary outcomes of implementation of the quality assurance measures on the use of intrusive interventions and group home staff perceptions. The results showed a reduction in challenging behaviours, and intrusive interventions for persons with intellectual disabilities. Practical and ethical implications of the quality assurance measures will be discussed.
82. Unintended Manipulation of Motivating Operations for Competing Behavior
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
MARCELLA HANGEN (University of Maryland, Baltimore County/Kennedy Krieger Institute), Marissa Erin Daly (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Cara L. Phillips (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: A multi-component treatment was developed to decrease inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB) emitted by a 16-year-old male diagnosed with an intellectual disability. In baseline, all attempts to engage in ISB were blocked. Treatment included honoring requests for private time. After the implementation of the ISB treatment, an increase in problem behavior was observed during bedtime hours. It was hypothesized that allowing access to sexual behavior during the day effected the motivating operation (MO) to engage in that behavior at bedtime. An MO is a condition that alters the momentary effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher and alters the frequency of a specific behavior. Specifically, allowing the individual to engage in sexual behavior during daytime hours acted as an abolishing operation (MO) for sexual behavior at bedtime, leading him to re-allocate responding to problem behavior. This MO manipulation was evaluated in a reversal design. In baseline (for ISB), low rates of problem behavior were observed during bedtime hours. After the implementation of treatment, an increase in problem behavior was observed. When private time was again restricted, problem behavior decreased. These results suggest that an MO to engage in sexual behavior was present and competed with engaging in problem behavior at bedtime.
83. Using Syringe-to-Cup Fading to Increase Cup Drinking in a Child With Pediatric Feeding Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY CARTER (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University), Alison Kozlowski (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: Treatments for drink refusal often use nonremoval of the cup which prevents escape from drinking. However, escape extinction procedures may become ineffective if a child refuses to open his or her mouth for the drink to be deposited. Groff, Piazza, Volkert and Jostad (2014) utilized a syringe as an alternative utensil to address this problem and successfully used syringe-to-cup fading to increase cup drinking in a typically developing four-year-old boy with 100% gastrostomy tube dependence. The current study replicated the results of Groff et al. (2014) with some modifications by utilizing a syringe-to-cup fading intervention for the treatment of cup drinking refusal for a three-year-old boy with autism and bottle dependence. A syringe was first used to increase liquid acceptance. Next, a syringe-to-cup fading procedure was implemented along with cup drinking escape extinction probes. Acceptance increased from 0% during baseline to 93% during the last three therapist-fed sessions of treatment, and refusal decreased from 3.4 rpm during baseline to 0.0 rpm during the last three therapist-fed treatment sessions. Although acceptance decreased to 70% during the last three caregiver-fed treatment sessions, all drinks continued to be consumed and refusal remained at 0.0 rpm. Treatment effects continue to be maintained three-months post-treatment.
84. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (The University of South Dakota), Erin F. Stabnow (LifeScape)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed steps independently completed in folding a pizza box as a potential pre-vocational task. An additional and related purpose of this study was also to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in improving these students productivity while decreasing the level of least-to-most prompts required for these students to completed task-analyzed steps of a pizza box assembly task. Task-analysis procedures for the pizza box assembly task were implemented throughout the entirety of the study. The intervention (i.e., least-to-most prompting hierarchy) was expected to increase the number of task-analyzed steps each subject was able to complete independently while decreasing the level of least-to-most prompts required for each subject to complete the task-analyzed pizza box assembly task. The experimental design used in this student was a multiple-baseline design across subjects to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of a least-to-most prompting hierarchy. Results of this study indicated that the use of a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching individuals with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills.
85. Measuring the Complexity of Treatment for Challenging Behavior Using the Treatment Intensity Rating Form
Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW BONNER (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer Ninci (Texas A&M University), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Chloe J. McKay (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: The Treatment Intensity Rating Form (TIRF) is a 10-item scale with three categories: pharmacological interventions, behavior supports, and protective equipment. The TIRF was scored using the treatment plans of 74 individuals with an intellectual disability and hospitalized for the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior including self-injurious behavior (SIB). We compared individuals whose SIB was maintained by social reinforcement (e.g., access to attention or toys/activities) or for whom SIB was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Individuals with SIB maintained by automatic reinforcement were further subtyped into categories based on distinct patterns of responding during the FA, and the presence or absence of self-restraint based on the model proposed by Hagopian, Rooker, and Zarcone (2015). The purpose of this poster is to report the intensity of behavior supports and protective equipment required to produce clinically significant reductions in SIB, as captured in the TIRF, with respect to each of the three subtypes as compared to individuals with socially maintained SIB. Results indicate that the automatic reinforcement group had higher overall TIRF scores then the social reinforcement group. Further, when the automatic reinforcement group was delineated by subtype, Subtype 1 had the highest mean TIRF scores on the subscale addressing behavioral supports. Individuals who engaged in self-restraint (i.e., Subtype 3) had higher mean scores on the protective equipment subscale.
86. The Effects of Advance Notice on Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruptions of an Ongoing Activity
Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE VASQUEZ (Florida Institute of Technology/weBehave), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology), Adam Thornton Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that interrupting or transitioning away from an ongoing activity may occasion problem behavior. Researchers have evaluated the effect of advance notice in this context; however, findings have been inconsistent. In this study we conducted an assessment and treatment of problem behavior occasioned by interruptions of ongoing activity emitted by a 7-year old girl with autism. First, we conducted a trial-based functional analysis during typical instructional activities (e.g., math and writing worksheets, identifying objects, arts and crafts). The participant exclusively engaged in problem behavior during the test condition when interrupted from an ongoing activity. Following the assessment, we evaluated the effect of advance notice on a) problem behavior and b) compliance. During the advance notice condition, following one minute of engagement with a predetermined activity, the experimenter presented materials of an incompatible activity and delivered the advance notice instruction. Engagement with the incompatible activity produced descriptive praise. Alternatively, problem behavior resulted in continued access to the original activity (i.e., extinction was not programmed). Results of the treatment evaluation indicated that advance notice decreased the level of problem behavior and increased the percentage of trials with compliance to terminate the initial task and begin the new activity.
87. Effectiveness of Preference Assessment Procedures Across a Population of Individuals With Severe Problem Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
ERICA LOZY (University of Maryland Baltimore County), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jessica Del Carmen Garcia (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Noor Javed (Kennedy Kreiger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: Preference assessments are designed to identify an individuals hierarchy of preference among a selection of various stimuli. Research has demonstrated that preference rankings obtained via this assessment procedure predict reinforcer effectiveness. However, in some cases, these assessments are ineffective at determining an individual's preference, and no study to date has examined the effectiveness of preference assessments in a large sample of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of preference assessments in 183 patients (admitted to a hospital unit for the treatment of severe problem behavior) and determine how often preference assessments needed to be repeated or modified to be effective. Results indicated that preference assessments were revised or repeated for 55 individuals (approximately 30% of cases). The most common reasons for repeating or modifying preference assessment procedures were: a) within-session satiation/habituation during the preference assessment, b) to identify more items that may be reinforcers for other treatments/assessments, and c) interference due to maladaptive behavior. Common and effective strategies for conducting or refining preference assessments are discussed.
88. Understanding Early Intervention Service Providers' Perspective of Parent Involvement in Naturalistic Behavioral Communication Intervention
Domain: Applied Research
MOON YOUNG CHUNG (University of illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Gakyung Jeong (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Discussant: Amanda Laprime (The Center for Children with Special Needs: The Center for Independence)
Abstract: In early intervention (EI), parents are especially important because the time they spend with their children can lead to many teaching opportunities. Parents can provide information regarding important family values and routines; they can also identify children's strengths and preferences. Thus, increasing parent involvement in their children's intervention and services is critical for successful development of young children with disabilities. However, service providers' personal perspectives may work as a discernment variable through which they reject or accept certain practices based on their beliefs (Campbell & Halbert, 2002). In the U.S., the studies investigating service providers' perspective of parent involvement in naturalistic behavioral communication intervention context are limited. The purpose of this study was to understand early intervention service providers? perspectives on parent involvement in naturalistic behavioral communication intervention. The questionnaire was sent to speech and language pathologists (SLPs) and developmental therapies (DTs) who provide early intervention service in Illinois. In addition to demographic questions, the questionnaire included questions about practices of involving parents and perceptions of parent involvement. Statisical analyses were used to describe the findings and examine relations between EI service providers? perceptions and practices. The research findings and the implications for both research and practice will be discussed.
89. Effects of Discrimination Abilities on Functional Analysis Outcomes: A Replication and Extension
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Janie Funk (University of Nevada, Reno), MICHELLE FORMAN (University of Nevada, Reno), Ashley Eden Greenwald (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Despite established utility, functional analyses sometimes result in inconclusive data. Undifferentiated data is often attributed to a deficit of discrimination skills of the individual. Greenwald, Senuik, & Williams (2012) evaluated the extent to which conditional discrimination abilities affected a participant's differential responding during a multi-element FA. Conditional discrimination abilities were assessed by the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) developed by Kerr, Meyerson, and Flora in 1977. They concluded that individuals who were unable to make conditional discriminations were less likely to show differentiated results in an FA. The current study extends Greenwald et al. (2012) to further evaluate the use of the ABLA-R as a worthwhile assessment to administer prior to a formal functional analysis (DeWiele, Martin, Martin, Yu, & Thomson, 2010). Four of four participants demonstrating conditional discriminations in the ABLA-R responded differentially during the FA, while the single participant who did not demonstrate conditional discriminations responded variably throughout the FA.



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